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SotM ud QnariM. Ji4rao. 


iinelnium of intercommunication 



" When found, make a not* ot"— Oattaut Cutxu. 

JAUVA^Jr-^TJ^j 1904. 

>•••••* « 

»•- ••••• 

'• • • * # « 




WPM U ■ ■- 

BotM and Qocric*. July 30, IMM. 


•• •• • 

'••• • •«• 

• • -.- • 



^ lOHc^inm of |iUcr(oinmuni(ation 



••Wbdn found, uAka a aot» of."— Caitiin Cuttle. 

No. 1. [Jr';;^"] Sati'rday, January 2, 1904. 

C Phiok PotrBPKscr. 

I HiattUrM u. It Xrw*|Mt|icr. gitUl^4 tt 
\ U,t Y I- f< o. ct 4«Mm4-( WaEI*.'. 

II Ixi'fy aiiia<rt|Mliin, 30t Oil pud /Irrr. 


a Chronicle of Caatle Barford and of tho Orlmean 'War. By O. OHRISTIB MUBRAl'. CrowD 8vo, 




ClOlfa, .15. td. 

The PICAROONS: a San Pranclaco Night's Eatortaiamcnt. 

Cro«ti Svo, clotti. 3". tWi. 

The FOOLISH VIRGINS. By ALFHHD bUTUO. Fc*p. 8vo, picture cover, U -. cloth, I'. W. 
A PRODIGAL'S PHOORESa. By FRANK DARRBTT. A New Kdllion. Crown Hvn, cloth, 3t, M, 
WANTED! By DICK DONOVAN. A New Bdltton. Crown 8ro, plcttire oloih, flat hack. 2». 

.\K\V SIX-SHI LLIffQ AOlfi/.S. 
The Ql/EBN CAN DO NO "WRONG: being some FaBsagea and Personal Opiniona in tho Early i.iie 
or Jimmy Ralttt. By HKflllUuT COMP'I'OM, Aiiihir of "Tbe Iriiiiitriii.lf- Mr*. .Mrtniiislmm.' 

AJJ ANGEL'S PORTION. By ALGKRNOS OISSISO. Author of ■ A Secret of Iho North 8e«.' 

VERONA'S FATHER. By D. CIIRISTIB MURRAY. Author of • Joncpb'i Gout.' 

liEONOB A. By ARNt^LD BBNNBTT, Author of ■ Anna of the Five Townis.' 


The MISTRESS of BONA VENTURE. By HAROLD BINDL03S, AuUior of * A Sower of Wheat.' 

The MOTOR PIRATE: a Benaation Novel of To-day. By G. SIDNEY PATKRN08TKB. With 12 lUoitn- 

By FRAN Iv RICHARDSON. Author of ' B«mi-Socfiity.' 

tlou* tyCMARLBS K. aVKBS 
ELIZA'S HUSBAND. BAKKY FAINS New Book of Humour. U. ; clulb, It. id. 
BBET HASTE'S COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS, Including 'Somo Lator Veraea.' Crown 8vo, 

tiuckniui, K. 6..'. 

PHIL MAY'S SKETCH-BOOK. ConlalniuR hi Cartooni by the Qreat Hutnoroui ArlUt. Large folio, clotb, U. IW. 

Tho CLOISTER and tho HEARTH. Bt CIIAHI.KS HBADB. BDITION DB LLXB, with 1« Pbot^rarure 
Flairs aiiJ ^4 Hall-torte Illtittrxilunti liy UATF. B. HKWKRDINB. Ijir|[c Mvo, clotb gilt, lOt. 6rf. 

aiB WALTER BBSANT'S TOPOGRAPHICAL SERIES. Demy 8vo, cloth, 7». M. each. 
LONUO.V. With l:i.i lltutlratlniii. 
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FATTBS »ii(l othera. 
SOUTH LONDON. WIUi an Etched FrontUpicoe by F. 8. WALKER, R B.. aod 118 Illuitratlonii. 
BAi>T LONDON With an Biobed Frontlipiece hy F. S. WALKEB, R.B., and hh IlluitraUons by PHIL UAY, 

JBRl'ijALHH tlie Ciiy of Hrro.1 and Sal&diii. By WALTER BBSANT and B, H. PALUBR. Fouitb Bdltlon. With 
a nvm Chaptrr, • Map, and 11 Illuttrattons. 
WORKS of FANCY r.iul IMAGINATION. By Dr. GBOHQB MAC DONALD, lo voli. larao, ololh, «llt <?.1gea. 
In cloth cMte. Volame* may be tiad •rrarately. In Grolier cloth, nt 2>. I'lj. cacb. Vol. I. Wi bin ai'd 

Wlthoot-Xb' li Vci. II. Tb«DI*cIple— The Goapel Women— Book of Sonnela— Organ Fongi, Vol III. 

Violin Sonp-- ' l)4yt and night«— A Book of Drexmi—Soadtlde Pornii—Foemi for Children. Vol. IV, 

Parable*— Ball ad :< :5ci>ich ^niig*. VoU. V. and VI. Pbantaitet : a Faerie Romano*. Vol. VII. The 1'ort.oiit, 
VoLVni. The Llijbt PrlnoiNH-The Olanfa Heart -ShaL^wt. Vol. IX. Croaj Furpo>o*-Tbe Oolden Key -The 
C*r*K>Tn-Lltlle DayliKbt. Vol. X. The Cruel Painter— Tb« Yfoyr o' Blvven— The Oaitle-The Broken SworU-Tlia 
Grey Wolf-Uncle Curnellu's. 

POETICAL WORKS of GEORGE MAC DONALD. Colleeied and anrnoged by tlie Author. 8 roU. orown Svc, 

tmipltrani, I:'), 

LANE-'S ARABIAN NIGHTS. -The THOUSAND nnl ONE NIGHTS, comnionljr oaUod in Boclaad 
UmAIUOIAN NlGHI'Ij HN tBRTAINMENT:; Inmntatea froui thn Ar<iblr, with titxf:*. py KDWAKD WILMAM 
Javtratwl with cnany hundre.1 BngraHnyi from l)<-tlgn« \,f IIARVHY. B.llu>] l>y BOWARD STANUCY 
~r»h FMraeo by bTAHLBY LANK POOLS, i vola. demy S '••, cloth, It. arf. Saab. 

lira wnMa««ttMa .ar.£t 


[lO'" S. I. Jan. 2. I9W. 

Noi( rcbly, piMt Ire*, Hfl. 


tUuCntloM of Old Pirli, Irani m Dm IJimniiK by ihc latp H W. 
Brawcr, Cuundl Cli*iab«r, Daai P»<ur, Vosicoi Iwoiwaf in a 
0«>ot«* Hook u>d CroU4 In CortUe, I'clai ra I'odeitil, Uraim, br A. C 
Comrade , lllaHniioni ot old I^todaa. troia n|d Print* . Ikull utUojmi 
Cotlan ot Bclnoae, bt A»ton Wgtib. K.A, -, Th» Ilanudri, F»snisla la 
UMSaloa KxJilblUaa, bf J«an Uucau. Scolptori 'lh« urlnsi lialloir 
Slatloa. t^rli ; Smplre Purnltare u the Hriilih Rmhaui. llirli An 
Arebltri.-cutml Traotlstion. br Iba Edllorj ILC. GMhednl lat>iigr, 
UecoraUve Hktiue, ■Cbartit.' AIM ek« Oeatawucnirat ol a Nrw 
86rlci ot ArUeio« (Sladeni-a Ontamaj o« 'Arcbn.' wtch other 
latereiUnt »«4 laKrucUTO Uaiur, baih Uttnrj and Artlttic. 
Leodon : Thi PuMUher of Ibe PuiUtr, CMberlao Str«et, W.a 

iTIia LKADRKHALL l-KUS. Ltd , Puhll>b«r*aBd i>rlaUrf, 
m, I,«adenl»ll Atrvrc, toBOoa, K.C ) 
COBtalnt hilrliai paper, oTirr which tb( pea allpc wllh parlaat 
(raadom. Bliptoca sack 5> par doiaa. roJed or plain. Nik I'ooltat 
Blrt, Xi. per dmrn mleU or platn 

Authors ibnuld noM tliai I he Laadanball Tn*t, Ltd, eanaat be 
raapontlbla lor ibe low ot KUd. tij Sra or oibarwlaa. Uapllcatc «oylta 
atoald Iw retalRed. 

taMOtP-A AKik guiUIBftrae by pnac KlOi M tar 8ii Maacb* ; 
OtS>t.ld.tot Twtln Moattil, laelBdlSf tba Valume ladal— JOHN C. 
PkANcit, A'arMi —td wiMrMaOOia*, UTaau a UuUiai>,Caasc«ri Last. 

TRACIli. Fanllr niatortta Ooaiplltd AaibonUM Car eicii 
fiet «Ba«<d -Mr. OSaALI) M4IIKKALL, Urcard AgrU. eve or 
OfMaMTf * Co,. fO, Chuiotr; l^at, V C 


SeaArbet mada bjr Exparlanicd Aaarchara Vlaar jcara' tap* 
rtaaoa la Amartoan aad BngltUi Caaea Taraa ncKl«rate and bi 
amaRamaat — W. J. QAOaulUI, 42, Blabepacala S<rcci, Laadoa, B.O 

ol ll(M>lti, PanipMcta, Ao , rttaUsic to tbe (ooatr ol Booverwt. 
Wllb full Index. Vj BMAHCBL OKBEK, TS.A. .' tola, tw, 

i«re pp 3-'. 3<. 

HAKUIKO. Graat Kaiaell «irtvt. VV.C 

pUad, n« siauar on wbat Sabject Acaaowl#J(«u tne world ov«r 
talk* iiiMKtnan HiMkDadart rmat. CiMtaKaw waau.— UAKitit I 
ttraai Honkiaap. U-l(. Jobs tirifbt Btraat. ltirmlD(ua. 

L. CUIXKTOH, OS, noeadlUr. Loadoa. 

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Last Week's ATHENiEUM contains Articles on 



NEW NOVELS:— Barbe of Grand Bayou ; Denis Dent; The Fulfllling of the Law; Alison's Ordeal; 

The Chaser's Luck. 

OUR LIBRARY TABLE :— A Kejstone of Empire; Romantic Talea of tbe Pani.iS ; Fefitis-ale of 

Provence ; Tlio Edge o£ Things ; The Rising Generation ; Terrca de Soleil ct de Brouillard ; 

HiAtoirc des Lltt^ratures Compar^es; Lea AuiIUls FraovaiseB ; F. C. G.'s Caricatures; Oxford 

Minifttare Bhakcfreare ; Garden Diary i Tbe Gentle Art of Making Enemies ; Pocslea da Foyer 

et de rfi^cole; Two New Calendars. 


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The ATHENJSUM, ewry A'it TORDA T, price THREEPENCE, of 

JOHN C. FRANCIS, Atbensaam Office, Bream's Baildings, Chanoerr Lane, B.C. 

Ab4 of aU NcwiagCBts. 


10*8.1. Jan. 2. 1904.] NOTKS AND QUERIES. 




HOTBS : — The Xvutb SeHt^t— MatIowg muI fihmkeapeare, I 

—Horn naA the ' Inoeadium DIvlnl Amorls,' ;i— Freticb 

Proverlilal PhnuM — Kro/en Word*. 3— Brror 111 'Pollpbili 

HypneroU>m«cbli» '— " Kigsdoon "—"A jolly good fellow " 

In lUUftn— "Aitillng ln»ult to injury "—AtUIimh Clotb, 

I— "Sit loose to"— " Vrk»»"— Dr. Brigbt't Hpiiapli -Horn 

Dancing— Mm. Comey — Hi»tory " mado in Germanv," .' 

— "Oouu cle Jarnac"— Sonieraet Dinlect — Tncltiiii ami the 

•Qeat* B«iti»noruin'— "liOinlwinl "—"RlriEing for Gofer " 

— *'Mafiiiuin"— Sbakcapearc /Uluiion— BAllway Uellc — 


OUBRIBS :-S«dler'« WelU Flay kUade>1 to by Wordraotth 

— MIIe«tonea— Fellowi of the Clover Lra(— 'Aitnen Vlf- 

trix'— Speech by Barl of 8us*ex— Mayers" Sone, T— Right 

Hon. B. Southwfll— Fruncii Mi»we»; Sir T. L«nv»n — 

"Ample"— Quetuel—" Virtue of nece«5lty "— " Om-ga " 

— " Not all who aeem to fail "—Council o! Constance. 8— 

Ejeete.1' Prie«t« — "Don't aboof — Banbaw — " Prom 

whence"— "GoioK the round " — Marriage Beglateri— 

lutermeiit In other Proiilea amrc*— Bi»boi> JoUu Hall. 

ft—" O come, all ye f»lthiul," li>. 

II HBPL.IBS:— Lord StafTurd"* French Wife, 10- "Tatar"or 

^H "Tartv." 11— 'Abbey ot Kilkbampton.' 13- "Molubdi- 

^B nous ilowbelly "-Bucbre— Wykehiunieal Wonl " Toys "— 

^H laUnd o[ Providence, 13 — Celtlo Title* — MadaiHf .(ii 

^H DefTand't LeUeri— George Eliot and Blank Verse, U— 

•PfiKliee of Piety ■— Jacobin : Jaocblle-FUyiug Allvi 
F»l.|>-»9 toChlM-nmrritr-Oiieeii Ellml*tb «n.1 New Hall 


-Follt lorr of CbildWrib— t)r. Pftrkln*, l."~'My Old Oak 
Table'— Or. Uee'» Mirror, IH-Cr^wna iu Church Toner— 
"OfifV- rltlv vn-'^nl " — Beatlnell, 17 -Epigmm on lladnme 
lie 1 " rih of Marriage— "Paper*"— "Boail " 

- Ii. 

jjOli. : i -Be4anf« 'London in the Time of 

tlie atn.iri? — ' Tb.- tilood Boyal of Britain '— • A Patience 

Noticea to Currupoii-U-nta. 

" gotfs. 

In congratulating hia readers upon tho 
<lawa of anotlier year and the beginning of 
s. fresh Series the EkHtor takes the oppor- 
tuoity of pointing to the amount of work 
that has been accorapli3hed during the fifty- 
five years in whicli 'ii. «k Q.' has been before 
the public. It is impossible to calculate how 
many busy pencils have been occupied in 
making the notes which, in obedience to 
the suggestion of Capt. Cuttle, have been 
crystallized in h'm pages, or how much 
scholarship has been advantaged by the 
habit of annotation which has been begotten. 
It is now a commonplace to say that no 
serious study can often \ie conducted with- 
out tho one hundred and odd volumes of 
'N. i& Q.' being constantly laid under con- 
tribution. Out of the queries that have 
appeared and been answered books have 
been extracted, and there are not wanting 
works of reference which would never liave 
been attempted had the information pro- 
servinl in our pages beeti inaccessible- That 
the study of antiquities, like that of the law, 
conducive to long life is testified by the 

and the Erlitor, himself a veteran, can point 
to a bodyguard that has servetl under most 
or all of his predecessors. That he can with 
absolute assurance indicate any signature as 
appearing in the earliest and in the latest 
volumes may not be said. There are those, 
however, whose work is of frequent occur- 
rence in the First and the Ninth Series, and 
will, it is to be hoped and expecterl, be ex- 
tended to tliat this week begun. We need 
only mention Lohd Aldenham, Mr. F,DAV.vitD 
Peai.olk (under various signatureis), and Mb. 
EvERARD Home Coleman as among those 
who virtually bridge over the period between 
the inception of ' N. it Q.' and the point it 
has now reached. So far as those at the 
helm are aware, the only cause for regret 
is the ditliculty of stretching our pages so 
as to include all of temporary or permanent 
value that knocks at the <loor. Meantime 
the imitators and descendants of ' X. Si Q.' 
constitute a numerous and stalwart band, 
and there are few counties or districts the 
folk-lore or speech of which is not in course 
of being pi-eserved and calendared 


A CAREFUL perusal of the first scstiad of 
' Hero and Leander ' reveals numerous turns 
of expression out of the ordinary, many of 
which were subsetiuentlv used by Shake- 
speare, and by him (usually) but once. I do 
not own any eflition of Marlowe s poem with 
numbered lines, but the interested reader 
will, I think, find little difficulty, as I have 
arranged the extracts consecutively as they 

Ront-chcckfA Adonia kept a Bolenm feast. 

' Hero and Leaoder.' 
Jioms-eJtuk'd AdoiiU bied faini to the chase. 

* Venus and Adonia,' 3, 

Why art thou not iu /ore, and loved of all ? 
I'hoHgh thou bo fair, yet be not thine own flit-nil. 

' H. and L. 
How loif. makes youne men '/i.i.7. 3Jid old men 
dole.— 'V. andA.,'^8TJ. 

And stole away the aichaultd 'ia:< , > uiiiul. 

' H. and L.' 
Kaoh ti/f that saw him did atthant the mind, 

*Lov C'omp., VM. 

Nor that night-wandering, pale and iva/c/v 6lar. 

' H. and L.' 
Nine chaoges o( the imferif *^»>-. 

• Wiutet-. Tale,' I- il. I. 

Incens'd with savi 

• H. and I. 

NOtES AND QUERIES. rio"" s i us. 2. iflo#r 

Lo,-- -kindling firt to burn such towns as Troy. , 

' H. and L. 

Ana his toi(-kiiuUing firs did quickly ateen. 

SSonnet clui. << 

Thence flew Loo^s arroif with the uo/drn head. 

n. and I*. 

Lout\gofdm arrow at him should ha\e (led. 

•\ . and A., Mi. 

.S7oj«-»/i7nic«?o«i-'H. ftudL.' 
gtoit'-»i;ri. qslouish'd with liiia deadly deed, 
Stoo't Collatine -" Lncrece.' ITJO. 

With the>/' that from his foniitnian^f bla-,etl. 

' H. and L. 
Two red//' « in io/A thtiy/art* iJn-.riL 

For will in hs is o>vrrvlt<i by fait.— H. and I^' 
Fa/< oVr.r«/««.-* M.N.D..' m. ii. 92. 

What we behold Is ctixmnd hy oirr fpf. 

* H. and L. 

Whose e>jaallty by our hr^ tut* cannot Iw ininiuxd. 
' h-ing John,' U. i. 32S. 

And Night, rfcep drrnrVU in misty Acheron. ^ 

* H. and L, 

So «he, d'-p ffrcnchtd in a »ea of care. 

' Liicreoe, I KlO. 

And now begins Leonder to disiday 
Locc* hoiv ^r¥ with wordu, with eighs and tears. 

' II. and L.' 
Which borrowed from tliii* holijfirr of Loir 
A dateless lively heat.— Sonnel cliii. 5. 

LetsnoA thepooC'riWi man that it&rves himself. 

'U. and L.' 
That Ibey prove bankru|>t in this »C'0»-- *•»>/» cnin. 

' Lucrece,' m«. 

And with i>\'"fintbroH* the world destroy. 

* H. and L.* 
The tnortal and intn^tTie Jarx. 

'Comedy of terrors." 1. i. II. 

Oil' '■< !'''• »'•■ 
Without thr 
Among a nun 

- -r nothing then 

: niCD. — 'H. and L.' 
'led mmf. 
Sonnet cxirm. 9» 


(/ n. «(■//(, which down her face 
^' H. diid L." 
I ' / the bladed gross. 

•M.N.U.'I. i.21l. 

It will 1)6 noticed that two of these qaota- 
tiona are to be met witli iit Sonnet cliii., and 
further, thiit the most familiar Hue in Mar- 
lowe's iraii'tlation. 

Wl»o ever loved that loved not at finit sirht ? 
was not only imnsferrod in iu er ' 
*Aa S'ou Lkkp h,' hnt is nlsn to ' 
near (be end 
Alexandria' : 

None ev«r iov li hut at tir%- 

As Cliapmati'a play aod tin. ...., ,. 

/««*/? tmnslation mtmwt certoinlj appeared 

some little time before 'Ae You Like It,' I 

am inclined to doubt the ::"tk--:"v accepted 
belief that Sliakt^spoare wa ^z. to Mar- 

lowe rather than the ... ..jchor. In 

view of the growing belief that Chapman 
was the rival ix>et, it is possible that the 
allusion was an intentional tItnK ut hiiu. 

Chak. a. HKRrKfl* 
New York. ^___^_^__^ 

Fr^cHER in his 'Es-sai sur les Monument 
Typographiquea de Jean Gutenberg' gives an 
account of several boob.s which wei-e printed 
at Ment?., and aflirms tliat thev were from 
the press of Gutenberg ; but this assertion 
was completely disproved by Mr. He.ssels in 
'Gutenberg: was he the Inventor of Print- 
ing?' in wTiich he shows that the early MS. 
dates in some of these books were not worth:^ 
of credence. Here are the titles of the work». : 
'Sifridvs de Arena; Determinntio Duarum 
Quji?stionunij' ' Reaponsio ad Quattuor Quws- 
tionefi Sifridi Episcopi Cireneneis,' 'DiaTogu* 
inter Hugonem, Catonem, et Oliveriuin." 
'KJage Antwort und Urteil,' 'Tractatus ili« 
(Jelebratioue Missarum,' and Herinanuus dv> 
Schildis, 'Speculum Sacerdotura,' the lax^ 
bearing the imprint " maguntiie." Now it is, 
very curious to observe now one error lead-* 
to another. Horn had before him a little 
book called ' Incendium Divini Amoris,' 
printed in the same types as the aboT» 
mentioned ; Horn accepts Fischer'.«i statement 
that books in these typos were printed by 
Gutenberg, and then proceeds to make an 
aiisertion of his own, viz., that Outenberjc 
not only printed the 'Incendium Divini 
Amoris,' but was also the author of t1 
and that the nun to whom it is n 
was his own sister. This very copy. iij>iiji 
rcntly the only on© known, is now in the 
Kings Library at the British Museum with 
Horn's observations upon it, which I \wxa 
transrril>f^ : — 

0/»*- 'h* MMoIl TrmtiiK in Cerman calif t 

■I Dirini Amoi'u.* SiupjKt^ftl (o '» 
mthltd awl wrilltn h/f John (iHttrnhefj to Ai'*! 
Sitftr, a Xt(n of St. CI ait at J/rn:, 1 

By the deed of -••i ' 
his sislcr (a mm of 

Men? I. llirl 111." Mn 

I [10 »..»!( 1 iiiiiii.'LMiri Y, iM>; (I li:r i i:e i jiui Lii :<!T\ ir'.' »;i 

for their private dcrotion. 


10'»8. J. .Jaw.2, 1904.] 


Witl) respect to the church servico lie could 
re them nolhiiiz but Mauualfi and l*Bivller» or 
eviari'-s, and for their juivate uae he coukl 
pply Iheni with (Jernian works of devotion, as 
ne of the nuns can ht: Biipimaed to understand 
'I'he small volume now before me becomes 
acooupt a suhjectof the highest imporUDce. 
•jilted in the identical new-discovered tjr|>e 
[ra>;tatua do Celebralione Missarum, of 
Mhi<.li a copy was given, according to Fischer. i>. 81, 
to the rharlreux of Menz l«y doanne^ « tnoulf bona, 
est C>utlenl>erg, in the year 1-MJ3. A small book 
the same type called ' Dialogs inter Hugonem, 
JathoneTn, et <_>liveriuni 8u^>cr Libcrtato Ecele- 
|iastica,'of which 1 seat a copy to my friend Ooorge 
Kicol, lame to the library of f^luttgard on the 
luppresaiun of the (chapter of Coniburg, and has 
Ihe datts 14^*2 in MS. U{>on it. As this small book 
Dtt9 for objei.'t to inflame the mind of a nuii, the 
lister ot the author, with the spirit of divine love, 
_I do not hesitate to suppose t>uttenberg the author 
and printer of it, ana what particularly comes jn 
to my supfkort is that the language of the aboresaid 
deed of settlement and that of this small treatise 
arc entirely the same. 

It is initi! that in the beginning he calls her sister 
\xk Christ, but we must not forget that a nun was 
lead to the world and had no brothers ; however, 
{n the course of the whole following address he 
iitVi]ily I 'alls her by the name of '" niin Suater," and 
the other evprewion in the beginning was probably 
inly inteuded as a kind of conrtesy. As to the 
feouy, it upi>car9 to be one of the first proof-sheets, 
|t being here and there corrected ; and as it seems 
have l^een only intended for that monastery, and 
not for sale, it is probable that only a few i-opics 
pwere taken oil, ou which account, as no other copy 
has yet be«n discovered, it will probably reuf^vin 
Lunti|uc. AiJcvR. Horn. 

Frankfurl. tho ll">of March, IS]-.. 

Altliougli one cannot agree with Horn that 

[CJiiteiiberR was both author and printer of 

ithis little work, yet we Rre indebted to him 

for its discovery and for the identification of 

[tlie types. S. J. Alduk h. 

New Southgate. 

KolcK, en Veoclisc de Dien 
Femnics ensemble caquetoycut. 
Le dittble y estoit en uok lieu, 
Kseripvaiit ce qu'ollea dianyent. 
Son rollet plein de poinct en poinct, 
Tireaux dents pour le faire croislre: 
iSa prinse cschappe et ne tient poinct ; 
Au pilier s'est beurtc la teste. 

Tliis anecdote may be freely rendered tljusr 
One day some women were chattering atui 
gossiping in church, and the devil was thers- 
also. He busied himself in writing down 
their conversation, and soon filled his roll of 
parchment. He tried to stretcli it, so as Uy 
make more space to write on, by pulling at 
it with Xna teeth ; but it broke from hia hold, 
and tho force he used made him knock hi» 
head against one of tho pillars. 

// tM bon (Vavoh' d'H amis f>ftr(on(.— The- 
following epigram is ba."je^l on this proverb: — 
Une devote un jour, dans une i-gliac, 
Otfrit uii cierge au bienheurenx Michel, 
Kt I'autre au diable. " Oh, oh, quelle meprise L 
Mais u'»jsl le diable. Y jieusez-vous? i'> ciel I" 
" Ljiissez," dit-elle, " il ne m'importe giu^rei, 
II faut toujours {lonser a Tavenir. 
On ne salt pas cc qu'on y>eut deveuir, 
Et les amis sont partout ni^cesaaires." 

jr. de la MesangtTO does not give any refer- 
ence to the source, but in another place it is. 
attributed to Imbert. £. L.vtham. 

{To be continued.) 

Hkre i« the first instalment of the curiosi- 
lies promised 9"' S. xi. 462. 

Kh n-ntr (i'tijx Vdiff. — This does not, as 
might bo 8uppo'<od, refer to being in a similar 
.condition to a bii-ri which, wounde<.i in the 
Iwing, cannot tly, but to being fifty years of 
jogo. Tho letter t., as every une knows, 
iMtiinds for the number 5(», and the expression 
lU really a pun, according to M. de la Mesan- 
K«'-re, hIioho ' Dictionnuire des Proverbes 
I'Van ni---' r Iiavo previously mentioned. 

! /•) Ir fHirchcmin. — S. phrase 

'Um it» UDipliticatiou of a story, 

■ 4 lines (from 'Mots et 
^ lie Mui^tre de Sagesso 
iCuUia:;,' iui' I'icrro Grosnet, 15G3) illustrate 
it's uri^tn :— 

Feozrn Words. — When I was a lad, many 
years ago, I remember reading a nautical 
yarn — was it in Capt. Marryat ? — about 
a voyage to a region so cold that the words 
uttered in conversation all froze, but thawed 
on reaching a warmer region, for the benefit 
of the auditors. The joke often did duty in 
*' random readings" and jest-books, but, like 
so many others, boasUs a respectable antiquity, 
even if the pedigree be uebulou.s. Perhaps 
the following version, from the Italian, 
published 1556, may not be without interest : 

"And that friende of ours that autt'ereth vs not 
to want, within these (ewe dayes rehearsed one to 
niee that was very excellent. Then sayde the 
L. Julian, Whateuer il were, more excellenler it 
cannot bo, nor more subtiller, than one that a 
Tuakanc of ours, whiche is a merchant roan of Luca, 
atlyrnied vnto me tho last day for most certaine. 
Tell il vs, i|uoth the IJiitchesse. The L. Julian 
Hayde smyliug: This Merchant man (as hec savth^' 
tieeiug vjvon a time in Polonia, determine*! to l)uy 
A quautitie of Sahlos, minding to bring Ihcni intr> 
Italie, and to gaine greatly by them. And *fl*'' 
much praclisiiig in the matter, where ho could not 
himselfo go into Mo5>jouia, bycause of the w»rro 
betwixt the King of Polonift & the Duke of ^ I 
he looke order by thomeaocof some of u\' 

tliat vpon a day apiwynlod.ccrtaino mor< 1: ; 

of Moacouia ahoulde come with their babies mn» 
the lx>r<lers of I'olonia, and hee v^^^^^^^^ ^>^^*** ^'^ 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io«''S.i.Ja.>.2.i9w. 

bee there hiniaeU to barnajno with them. This 
merchant man of Luia ImuailinR tlien with hi« 
oonipoinie towarde Moscouiu, arriucd nt the rvuer 
of lioristheuea, which he founde hard frozen like a 
marble stone, and saw the Moacouites which for 
suBpition of ye war were in doubt of the Polakes, 
were on the other syde, and nearer came not than 
the breadth of the ryuer. So after they knew the 
one the other, making cerUine signet, the M«m- 
couitos beganne to sueake aloude, and tolde the 
price how they woulde sell theyr Sables, but the 
-colde was ao extreeme, that they wci-e not vnder- 
■toode, bycause the wordes before thev came ou 
the other syde where this Merchant of Luca was 
and his interpreters, were congeled in the ayre. and 
there reniayiiod frozen and stopped. So that the 
Polakea that knew the maner, made no more adoc, 
but kyndled a great fyro in the myddest of the 
Ryuer {for to theyr seeming that was the poynte 
whereto the voyee came hotc before the frost tooke 
it) and the riuor was so thicke frozen, that it did 
well beare the fire. When they had thus done, the 
wordes that for Bi>ace of an houre had bone frozen, 
begun to thaw, and came downe, makinp a noyse as 
doth the snow from the Mountaynea in May, and so 
immediately they were well vnderstood : but the 
men on the other side were first departed : and 
bycause he thought that those wordes asked too 
great a price for tne .Sables, he woulde not barKaine. 
and so came away without. Then they laughed 
«ll."— Caatiglione's 'Courtyer,' translated by Thoa. 
Hoby, book ii. k viijb. 

[The story aiipears iu Munchaunen.] 


— I have not seen mentioned in any biblio- 
gmphical work a typographical error which 
was made by the compositor in tho first 
■edition of that covotable book ' Poliphili 
Hypneroboraachia,' Aldus, 149d, but was dis- 
covered in time to be clumsily corrected. On 
£o. &a occurs the neconil title : ' Poliphili 
Hypaerotoinachia, vbi | liumana omnia fion 
nisi so- I inuivm esse osteodit. at | qve obiter 
plurima | scitv saneqvam | digna com- | 
memo- I rat.' Tlie word gvam, followini; the 
word sane, was evidently misprinted in the 
first instance y't'. Tho error was discovered 
Ijefore some, at any rate, of the copies were 
issued, and was corrected by the erasure of 
the e, and the printing in by hand with 
«eparate types of the letters am, the altera- 
tion detracting from the beauty of tho pa^e. 
This is, at any rate, the case in my own copy, 
and in some others which I have seen. Some 
of your readers may have noticed the defect 
in other copies. J. Eliot Hodokin. 

" Rir.AnooN."— The account of this word in 
the French dictionaries does not take us very 
far. Hatzfeld ^iven it as rigaudon or rigoclon, 
and derives it from Rignwl, the name of a 
dancing-master. Tho fact is that the word 
is Provencal, and the full historj^ of it is 
given by Mistral in his 'Prov. Dictionary.' 

He tells us that Rij^and was a dancing- 
master of Marseilles, and that in the South 
of France tho dance became so licentious 
that it was prohibited by the Parliament of 
Provence in a decree dated 3 April, 1664. 
This ^ives as a fixed date, from which we 
may infer that the dance came in about 
1660-3. Hatzfeld merely tells us that the 
spelling ri'jrKlon occurs in 1696 ; but it is 
oovious that tho dance was older. Mistral 
tells us even mora ; for he Aays that Rigaud 
is a family name in the South of France. I 
think it answers to a Germanic name of 
which the A.-S. form would be Kicweald, 
latinized as Hicoaldus ; see Fbrsteaiann. 

Waltee W. Skeat. 


The Trihmvi, describing the recent visit of 
Victor Kmmanuel III. to London, says : — 

" L' impressiune prevalenbe del popolo Ingle«e 

?ualo ti 1 Ve la indico con ana f rase iK>|>oIare in 
nghilterre: ' il Re i> un gran simpaticocompagno.' " 

This translation of " a jolly good fellow " into 
the tongue of Dante ought to be recorded in 
your columns. Q. V. 

"AoDLNii INSULT TO iN.iuRV." — This pro- 
verbial phrase has not yet, I think, had its 
history traced in 'N. i Q.' It seems to have 
its origin in a line of Phietlrus (v. iii. 5) :— 
Iniuriic qui addideria contumeliam. 

Alex. Leeper. 
Trinity College, Melbourne Uuivereity. 

Atlsham Cloth. —Aylsham, in Norfolk, 
in the fourteenth century produced linen 
and canvas of such superior make tiiat they 
were known simply as "Aylsham." Owing 
to an old spelling, " Eyllsbam," the place has 
not always been recognized, wherefore these 
few notes may be presented together. 

Dr. Rock, in his little book * Textile 
Fabrics,' 1876, p. 64, says :— 

" For tho finer sort of linen EyIisLam or Ailesham 
in Lincolnshire was famous during tho fourtcCHth 
century. Kxetor Cathedral, in 13*J7, had a hand 
towel of ' Ailesham cloth.' " 

"Eileshara canvas*' is mentioned in Hist. 
MSS. Com., Fourth Report, p. 425 (Rye, 
•Norfolk Topog.,' 1881, p. 10). 

In 1300 Ecfward I. granted a tax on certain 
things to the men of Carlisle, to repair the 
bridge there; one item is "de qualioct cen- 
tena lineoe telaj de Aylesham venali j dena- 
rium" ('Letters from Northern Registers,' 
1873, Rolls Serifts, p. 140). 

The inventory of Thomas de Bittoo, Bishop 
of Exeter, 1310, accounts for "j bolt et vj 
ulnis de Eylisham," and for "iij tualliis do 
Ayliaham" (Camden Soc., New Series, x, 7, 9). 

In 1337 six ells of ** Aylsam " were bought 

lO"" 8. J. J.iS-. 2, I9W.) 


for the Prior of Durham (' Durham Account 
Rolls,' Surt. Soc, 100, p. 534 ; 10:j, p. 893, 
where a reference is given to Rr>ger9, iv. 550). 
Under 'Sanappus Halliwcll quotes, from 
ballad of 13S7, towels of Eylyssiiam, white 
the sea's foam." W. 0. B. 

" Sit loo^e to."— The ' H.E.D.' has appa- 
ntly no quotation for this. The nearest to 
1 13 from Churchill, 1763, "Loose to Fame, 
he muse more siraplj' acts," illu8trating a 
enae marked obsolete. *' To sit loose to the 
world" is, however, still a ver}' common 
hrase in Methodist class-nieetinKs. 

C. C. B. 

" Ya\v«! " : ITS ETYMOLOfiY. — According to 
Reea'a 'Cyclopaedia,' 181tt, this skin disease 
is "so called from the resemblance of its 
eruption to a raspberry, the word i/nw in 
me African dialect Ijeing the name of that 
"'♦ " This etymology ha« been copied with- 

■but i 



lighlftods «igi)ifvinK » wild rRsplierrj-, in Gaolic or 
Srsc it la called irma-uu, in some |iarta it ia alao 

But suspicion by the ' Encyclopsedic,' the 
'Century, and other great modern dic- 
tionarie;*. Nevertheless it is a blunder. Rees 
doe^ not explicitly state his authority, but 
it appears from the context to be Dr. T. 
jWinterbottom, 'Account of the Present State 
)f Medicine among the Native Africans of 
'Sierra I^eone," 1803, vol. ii. p. 154, where I 
find the following :— 

"There is a iiioilifictttion of the venereal disease 
met with in !»ci»tlan<l which i.s tailed ^ii r> nt, from 

l^^i word ill the Scoto-Saxon Iaii(;uaKe spoken in the 

^^ffiighlands signify' 

^■Ersc it in called 

^^»illed the fj<t'i-i." 

^BiRees evidently misread Winterbottom, who 
^^uowhere says that African ;/aw means rasp- 
berry, but, on llie contrary, ascribes that senso 
to Gaelic soHcruH,in more correct orthography 
leul/ichm'jb/t or nirjhchrooljh. What, tnen, is 
Jthe truo origin of j/avs? The disease is 
palled in British Guiana yan's, in Dutch 
[Juiana ias, in French Guiana plans (plural). 
M\y ojDinion is that these are all one worci. 
T'he identity of yatc$ and jns is obvious, 
knd from pians, iU na^al being a negligible 
loantity, thev diflfer only by Uie loss ot its 
Initial, doubtless to Ite accounted for by the 
(act that we took the tern\ not direct from 
French, but through the negro jargon. As 
to the origin of this /n'axs, it is a Guarani 
I, one of those which the French borrowed 
from their auondam Brazilian colonies, 
{ontnya, in nis great thesaurus of the 
luarani language, 1639, duly enters it as 
[•' Fio, bubas, grauos." Jas. Platt, Jun. 

Dk. Brioht's Epitaph tx Oxfohd Cathe- 

YBAL.— On the memorial brass to the memory 

''ffUg old friend Dr. Bright, Regiua Professor 

of Ecclesiastical History, in the south aisle 
of the Cathedral at Oxford, is inscribed the 
following: "State .super antiquas vias, et 
vidoto quHjnam sit via recta et bona, et 
ambulate in ea." 

This is the Vulgate version of Jeremiah 
vi. Hi, and the other day I found the passage 
cited in Bacon's ' Advancement of Leaniing': 

•' Surely the advice of the prophet is the true 
direction in this matter [then the above citatiou}. 
Anticiuity desciveth that reverence that men shoulcl 
make a stand lhercii|iou, and <li&cover what ia the 
best way ; but when the discovery is well taken, 
then to wake proKreasion."— Book li. 

In Job is a similar passage (viii. 8-10), 
inscribed on Hearne's tomb in the church- 
yard of St. Peter-in-the-East, Oxford. 

John Pk KFORt>, M.A. 

Nowbourne Rectory, Woodbridge, 

Horn DANciNt;.— The following paragraph 
may be interesting as recording a survival 
still with ua : — 

"The annual cmtom of horn dancing took place 
yesterday at Abbots Brondey, StafTordshire. The 
day, being Wakes Monday, was obaervcd aa a 
holiday, and the unique and droll terpiehorean 
event attracted nuite a number of vigitors from 
London, Liverpool, and the Potteries. The hobby* 
horse dancers started abont nine o'clock, and after 
a prclitninarj' canter in the village iourneyed to 
Blyihticld Hall, the seat of Lord and Lady Bagot, 
afterwards visiting the houses of the neighbouring 
gentry. Subsequently they returned to the vjllage 
and danced up the prmcipal street, receiving cakes 
and ale and moupy gifts. One of the troupe has 
performed for over fifty years. The old-worm 
village presented quite a gay appeai-aoee, the green 
lieing occupietl with swingboats, shooting galleries, 
and other nhoK a."— Liverpool Echo, 8 yeptember, 

W. B. H. 
Mrs. Counev in 'Oliver'— Mrs. 
Corney, matron of the workhouse where 
Oliver was born, first appears in chap, xxiii. 
(or book ii. chap. i. in Ikutlo/s Miscellany, 
iii. 105. February, 1838). Probably her name 
was taken by Dickens from Mrs. Corney, 45, 
Union Street, Middlesex Hospital, landlady 
of Mrs. Hannah Brown, who was murdered 
by Jame-s Greenacre at bis house in Car- 
penter's Buildings, Bowyer Lano (now 
VVyndham Road), Camberwell, on the night 
of 24 December, 1836. Mrs. Corney gave 
evidence at the trial on 10 April, 1837. 

Adrian Wheeler. 

History •' made in Germany.'— At a ban- 
quet in celebration of the hundredth a»ni- 
versarv of the Hanover Regiment, which 
took place at Hanover on U> December, 1903. 
the German Emperor made the following 
record : "I raise ray glass in contoniplatiou 
of the past, to the health of the Gertnaa 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo^ s. i. Ja>. 2. low. 

Lefjion, in memory of it« incomparable dtjods, 
•which, in conjunction with IJhicher and the 
IVussians, rescued the Englitth army from 
destiuctloQ at Waterloo." 

.13, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

"Cour r»R Jarnac."— This expression is 
uaed by M. Jorevin, a French traveller, in a 
■description of the " tiergiardin " (BearOardon) 
in "Sodoark" (Southwark), published in 
1672, and reprinted in the Aiitupuirian 
Hejmtori/ (ed. 1806), vol. iv. p. 549. 

John Hebb, 

SoMKHsET Dialect.— Here are two choice 
specimens. " It do vibttite throueh," account- 
ing for the oil dropped from tne lamp. A 
trail of ci-eeper for decorating the churcli 
would look so nice ** wrnnfjliiif} round the 
Communion." Frederk C (Skey. 

Weare N'irarnge. 

Taciti-s and the ' Gesta Romaxorum.'— 
The eighteenth tale in the ' (jlesta Romano- 
rum' is very like the story of (KdipuK. In it 
the man who unwittingly slew his father is a 
soldier named Julian. The resemblance of 
his name to that of the soldier in the excerpt 
from Tacitus given 9'" S. xii. 105 is remark- 
able. JoHX B. Waisewright. 

*' Lombard."— Lof tie, in his ' London,' vol. i. 
p. K')8, not^s that in the Hundred Rolls, 
2 Edward I., several persons arc citetl as 
Lombards who were unquestionably of Eng- 
lish birth and parentage. Among the number 
is Gregory de Kokesle, Mayor of London. 
Loftie mld.s, "A Lombai-d was probably by 
this timo a money-lender, not a native of 
Lombardy." M. D. Davis. 

"IliNtiiNu FOR Gofer."— The Daihi Mail 
of 6 November, 1903, is responsible "for the 
following : — 

"Jin six aitccettaive Sunday evenings, L-oniniencipg 
twelve NuudavH before Chnstinaa, the church bolls 
are rung at Nowark-uiJonTrent for one hour ot a 
time, in compliance with the terms of a bequest left 
hy a merchant named Uofer. Two centurieB ago 
(tofer lost his M-ay in Sherwood Forest, then in- 
fested by men of the baser sort. Just as ho was 
civing himself up for dead, he heard the bells of 
««*»rk, and, Ruided by their sound, regainwi his 
road. In memory of his deliverance he left a sum 
of money to bo exi>cnded in * ringing for Gofer.' " 
I do not find that this ancient custom has 
been recorded in 'N. & Q.,'and I therefore 
think it should appear therein. 

Everaru Home Coleman. 

" Maosman."— Tl)e following cutting from 
the Datlt/ Expnsi of 30 November, 1903, may 
be worth pre^rving in ' N. ft, Q/ :— 

"With the close of the raciDg season the eard- 
8hari)er takes to confideDce tricks. 'Confi<lence 
men are called ' maj^nien ' in the vemiicular of tlie 
police. The derivation cf the term ia interesting 
and instruciivo. In thieves' slang 'to mag' is to 
talk in a specious, oily manner. Hence the mags- 
man is a swindler, who iiersuades gullible persons 
out of their i>ossesaions. His happy hunting-ground 
is the vicinity of the large railway statioos where 
passengers book for long journeys. 

W. CUIU!0N Yeo. 
Richmond, Surrey. 

[* Klang and its Analogues,' by Farmer and Henley, 
gives the same derivation] 

Shakespeare Allusion. — In 'A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream,' L i. 207-S, is this 

What graces in my love do dv> ell 
That he hath tuni'd a heaven into a hell. 

Marston, in the 'Malcontent,' L li. 43-4, has 
reversed the lines and given a garbled quo- 
tation : — 

Your smiles have been my heaven, your frowns my 

hell : 
U, pity then— grace sliouhl with beauty dwell. 

Maquercllo undoubtedly i*ecogni/ed the allu- 
sion at once, for she iiuine<liately retorts ; — 
Reasonable perfect, by 'r Lady. 

Chas. a. llliEI'K a. 

Kaxlwav Reuc— The following, from the 
Livcritool Dail)/ font, 13 worth a corner in 
'N. iQ.:- • 

*' Seventy years liave elapsed since tlv ■ ' ' --,k 
place of three locomotives, conatruuted . It 

of a competition iiroinoted by the thci ; "1 

and Mancheatcr Kail way Company. Tho Ubt, of 
these, the Novelty, has just been discovered at 
Kainhill. The three engines) which took part in 
the 1S30 trials were the Rocket, constructed by 
Stephenson; the Sanspareil, by Hack worth ; and 
the Novelty, by Brailhwaito and Kricson. The 
Rocket obtained the premium of :'>00/. as the most 
suitable locomotive to run on the line, having 
attained a speed of twenty-nine milca per hour. 
The greatest speed of the Sausiiareil wa<i less than 
twenty-three miles, and the Novelty bad only 
covered three miles when the joints of the Iwiler 
gave way. At that time the Rainhill <ias and 
Water Company's ju'oniisee, which adjoin the rail- 
way at Rainhill SUitioo, were occupied bv Mr. 
Melling as engineering works, Kricson and Melling 
being Irionds. The former left the Kovclty there 
after its failure to gain the prize. The Rocket and 
the Sansuareil are both in South Kensington 
Museum, but the whereabouts of the Novelty could 
not be traced until recently, when it was found still 
working as a stationary engine, the wheels having 
been removed. This interesting relic will in all 
probability be placed side by side with ita oontem- 
|)oraries at South Kcusiugton.*' 

W. D. Pink. 

Green : rrs SicNincAKcs. (Seo 1^ S. viiL 
4«.14 ; X. 141, 258 ; 9"' S. viii. 121, 192 ; ix. ii34, 
400; X. 32, 133, 353; xi. 32, 204.)— Rafaello 

.I0-' s. h Jan. 2. iflw] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

'•■..-' '"i, in the second b(K»k of \m * Riposo,' 

i to I)i»n niovarini Medici, writes at 

i< .>u .. igtli as to the signitioance oi culuuvis. 

extract what relates to green (ed. 1584, 

p. 237-8):— 

" Vaa la C'ltie&a Santa i |iarameutt neri nelle ro^- 
ipDi, e ne Ki'Jrni di atHiUione, e d' astiiienKa per li 
cali. ft in altri temrii. che hora noii dico 
r veniro i traltare ael verUe aesto colore. 
lo perchc non (lArticipa molto del ncro non 
ignobile come il color uero. ben che sia men 

oegU altri colori : k alcuni vogliono, perche 

ji iioii c annouerato fra i i|iiattro elenienli, che 

li 8ia di tutti il men pregiaio ; nondimeuo e^U 

iresenla albert, piaiite, prali, verdc hcrbette, « 

Uti colli, cose giocoudiwinic, e dilloteuoli alia 

... : peril non dee ewser temito in j>ocn Blima. 

Tgnitica aliegrezza, aniore, gratitudine, ainicitia, 

OQOrc, bonta, bellezza, e secoudo la comuue 

pinione aperanza. Fra le pictre pretioso a' asso- 

iglia alio stnaraldo, fra lo virtii dinioBlra la for- 

jzxxi, fra iiianeti Venerc, fra metalli il piorabo, 

eir eta dell' huomo ]u giouentii fino a trentacinqiie 

nni, nei giorni il giouedi, nelle sta^ioni la Prima 

lere. His' meai il verdo oscuru Aprile, & il vorde 

htaro MoKgio, e ne' sacrauienti il matrimonio. E' 

I vprH*> (11 grandiRsimo conforto alia viata, e la 

! , e oonsoltt (|uando c affaticata: e percii'i 

iiKilto Ri diluttano, e si conipiacciono del 

II- Vna la santa Chiosa i paranieuli uerdi 

nell' uiUiia dell' Epifauia, nella Setiuagesiina, nella 

I'enloo'vete, nell' Auento, o ne giomi foriali, e 

Q. V 


I „...„, „._.,..„ 

^H formation on family matters of utdy private interest 
^^BtoatKK Iheii' names and addreaaca to their i|neriea, 
^Hin order that the answers may be addressed to tliem 

^H Baplbr» Wbll3 Play ALLUUiiD to by 

^BWonDSWuRTU.— 1 shall be obliged if any one 

^H can tell iiic what wan the dat« of the play, 

^^^fountied on the story of John liatfield and 

Mary of liuttermr're.aiid produced at Sadler's 

Welfs Theatre, U> wliich Wordsworth alludes 

in the ' Prelmie,' Invok vii. It Jmve 

lieen between 1803 and 180.'j, for the poem 

I was finished during the latter ye^r, and 

IdariiiK ^^ management of the Dibdins. In 

! the Biit, Mus. collection of Sadler's Wells 

I fJaybilU I came across one in which was 

laanounced for 25 April, 1803, 'William and 

)8tiHan,' the favourilo burlotta, in which arc 

\ariouH views of the lake of Buttermeio. 

t'osoibly this is the play in question. 

H. W. B. 
[No mmition of this work ocuors in the ' lUofrraphia 
hraniatioa' of Baker, Heed, and Jones, IKI'J.] 

Mn.EaToSEs. — When did our forefathers 
begin to roco>;ni7.o the importance of accu- 
rately marking distanoeti on our high roads! 

Even in these days we are, as is woll known, 
much behind our continental neighbours in 
this regard, as well as in that of "finger- 
posts " and like indicators. From the follow- 
ing paragraph, which I have found in the 
LoiHwn JyventJKj Poit for 10 September, 1743, 
it would .seem that the setting up, or at least 
the providing of funds for setting up, of 
milestones, even on such an important high 
road as that between Croydon and London, 
was at that time left to the imblic spirit of 
piix'ate individuals : — 

" On Wodnesday they began to measure the 
Croydon Road from the Standard in C.'omhiU and 
stake the jilaces for erecting mileatonv.'', the in- 
habitants ot Croydon having subscribed for thirteen, 
which 'tis tbougltt will be carried on by the tientle- 
men of Sussex. 

W. MoY Thomas. 

Fellows of the Clover Le.vf.— Informa- 
tion is sought as to the history of this society 
or oitier. On 17 May, 18G6, Capt. Arthur 
Chilvor Tupper, F.S.A. (when did he die and 
where buried 1), exhibited to the Society of 
Antiquaries two small pewter Sagons about 
8 in. high. One was inscribed '*Joclum 
Lvers 1645"; the other, "Peter Fisker lG4:i 
Dit is Der Kepper gesellen er klever Blat." 
Each bore L. S. and shield with castle as pew- 
terer's mark. T. Cann Himjhks, F.S.A. 


' AsTa.£A ViCTRix.'— Can you inform me 
where to find a poem entitlwl 'Astnea 
Victrix, or Love's Triumph/ by L. Willan, 
gent. { It was probably published about 
1750 or later. I was born Willan, ray grand- 
father being a certain Dr. llobert Willan, 
F.It.S., F.S.A., born at Sedbergh, Yorkshire. 
Ho practised in Bloorasbury S(juare, and 
died in 1812. ily ancestors lived in or about 
Sedbergh for several hundrcrl years, and 
Leonard and Lancelot were two family 
names. W'illau is quite a Yorkshire name. 
M.VJIY Augusta Howell. 

Holy Trinity Parsoiiagej High Cros<<, Tottenham 

Speech uy the Earl of, l.'>96.— I 
desire to know if there is in existence a 
perfect copy of "a speech by the Earl of 
Sussex at the tilt," 1596. There is a mutilated 
Sis. of it in the Duke of Northumberland's 
collection. It begins : " Most divine, and 
more mighty than that queen to wtiom all 
other queens are subject." Johx Oatiw. 

Rutland House, Saltoun Road, .S.W 

Mayers' (See 3^^' S. vii. 373.)— Lsit 
possible to ascertain what was tlie musical 
rendering of this ballad? I am giving a 
paper on the Hertfordshire Mayers' Song 
shortly, and am anxious to have it sung by 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo^ s. i. jan. LMWi. 

a quartet in cOTtuine. For the benefit of 
those who may not be able to consult the 
above reference, I may be permitted to give 
the fir'^t verse as supplied by Cuthbert 
Rede : — 

Here comes ua poor Mayers all. 

And thus we do he^n 
To lead our lives in riKliteousneu, 
For fear we should die in siii. 

This song was, I believe, sung in some of the 
neighbouring counties— Cainbridge, Bucks, 
nnd Bedfordshire. W. B. Gerish. 

Biabop'a Sbortford. 

Right Hon. Edward SouTinvELi,.— I shall 
beglad ttjknow who purchased the diary of the 
above, 1684-1716, at the sale of the Phillipns 
Library, Cheltenham. It mentions the 
writer's marriage witli Miss Bla\'thwaite. 
Charles S. Kinc;, Bt. 

St. Leonards-oD-Sea. 

Francis Hawes : Sir T. Leman.— I shall 
be glad of any information concerning : 
1. Francis Hawe.s, of Berks, who died in 1764. 
He was a director of the South Sea Comp>any, 
and had an elder brother Thomas. 2. Sir 
Thomas Leman, the last holder of the extinct 
baronetcy. Antiquarv. 

"Amplr"— In the review of the December 
ScriOner ([•"' S. .xii. 480) occurs the sentence : 
" Views of Buda and Pest are not in colours, 
bub are iX/nfh and very effective." Is not this 
use uncommon f Ample for what ? The point 
would have escaped my notice but that I am 
acquainted with a family whoae members U80 
this word fi-equeiitly with a meaning peculiar, 
I imagine^ to themselves. The sensation 
experienced when cutting, or seeing some one 
cut, asunder a thick roll of butter, when the 
wheels of a cart cut through mwd of the con- 
sistence of butter, or when one touches or 
presses velvet with the hand, is described 
by them as "ample.' The associated idea 
appears to be that of prolunned, clinging ' 
reautance. They can afford me no particulars 
of the origin or descent of the word, but 
maintain that it has been handed down in 
the family for some generations. | 

Geokoe C. Peachev. 

Qi ESNEL.— Can any reader inform me of the 
existence of portraits in Scotland of about I 
the time of James V. by Pierre Quesnel ? 

J. J. Foster. I 

Shakesieare's "ViiirtiE ok necehpitv."— 
Has any pedigree for the phrase "make a' 
virtue of necessity " been discovered by 
Boconites? On p. 72 of "Oregon I. Papie 
Registrum Epistolarum, Tomi I. Pars I. Libor 
I.-IV., edidit Paulus Kwald" (Berolini, 

AiixittiAXXviT.), there are the words "no; 
hoc virtutis opere fieru' Here, however, 
vtrtiifig iierliapa means "of force," and oiferm 
is "of, i.e. by necessity,'' that is " willy nilly." 
A similar expres-sion is probably to big found 
in many books written between the time ol 
St. Gregory and Bacon. E. S. Dodoson. 

"Ome<;a," an Old Costribptor.— Aboul 
fifty years ago a contributor to ' N, & Q.' 
signed with the Greek omega reversed. Ii 
there any clue to his name nowadays ? L 


the following lines ^— 

Xot all who aeero to fail have failed indeed ; 
Xot all who fail have iherefuro worked in vain. 

There is no failure for the upod and Miae ; 
What tho' thy ^eed should fall by the wayside. 
And the birds anatcb it^ Vet the birds are fed. 

W. S-R. 

LE<;tNi> OK THE Council of Constance. — 
The Russian poet A. X. Maikov— a cosmo- 
I)olitan writer, whose range em bracetl ancienfc 
and modern worlds, anrl who rendered old 
romances in charming classic verse— relates 
in song the following legend. Before the 
Council a grim doctor learnedly expounds 
JoIju Uus's guilt and the appropriate sontence 
at wearisome length. Nea.r the Emperor 
stands a youthful page, who finds the pro- 
cee«lings dull. As evening approaches some-' 
thing in the garden attracts him ; he glances 
through the window and smiles. Involuntarily 
tho Emperor's eyes follow the page ; then the 
Pope's austere features relax, and soon the 
whole assembly of princes and prelates gaze 
towards the windows, enchanted by Philomel's 
song in the garden. _ Tender memories renew 
themselves in the minds of those stern eccle- 
siastics, and even tho ruthlessdoctor stamraerj, 
blunders, and finally softens. Suddenly 
old monk coufosses that he was about to 

" Hus is innocent" under the influence of 

sweet melody, which must proceed from 
Saliin himself. In horror the whole Council 
rose, sang "Let God arise," then bowed 
before the crucifix in prayer, and at la^t 
condemned Hus to the stake and anathema- 
tized the innocent nightingale. Thesupncoed 
fien<l fled from the garden, and dubions 
witnesses saw him pass over the lake in the 
form of n fiery Hying serpent, scattering 
sparks in his rage. 

Maikov's poem is entitled ' Prigovor' ('Tlie 
Doom '), and I am endeavouring to render it 
in English. Is such a legend recorded elee- 
whorel Fi:ancx« P. Marchant. 

llrixtoQ Hill. 

10* s- 1. .Tax. 2, 19W.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


E.'Blted PiUESTs. — On the accession of 
Qaeen Mary iu IfjSS many of the so-called 
" reforming "clergy " were ejected from their 
livingH. "Where can a list of them and par- 
ticalars ba found ? !• 

'• Don't shoot, hb is doing his bbst."— I 
siiould be elad if some one would inform me 
whether the following quotation comes from 
kJIark Twain orArtemusAVard: "Don't shoot, 
[lie is doinK his beiit." la the quotation 
[correct 1 Was the notice put over a new 
inrganist in a church in the Western States, 
[or did it apply to a pianint in a drinking 
[saloon ! H. M. C. 

Bahshaw.— Uan any of your readers give 
rae information respecting Samuel Bagshaw, 
who published at Sheffield, in 1847, a 'History, 
Gazetteer, and Directory of the Ck)unty of 
iKent,' in two volumes? Did he produce any 
'other works of a like character? I do not 
find his name in the 'D.N.B.,' nor in any 

i local work with which I am acquainted. 
Charles Smith. 

"Fbo-m ^tiknce."— In a review of my 
Romantic Tales from the Pan jab,' just 
tpublislied by Constable, exception was taken 
^to my use, in one place, of tne form "from 
whence." It occurs on p. 438, in the story of 
I^Poran Bhagat,' '* Let me return from whence 
have come." Now, of all Eastern stories, 
" ' Puran Bhagat ' is the most Biblical in motive 
and feeling, and I used the condemned form 
deliberately, nob inadvertently, because I 
bad in my mind such passage-s of the Bible 
as " The land of Egypt, from irhenre ye came 
out " <Dcut. xi. 10), "' From whmce. came they 
unto thee?"' (Is. xxxix. 3) and many others. 
Shakespeare also uses this construction 
several times, as, for example : " Let him 
walk f'roni ivkcnre he came, lest he catch cold 
,on 's feet " (• Comedy of Errors,' III. i. 37). 
With this array of precedents, may I ask 
rhether or not it is open to a modern writer, | 
translating archaic taias into English, to make 
discriminating use of the same form ? I do ' 
deny grammatical inaccuracy, but I hope 
day is far distant when the old pic- 1 
■que irregularities and licences of our' 
Itiful English tongue shall all be ground , 
to the dead monotonous level of i 
li-mie French, for instance. Perhaps I 
>mo contributors will also kindly mention, ' 
[possible, the earliest and the latest accepted 
rork iu which the locution firnn tehence ib to . 
^e found. 
I iiiav add that from thence also occurs ! 
• ible; for instance, twice over in' 
<i. Charles Swynnerton. 

"OoiNo THB RorNn": "Roundhouse."— Is 
it not probable that the phrase "going the 
round, or "rounds," is much older than it 
looks, and that it had its origin in the watch- 
man's rounds, that functionary soraetimM 
announcing news over and above that which 
related to the weather? "To walk the 
round " often occurs in the plays of Mas- 
singer and his contemporaries. In 'The 
Picture,' for instance, a tragicomedy, acted 
in the "Black Fryars" iu IGSG, we find 
(Act II.) :- 

Dreams and fantutio visions walk the round. 

In ' King John ' (Act II. sc. ii.) the Bastard 
soliloquizes : — 

And France, whose arnionr conaciencc buckled on. 
Whom zeal and charity brouKhl to ihe field 
As (iod'a own soldier, rounded in the ear 
With that same purpoae-chanRer, that sly devil, 
Coniiuodity (i.e., intereat). 

Here "rounding in the ear" means to 
whisper. An old phrase similar to our 
modem "going the round" was "to go 
current" or to "go/<vr current": "A great 
while it went for current that it was a 
pleasant region "(Purchas, ' Pilgrimage,' p. 18). 
Was not a roundhouse, by the way, so 
called from being a prison in which such 
lawbreakers were confined as were taken up 
by the constable or watchman on his rountlsf 
"Timbs, however, says that the watchhouse 
wa« called a roundhouse "because it suc- 
ceeded the Tonel or Roundhouse ; the tonel 
having been an old butt or hogshead, or 
something in the shape of one." What au- 
thority had Timbs for saying this ? Is it not 
an assumption based merely on the fact of 
the "Tun" in Comhill having been built 
somewhat in the fashion of a tun standing 
on its bottom? And tho roundhouses were 
generally either hexagonal or octagonal, I 
believe. J. Holden Ma.cMicuael. 

Mabriage Reoipters. — Are there any 
registers or records of the Fleet marriages, 
and especially of those performetl by the 
chaplain of the Chapel Royal, Savoy, during 
17.''>4-5, after the pa.ssing of Lord Hardwicke's 
Act? What records exist of marriages in 
Guernsey, the Isle of Man, and Gretna Green 
from 1754 to 1857 ? Thornk Qeoece. 

[For Gretna Green regiatera sec General Indexes] 

Interment in Graves belongino to other 
Famti.ies.— This practice is sometimes per- 
mitted, or even desired by frieiully persons. 
Can any instances of it in Queen Elizabeths 
time be given 1 ^■ 

John Hall, Bishoi- of Bristol. -John 
Hall was Bishop of Bristol from 1691 to hw 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io"» s. i. Jan. - i9o#. 

death in 1710. The ' D N.B.' makes no meu- 
tiou of his wife. What was her maiden name? 
When did lie marry her T and where ? 

"O COME, ALL YE FAIT H »T L." — Can Mr. 

buEDLOCK or some of your readers iiifoim mo 
aH to the origin of the tune ixjpularly known 
as the * Portuguese Hymn ' ? There seems some 
reason for believinj^ that tlie tune was written 
by John Readinjr, a pupil of Dr. Clow. In a 
notice of the Christma.s service at the Roman 
Catholic Westminster CAtlie<lraI in the D'libj 
Telfiiriiph of 26 December last, it is stalled : — 
" Reccully, it may be uoi&l, the melody was 
restored to its siini>fe form and key, and each of 
the eight verseo being harinoni/.e<i by a different 
liritiBh musician, the variety of treatmeut thus 
obtained proved cxceedinRly interesting." 

N. S. S. 
[Sec ' Adeste FidelM,' fifth Series, (Auieral Index.] 



(9'" S. xii. 46G.) 

The eccentric provisions of Lord Stafford's 
will are known to students of Grammont, 
and the jjassage quoted by Dr. Furnivall 
will be found in the introduction, p. xxv, 
of Mr. Gordon Goodwin's edition of the 
'Memoirs,' published by Mr. A. H. Bullen 
in 1903. The exact date of the will is 2 Feb- 
ruary, 1G99/1700, a year later than that given 
by Dr. Furnivall The earl subsequently 
added two codicil.s to his will, but no mention 
of hi.s wife was made in either of them. He 
die<i without issue, 27 April, 1719, in his 
seventy -second year, and wa.s buried in Wejjt- 
miuster Abbey. He had been an adherent 
of Jarae!) II., and followed his master to 
St. Germain -en-Lay e, where on 3 April, 1694, 
he married Claude Charlotte, the elder of the 
two daughters of Philibert de Grammont 
and Elizabetii Hamilton. These two girls 
were describee] by the Marquis de Datigeau 
('Journal,' i. 241) as great intriguers, and 
better known in society than many belles, 
though very ugly. They seem to have inheritetl 
the wit and vivacity of their father without 
partaking of the beauty of tlieir mother. 
Claade, though not in Jier first youth, was 
e)ght.-<m v.).ir« VT... ...... than her husban<l, 

«'' been busy with her 

Dfti ;. .J the young Duke of 

Orleans, aft^rwania the celebrated ivegent. 
It is said that his mother, the Duchess 
?fii ^^''-*"^ whow maid of honour 
AIUc. de Grammont been. pcr«uade<l 

Lord Stafford to marry lier. However 
this may have been, the uniun between si 
stolid, middle - aged Englishman and the 
lively daughter of a French father and a 
Scoto-Itish mother could hardly Vie expected 
to turn out happily. Lady Stafford, both in 
youth and age, was one of those characters 
that Thackeray was hanpy in depicting. Her 
girlhood was that of Ifeatrix Esmond ; her 
old age that of the Baroness Bernstein, with 
a dash of Lady Kew, .She probably had her 
husband in her thoughts when she uttered 
the words recorded by Lord Hervey in refer- 
ence to Queen Caroline and George II. : — 

'* Pour nioi, je trouve ((u'on i!i)?«« tr''«rnal — sicette 
nauvre I'rincesso avail 1 'I 'it 

etre embarraaet^ dans r- ' <> 

tel role i» joucr, iiu'ott liii '-t 

vivre avec un dt-saRrcabb animal tonle -iu. yii' 
privtSe, on doit aentir sea nialheiirs, et je suia euro 
qu'elle e^t sottc, et mt-nie tria sotte, \mf <|u'ollo 
n'ost pBLa ciiibiirraMt'e et qu'elle iic jLirHit point 
confonduc dans touted les nouve*utii p-tirim Xw- 
qneUeR elle se trouve." 

As things turned out, Lady Stafford, not- 
withstanding Lord Hervey's opiniun of her 
judgment, was comploteh' mistaken in her 
view of the situation. The queen, iustea<i 
of vividly feeling her position in being yoked 
to so disagreeable a husband as George II., 

filayed her part through life with the cheer 
ul and unembarrassed bearing that ha<l 
distinguished her when she first made the 
acquaintance of tlie king, and succeeded iu 
securing as mucli affection as it was iu his 
power to give to any woman. 

Lady Stafford, when in England, used io 
live at TwicUentiam, where sne became on 
very intimate terms with Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu. When, in 1727, the uld countess 
set out for Franco, Lady Mary wrote to her 
sister, the Countess of Mar, that her friend 
had carried half the pleasures of her life 
with her ; she was more stupid than she 
could describe, and could think of nothing 
but tiio nothingness of the good things of 
this world. She relates the scandal that 
arose from the intimacy of the second Duchess 
of Cleveland with hor husband's young kins- 
man. Lord Sidney Beauclerk, the fatlier of 
Johnson's friend Topham, and sends her a 
copy of verses on the same theme, winding 
up with an ill-founded an<l ill-natured iunt 
oi Lady Stafford's. WalfK>le knew tho old 

ladv in his childhcxxl, and av: ! '^ "• • h(> 

had more wit than either of i' 
Lady Mary or tho Duke of \'. .... !'• 

died in 1739, and her will, dated ; lu 

tliiiL vf^.ir. was proved three davi __l_! jv 
VI irl of Arrau, to whom she left all 

li"i , , ly. 


w^s.i.jan.2.i«m.] notes and QUKRIES. 


^ The countess's younger sister. Marie 
Iiljsabeth, was born 27 Decemlier. I(i(i7, and, 
luividg entere'l uitu religion, became the 
Abbess uf St*. Miiriede I'oussaye in Lorraine. 
'8ho fiie<l before her parents in 17<J6. and. 
Walpoie records that he was told by an oki 
friend of hers, Madame de Mirepoix, the 
French Amb<u*, that she was ten times 
uiore vain of the bloo<^i of Hamilton than of 
aD equal (.quantity of that of Orammont.^ 
Lady Stafford Keems to have been equally 
attached to the family of her mother. 

IW. F. Prideaux. 
"Tatar" ob "Tartar" (9''' S. xii. 18&, 
376).— I have read Dr. Koelle's article in 
vol. xiv. of the new series of the Jotu-nal of 
the Jioyal Asiatic Society, and come to the 
conclusion thai lie belongs to that of 
Orientalists of whom Voltaire made such fun 
in the preface to his ' Charles XII.' or ' Pierre 

»lo Grand,' 1 now forget which. 
The "perhaps greatest European authority 
on the group of Central Asiatic languages" 
begins his disquisition with the ex ratludrn 
statement that every one knows that formerly 
ali Europe was agreed in saying and writing 
Tartar, and it is only in modern times that 
would-be clever fdlks have begun to substi- 
tute the incorrect form Tatar.t "All Kuropo' 
must be taken in a somewhat restricted sense, 
like "the British nation" in the famous 
^B manifesto i8sue<l by the three tailors of 
^^P Tooley Street, because it never included 
^^ Itos-sia, Poland, Hungary, Rumania, or 
Turkey. It must be a'isumed, therefore, that 

• the learned Orientalist was not aware of this 
circumstance, or he would have made some 
attempt to explain why so many millions of 
Europeans, all of whom have been in close 
contact with the Tartars off and on for 
centuriea, use the incorrect form. Ho gives 
some kind of explanation why the Tartars 
themselves, the Turks, Arabs, and Persians, 

Icio not use the right name ; but as a matter 
of fact he has not pro^iuced a tittle of evidence 
to show that the form Tartar was used by 
any one else than the Armenians, the Greek 
ajid Latin writers, and the Western nations 
of KuiX)pe. France and England are still 
orthodox in this respect^ but tlie Germans are 
gradually going over to the opposite faction. 
JJveu (>. VVoUV. although "on the light track 
fit tlie etymology of the word Tartar," has 
• ' I>elter« of Udy M W. MonlAfc'n,' ed. HO?, 
11 217-'iL'0 : • Ixitt^ra «f Horace VS'alpole,' C'anniug- 
liaiii't ed., ii. '2ffl ; Toynlno s eil., iii. til. 
t Rut Dr Kocllchiruaolf "i'"ii -^ 'rointho Mxteouth 
^ century * Thesaiii-us ' ot r u>iu: "Tartttri 

i«iB Taltari (to|ito/>oO, ; 

used the heterodox form in the title of hi« 
book, and wrote ' Goschichte der Mongolen 
oder Tataren ' (Breslau, 1872). Dr. Ivoelle 
himself confesses that his views on the 
etymological nature of the name Tartar have 
resulted "merely" {iic) from his exhaustive 
study of the Tartar roots, and therefore rest 
on purely pliilological data, whilst e»'ery 
liistorical consideration seems to be opposed 
to thorn. When he aske<.l Tartars what they 
called themselves, their reply invariably was 
" Tatar " or perhaps " Tattar. " On one occa- 
sion only, two men who seemed to be more 
intelligent than the rest promised the Berlin 
doctor that they would make inquiries, and 
came back with the, to him, welcome nowM 
that they had consulte<l some old men of 
their tribe, who thought that the form advo- 
cated by him was the right one. 

With regard to the allegation that tho 
('hinese are mainly responsible fur the use 
of tho inaccurate form, Dr. Koolle seriously 
maintains that in the name of the village 
Ibn TaltftI, near Aleppo in Asia Minor, the 
second word, not being Arabic, must "evi- 
dently " be the Chinese pronunciation of 
Tartar ; but he does not explain how other 
geographical names like Tatar - Hazardiik, 
Tatar-liunar, Tatar-Kdi, Tatar- Mahalk', ic, 
have managed to escape the same fate- 

Moroover, the doctor does not quote a 
single instance of the form Taltal from any 

genuine Chinese source. According to D'Her- 
elot, in the Chinese dictionaries Tata is tiie 
general term for all the TU ( = dogs), or bar- 
barians, of the North. Dr. Koelle also quotes 
"Ta-che," "Ta-chin " (('.<-., Ta people). "Tache 
Linya '— the popular name or a certain Tar- 
tar Academician, "Tatal au lieu de Tatar"; 
but the form Taltal is evidently not to be 
foun<l in any old Chinese source. 

Dr. Koello's explanation for the pi'esonce 
of the final r in Tatar may be ingenious, 
but is not convincing. Many Tartars, he 
states, undertook to write tneir language 
with Chinese characters. Now, if they found 
their name written as Tatal (not Taltal, be it 
notetl) by the Chinese, this was a precedent 
which they were tempted to imitate, first in 
writing, and perhaps soon also in speaking ; 
but as the Tartars did not share the inability 
to pronounce tho letter r, they naturally said 
Tatar where the Chinese said Tatal. Thus 
the Tartars themselves fell into the habit of 
pronouncing their own name as Tatar, 
partly from writing it in Chinese charactors, 
and still more from their daily intorcours© 
with the Chinese. , , - . . 

This theory is evidently foundoa on an 
anecdote which I hoard many years ago 


NOTES AND QUERIES. im a. t Ja^- 2. 1904. 

about a. worthy German merchant who had 
bu3ine«9 connexions in England, and one 
day came over to make their personal 
acquaintance. His name was Abel, which 
when pronounced in the Fatherland rimes 
very nearly with marble ; but in England he 
found every bodjjr called him Mr. Able, until at 
last he also " fell into the habit of pronoun- 
cing his own name as " Able, and had fresh 
visiting cards printed with his new name 
spelt TfHtontct "Mr. Ebel." To cut a long 
story short, in trying to spell his name as 
his English friends pronounced it, the poor 
German changed the spelling next to Mr. 
Ibel, Eibel, EubeJ, Jubel, and finally wound 
up with Mr. Djschubel, after which he gave 
up all further attempts in despair. 

To return to our Tartars. As the pronun- 
ciation of the first >• presented to tnem no 
greater ditticulty than the second, why did 
they perpetuate the wrong and *'un-Tartar " 
form Tatar, and not revert to the original, 
the " unrautilated ' form Tartar T 

History, as we see and as Dr. Koelle him- 
self confesses, is against him ; but let us look 
into his etymological proof. Tlje root tar 
means to draw (in German zlfhen), to pull, to 
move on, to roam about, and tlie Tartar 
words derive<l from it are so numerous and 
of such miscellaneous meanings that they 
outnumber those of the corresponding Gcr- 
loan Zuff, for enumerating all of which our 
worthy editor cannot spare the space, and 
the reader is therefore referred to— ^lark 
Twain's 'Tramp Abroad.' Hence tartar is 
in Dr. K<Telle's opinion a characteristic name 
for a people who constantly move from place 
to place, and it means move-on-more-on. Now 
tnt-nv is also a genuine Tartar word ; but it 
means taster, and consequently' it is not to 
the doctor's taste, because it is not charac- 
teristic, and also because, when the Tartars 
pronounce their own name, " they do not say 
Tatar [nor Tar-tar] but Ta-tar [or Tat-tarl." 
We may now add Tatar is correct. Q.E.D. 
So much for the etymological proof. 

With regard to the use of the form Tartar, 
as already stat«<l, it is used by the Armenians, 
by me<liiFval Greek writers like Georgios 
Akropolita (vi>. 1203 61, but the modern 
C»reeks have cone over to the hetero<lox 
party), by raediieval Latin writers, and by 
the Western nations of Europe, except some 
scholars like A. Schiefner, Vambcrv, and 

D , the oM author of ' Histoiredes Taters,' 

who know something about the Tartars. The 
advixsates of the form Tatar maintain that 
the superriuous j* was introduced by St. 
rx)uis (the king, not the bishop) to enable 
mm to make a pun. When writing to hi« 

mother Blanche, in 1241, he perpetrated the 
historic ./>»< ({/■ mot : " We shall either tbrnstl 
back those whom we call Tartars into their 
own seats in Tartarus, whence they pro- 
ceede<l, or else they will transmit us all. up 
to heaven." Dr. Koelle ridicules this ex-j 
planalion, and he may be rights I am'abso- 
lutely neutral on this point, and will merely 
give a few more facts- 

The Dominican monk Julian, who brought 
the first tidings of their approach to Hunga 
in 1237, calls tliem Tartari. 

According to Matthew Paris, "Dicuntur 
autem Tartari a quodam Humine per moittes 
eorum, vijuos jam penetraverant, decurrente. 
quod dicitur Tartar" ('Chronica Major,' 
Luard's edition in the Master of the Rolls 
iSeries, iv. 78). 

There is a very suspicious letter, da _.. 
10 April, 1242, "cujustlem episcopi Ungari' 
ensis [fie] ad Episcopura Pari[3i]ensem, * in 
which the name is Tartareus, and they are 
said to use Hebrew, not Chinese, characters 
(literaa h'xbent Judaorum) ; i/jidem, vi. 7."». 

Henry Raspe, Landf^rave of Thuringia, 
also in 1242, writes, "dicti homines Tartari 

The "Abbas Sanctae Marise totiLsque con- 
yentus ejusdem loci, ordinis Sancti^ Benedicti 
in Hungaria commorantes," writes from 
Vienna on 4 Jan., 1242, "Tartari qui vocantur, 
Ysraaelitw." The convent has not yet beea' 
identi6edj and Ismaelite merchants wei 
trading m Hungary in 1092, and whol 
Ismaelite villages were extant in that country 
in the reign of Coloman (1095-1116). 

•Tordan, provincial vicar of the Fran- 
ciscans in Poland, in his letter of 10 April, 
1242, also f>erpetrates the pun, "a gente 
Tartariorum, a Tartaro oriunna." 

The Warden of the Franciscans at Cologne 
writes about them with .some familiarity as 
the people " quos vulgariter Tartai-oa appel- 

.Ail these pa&sagea are to be found in vol. vi. 
of Matthew Paris's 'Chronicle' ah-eady re- 
ferred to. 

^ In conclusion, after having considered Dr. 
Koello's paper we see that we cannot do 
better than imitato the Tartars' own pro- 
nunciation and call them Tatars henceforth. 

L. L. K. 

'The Abbey of Kilkhampton' (&^ S. xii. 
381. 411, 488).—! have "The Third Edition, 
with Considerable Additions," of 'The Abbey j 
of KilkbamptOD ; or, Monumental Recor(» 
for the Year 1980,' Ac, London, 1780. It 
contains 1 10 epitaphs. 

I have also "The Abl>ey of Kilkhampton. 
An Improved Edition. London, Printed for 


10"' s. I. Jan. 2, 1904.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


O. Kearsley, at Johnson's Head, No. 46 Fleet 
Street, mdoclxxxviii. Price Half a Crown." 
The preface Rtates: "The same Truth and 
the same Spirit which prevailed in the two 
parts of ' Kilkhampton Abhey ' are blended 
ID the continuation, and the whole is offered 
to the R^'ader in a single volume." It con- 
tains 200 epitaphs (the 110 contained in the 
edition of 1780 inclusive). The last epitaph 
ends, "Ob. 11 Aug., 1811 "—obviously a mis- 

A copy of 'The Abbey of Kilkhampton/ 
described as an improved edition, 1788, was 
sold at auction in New Vork, March, 1892. 
In the sale catalogue the book is ascribed to 
Wra. Warine. 

In a weekly publication entitled the Devil's 
Pocket- Book (London, 1786) is a series of 
articles entitled "Monumental lleeoitis: 
being intended as a Supplement to * The 
Abbey of Kilkhampton.' " 

John Townshend. 

Bennelt Building, New York. 
" MoLUBDTS'OUrf .SLOWBELLY" (9'*' S. xii. 

487).— Might one observe that the first portion 
of thi^ elegant phrase is an erroneously 
anglicized form of " raolybdenous," now a 
chemical term ? According to current usage, 
therefore. Mo should replace Pb in the slow- 
belly formula. J. Dormer. 

Euchre (9^'' S. .xii. 484)."— Mr. R. F. Foster 
thinks this game is derived from spoil-five. 
Mr. ('. H Meehan savs it was introduced by 
German settlers into Pennsylvania. Both 
are i^reed that it is not derived from ccarto. 
Mr. Foster points out that some feMuresof 
the game resemble ** triomphe," from which 
bcarto is also derive<l. The earliest mention 
of euchre that I have found is in 'An 
Exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gamb- 
ling,' by J. H. Green (Philadelphia, 184:i). 
The word is there spelt "eucre. (See also 
7"* S. vii. 307, 358.) F. Jessel. 

The Wykkhamical Woed "Toys" (9"> S. 
xii. 346, 437, 4H2).— As I am a^ikerl for ray 
opinion on this matter, I give it for what it 
ifj worth. 

It is clear that the flerivation from toi'se, 
n fathom, is a mere bad shot. 

It is also obvious that Mr. H. C. Adams 
does not know Grimm's law, or he would not 
equate the "Dutch Uv/chrn" (i.f , the Mid. Du. 
tutjnhfti^ Mo<l. Du. tuia) with the Gk. rtv^ta, 
which Ls, of course, from a totally different 

It also appears tltat Mr. Wrench has mis- 
understood the entry in the ' Promptoriura,' 
and mixes up Anglo-French with Parisian. 

The entry "Trytt^ot a cofyr," does not mean 
that thec'i or /ry* has the sense of coffer. It 
means that te)/e has the sense of the Lat. 
ihecft^ "an envelope, cover, case, sheath," and 
refers to the cover of a coffer, not the coffer 
itself. Klse why the word "of"? That this 
is the right sense of fheca is clear from the 
fact that the modern E. form is tick, a case 
for a feather-befl or a pillow. And tick »s nofc 
retnarkably like the Winche-ster word either 
in form or sense. This Lat. t/iera became trie 
in Nor man, and <r//e in Mid. English, and is 
(jjerhaps) obsolete, unless a trace of it appears 
in the unpublished part of the ' Eng. Dial. 
Diet.' The foreign form was toj/e or toie ; for 
example.^ see taie in Littre j but toj/e was 
altererl to ("ie in the eighteenth century, as 
in modem French. I can find no proof of 
the introduction of this F. tof/c into England 
at any date, and I greatly doubt the deri- 
vation from this .source. To say that toie 
comes " regularly " from Lat. thera is to ignore 
the most marked distinction between the 
French of England and that of France. 

I cannot at all understand why the word 
may not be a peculiar use of the common 
E. tuff, which is at least as old as l.")30 (see 
Palsgrave). And this corresponds to Du. MhV/, 
which becomes ^eu(/ in German, and is a word 
of very wide application. 

The peculiar principle on which Godefroy's 
'Old trench Dictionary' is written deserves 
reprobation. I look out toijette, and am 
referred to Utiefe in the Supplement; but 
there is no such word there. All that I find 
there is taie, for which I am referred to teie. 
But of course tcie is not there either. 


Island ov PaoviDENtiE (9"' S. xii. 428).— 
There are two Providence Lslands, about 
wjiicli there has been much confusion. One. 
(now called Old Providence Island) lies east 
of the Mosquito Coast l>etween 13" and 14" N, 
latitude and 81" and 82" W. longitude. This 
is the island referred to by Lobuc. It was 
BCranted 4 December, 1630. to the Earl of 
Warwick, Sir Edmund Mountford, .lohn Pyra^ 
and others (of whom the Earl of Arundel was . 
not one) ; and John Pyra was the treasurer 
of the company. Proposals to sell the 
island to the Dutch were entertained between 
1G37 and 1U30 ; in 1G41 it was taken by the 
Spanish, in ICCfi it was retaken by the 
English, it again fell into the hands of 
the Spanish, and in 1671 was once more 
recaptured by the English. Much informa- 
tion in regard to tliis island will he found m 
the 'Calendar of State Papers. Colonial Series, 
1574-1060.' „ , „ r. ., 

The other (now oalled New Providence 

II \(»fl.:s ANL> Ql'tKIES. [it' - : v^ i\ isi>i. 

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.<• ^\ '. '' »'" » '"•' ' '■'■ "'■'' n'.>I-'»;i ■■' r-T 'i.iMiJtf luiiilt" i:. Ti-.e mistake 



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M-:* •,■'•. v-.' "■» ^.,. x ..f •■i-«'t:i:';\, !!«»r !»!! I a^ree in the 
"' '' *•* •l>l^^^■■l^•« ^ .•*;;t-.i;i» >'t ti-e y;Mriv.:tT of the 

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j» _ .. •■, * • V- '.:■•■.*:•.:«*: .»:: ir.v ii'.i'r the 

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.« '• . t; ■: j: ■ •■-->.: " -er txteu- 

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u .- »>8<i- r',i«r; t.~e 


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V. ..:.. ».. . - \ .•.;:i;;i ^ 

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I •!■ |l n '• l'i*nii •» ••'•' '•''•• I ili.lj I.. .».,, tu>l viui> t./ .......x y> 

lO'" S. I. -UN. i, 1004.] 



the incidence of the accent," but by variety 
in the place of the cajsura. Thus : — 
Kemote, unfijpnded, | iiielnncholy, slow, 
• tr by ihe \ii/.y SclicliU | or wandering Po, 
Ur onward i « hert? the rude C'ariiithian boor 
^Ag&itisl the hoiifetess stranger { ahuta the door, 
X)r where Cniiip^niii's |iUiii { forsakon lies, 
A weary waste 1 expuading tu the skies. 

The normal diviuion of the syllables may 
be said to be five-five, and the permissible 
variations to be four-six, six-four, three- 
seven, and seven-three. 

The skilful reader, by judicious pauses 
Aud suitable acceleration.*} and retardations, 
tuakea the two di virions of each line occupy 
the »amo tiuie; and the skilful versifier so 
arranges his words that the pauses, &c., may 
seem to arise out of the meaning to be ex- 
pre«.sed, and not to have been merely dictated 
oy tliG exigencies of the metre. C. J. I. 

'Pn\<.Tic.E OF Piety' (9"' S. xii. 485).— 
This was perhaps the most popular devotional 
book of the seventeenth century. It was 
trannlated into several languages, and was 
carried almost by everybwly everywhere. 
It was written by Lewis Bayly ; see ' D.N.B.,' 
in. 44!) ; 'N. ifc Q ,' 6'^ S. xii. 321. 

W. C. B. 
[Mk. \V. D. Gkkish Bonds tho same iiifomiation.] 

Jacobix : Jacobite (9"' S. xii. 4G9, .j08).— 
There is a work, doubtfully attributed to 
Defoe, eiititlerl 'Hannibal at the Gates ; or, 
tlie Progress of Jacobinism,' and published in 
llli. But Defoe does not, .so far as I j»m 
, nse this spelling. J. Dormer. 

ikriyc. Alive (9"* S. xii. 429. 489).— If 
ita is any truth in the following story, 
told by fleolTrey of Monmouth, flaying alive 
was not peculiarly Oriental :— 

"In his days ; King Morvid'a] did a certain king 
of ihu Aloranians land with a irreal furce on tlic 

•hore of Norlhtimtierland .Morvid thereu))on, 

collettiii;; to;,'ether all the youlli of his doininioaa, 
nmrchcd forth apainat tlieni, and did give him 

battle and when he had sv<jn liiu victory not a 

«oul was left ou live that he did not slay. Kor lie 
commanded thi<ni to 1k^ hruufrht unto him one after 
the " ' ■ ' 'ii uliit lii.i blood-thirst by 

jmi iind when he cooseil for a 

tiiji- :i''»«, he ordered thenj /« /jc 

tkiimul rtV*<«, and IjatHcd ojtti' thty trtrr. likinnfd." 

E. Marston. 
St. Dunstan'e Houav 

Fable as to CuiLn-MuiiDEB by Jew:^ (9"' 
S. xii. 44(i, 497).— Aft Mr. IIuti hinson gives 
no reference to John Aubrey (whom he 
cnlh John Aiuiloy), it may be' worth while 
to itvjonl tliat the story to which ho alludes 
I is to l)« found in the ' Letters," vol. iJ. pp. 492-4. 
Jon>" B. VVainbwku;ht. 

Queen Elizabeth and New Hall, Essex 
(9'" S. xii. 208. 410, 477, 4!X:) — Mit. U<xjper 
says, "Elizabeth gave New Hall to the Earl 
of Sussex." I a.ssume that this New Hall la 
not ** Newhall Josaelyne, co. Essex. ' D. 

Folklore of Childbirth (O"* S. xii. 288, 
413, 455, 490).— Swift alludes to the parsley 
in the following ('Letters,' vol. ii. p. 211, 
London, 1708) ' Receipt for stewing Veal * :— 

Take a knuckle of veal : 
You may buy it or steal it. 

Then what 's joined to a filace, 
With other herbs muckle : 
That which killed King Will, 
.And what never stands Blill. 
Some apripa* of that Lied 
Where ohiUlrea are bred, &c. 


Dr. Pakklvs (9«» S. xii. 349).-The ' D.N.B.' 
knows him not, but it has coigns for less 
remarkable men. The only way in which I 
can help your correspondent is by quoting a 
communication of ^Ir. J. Beale (at one time 
a contributor to these columns) to the Grant' 
h'lia Journal of 24 August, 1878 :— 

"The foUowiuK titular iiaradigra of a pamphlet 
now before me may form a suitable note for 
remark.'? :— ' Ecca Homo ! Critical remarks on the 
infamous publications of John Parkins, of Litlle 

rior. and Book of Miracles; in which he protends 
to ConimaiKl the Angels of Heaven, to Avert the 
Kvila of Huiuftn Life, to Work Miracles, to Last 
out Devils, to Destroy Witches, to loretell hulure 
Kvents. &c , Jtc., beinfi an attempt to expose the 
falsehood of his pretensions, and to prove that the 
only design of his wrilings is to beguile the weak 
and ignorant, and to promote the sale of (what he 
c*ll8)ltis Holy Consecrated Lamcns. founded on the 
absurd priDcinles of Astrology. Iniersijersed with 
anecdotes. [Then a tireek quolalion fron> Act» 
xiii. 10; next a tiuotatioti from ShakKpe&r ; and 
then a quotation from Dr. .\dani Clarke.] (.rant- 
ham : |)rinted for, and published by the author, and 
may be had of all booksellers. Storr, printer, 
tirantham.' I undersUnd that the book waa printed 
at the premises now occupied by Mr. liusbby m 
Vine .Street ; aud that the name of the author waa 
Weaver, in some way connected with the i>rintiug 
otficc. The selUnfr price was b. ^l. Its title-- 
.-Address 'To the Great Ambastsador of Heaven! 
dated '—near Grantham, 4"' Auuust, ISlH," and i>re- 

face take up i»a«e« i-vii, contents i-^,^x. and ' '• 

Homo with •adilenduni ' pages 1-71 The ' 1> 

18 litated to have been the author of 'Tti"("ii 

• \V I » , 

oung Man j^uest uoininamoii, ^ • rbal 

of Wealth,' ' Key to the Wise 

' Voung Man's Best Comi»nion,' '\ 

and Family Physician.' 'liook of •--.,- ■>"*^ 

several other valuable and useful publicalions, 

besides 'The Celestial Warrior (p. 4..). Hia 

• " Parody. Pirfr ChaniborUyne." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo"- s, i. Jan. 

citaracter, however, is tliuH aummarized liy Weaver 
(in hi« ' coaclusioii ' <[»• <>W)— 'The first step Perkins 
mode tow&rds his iirescnt height of Llasjmeniy and 
■ imposture, was to dignifj- himself with the title of 
l)octor, and to comnicnr.e walerca«ter, astrologer, 
uud fortuneteller, but he Mas then consulted only 
by silly servant girls who wanted aweethearts and 
br&iusii:k lovers pining aft«r niaidw. A temporary 
suj)t>ea8iou beio^ (;iven to his practice in 1810 at the 
tJrantham Sessions, he invented the system of 
Lameuiam, or spiritual A8troIo(ry, in the hojie of 
evading further interruption from the law ; and by 
one bom stroke after another, arrived at his jiresent 
pitch of worthless jiopuiarity.' Mr. Healey, hair- 
dresser, tie, Market-idace, kindly lent me the 
IMluphlet for perusal, &c., and it is now in his 
possession fihould any one wish to see it.— J. Beai.k." 

St. Svvituik. 

' My Olp Oak Table' (9"' S. xii. 448, 514).— 
• The Oak Table,' or ' My Oak Table.' was sung 
erroneously to the tune of " My lodging is 
on tlie cola ground." The true tuno is Charles 
Dii>din's, belonging to the year 1789. sung in 
his entertainment named Tom Wilkins,' at 
Leice-iter Plate, one of the "Sans Soucj." 
Tlie song for which it was composed was * The 
Last Shilling,' the words beginning thus:— 

As jiensive oue uight in my garret I sat. 

My last shilling produoed on the table, 
"That advcnfrer," erie<l I. "might a history relate, 

If to think and to speak it were able." 
\\hether fancy or magic 'twas play'd me the freak. 

The face seem'd with life to be tilling, 
And cried, instantly apeakinf;, or seeming to speak. 

" Pay attention to me, thy Last ShillinK," 

Three stanzas follow, worth giving, should 
the Editor of ' N 

Their niyHtcriuiis rites they "d perform before me, — 

riiose rites to unfold I am able : 
r.ut be that now forgot,— I was then aa oak tree, 

And now I atu but an oak table. 

When the axe hrouRhl nic down, and eoou lopjiecl 
was each bou^n. 

And to form a ship 1 wa« oonvertefl, 
Manned by true hearts of oak the wide ocean to 

And by Victory never tleaart«d. (IHh.) 
But woin out by Time, and reduced to a wreck. 

Bereft of my anchor and cable, 
A carpenter Ixiughl nic, and with part of my deck 

Made mc what you see now— an oak table. 

Now thrust in a corner, put out of the way, — 

liul I fear I your patience am tiring,— 
I expect nolhinR less than, some fortncon>ing duy, 

To be chopped up, and used for your firing. ' 
" No, never ". cried I, as I gtart«ci awoke, 

" 1 11 protect liiee, so long as 1 'm able : 
And eacn friend that my humble cheer will partake 

Shall be welcome around .My Oak Table ! 

Written by'Tom Hudson, bS-^JI, 

They sang good songs in those dayt< eighty 
years ago. J. Vvoodfall Ebswouth. 

The Priory, Ashford, Kent, 

Dr. Dekh Mai.k. Mireoh (0"> S. xii 467).— 
The following quotation from tlie 'D.N.B.' 
article on the astrologer may perhaps bo 
useful in illustration of Mb. Paoe's interest- 
ing note :— 

" The magic niirror, a disc of highly polished 
cannel coal, was preserved in a leathern case, and 
was sucoeaaivcly in the hands of the Mordaunta, 
Earls of I'eterborough, Lady Klizabeth Hermaine, 
John, Uuke of Arsrvll, Lord Frederick (.'ampbell, 

<k O.' permit, varying the I and Mr, Strong of Hristol, who purelinsed it at the 
theme, but adopting tlio manner of Charles 1 Strawljerry Hill sale in IM2, though anot hor account 

Dibdin's ' Last Shilling,' and keeping to tlio 
same tune (.see the music of it in vol. ii. 
pp. 238-40 of G. H. Davidson's *Song« of 
Charles Dibdin, with music arranged by 
George Hogarth,' London, 1848 wiition). 
Genial Tom Hudson, author of 'Jack Robin- 
son ' and many other popular ditties, wrote 
and sung 'The Oak Table' in 1822. He 
printed it in the 'Fourth Collection of his 
Songs,' p. 23. Here are the words :— 

Tut; Olu Oak Tabll. 

(Tune of Charles Dibdin's ' The Last Shilling.') 

1 hud knock'd out the dust from my pipe t'other 

•n.' *'■? ^'"'^ towards midnight was creeping : 

riie last snioke from its ashes had taken to flight,— 

I lelt neither waking nor sleeping ; 
\\ iien a voice loud and hollow, and aeeroinxly 

Vou '11 say 'twas a dream or a fable. 
Directed towards nie, said, audibly clear, 

*' fJst, list, list to nie, thy oak table !" 

" I wa« onpp of the forest the monarch so bold, 

"^ - 1 nor storm made me tremble ; 

■A'^ oft, the famed Druids of old 

i!ir my branches Qsaemble : 

states that it was then ao<^uired by Mr. Smythe 
Pigott, at the sale of whose library in 1S.~kl it passed 
into thoiiossession of Lord Londesborough {Jnitrno" 
of Britisli Architological As.soc., v. 52; 'N. & Q-,' 
,S'"' a, iv, l.V»), Dees shew atone, or holy stone,! 
which he asserted was f;ivou to him by an aii;:cl, i* | 
in the British Museum. It is a J)eautif«l globe " 
polished crj-stal, of the variety known us smoii^ 
quartz (,'l/< /(.'o/fx/cfi' Jo»ninl, xiij. .f7*,J ; ' N. Jt Q., 
7"' H. iv, :»J)." 

I may add that one day at the end of 
October last I was shown by a lady (born 
Napier), who lives at the extreme south- 
westoirn corner of Cambridgeshire, a crystal 
globe (pierced through the middle) whirh 
once belonged to Dr. Dee. It had been, I 
understand, one of four similar holy stones, 
and was purchased at the Strawberry Hill 
sale. A. R. Bayley. 

On 22 November, l.)92, Mr. Secretary 
Walsingham and Sir Thomas Gorges were 
apfwinted by Queen Elizabeth commissioners 
" to hear the grievances of Dr. Dee, the 
German conjurer, and repaired to his houa© 
at Mortlake, Surrey, for tliat purpose, to 
understand the matter, and the cause for 

io^s.i.Ja-s.2,i9W.] notes and queries. 


which his studies were scandalized." Dr. 
Dee's methods must ba\e been highly 
approved of by these two long-headed com- 
raissioners, for the queen afterwards sent 
Doe 100 marks by the hands of Sir Thomaa 
Gorges. Thorse George. 

Cro\v>-s is Tower or Spire or Church 
<9"' S. xii. 485).— The epire of St. Xidiolas's, 
Newcastle (a cathedral Bince 1882), built in 
1474, is 200 ft. high, and, being Mupported by 
Hying buttresses, is a unique feature in Eng- 
ii'sli cathedral cliurches. It seems to have 
inspired the similar spire.s at 8t. Ciiles's, 
Eflinburgh ; the Tron Church, Glasgow ; 
King's College, Aberdeen ; and VVren'd poor 
copy at St. DunstAn's-in-the-Kost, London. 
The still existing towers of Linlithgow and 
Haddington once possessed other etlitions of 
this Newcastle crown. The south-western 
tower of Rouen Cathedral, the Tour de 
Beurre, in surnaounted by an octagonal lan- 
tern, which in its turn is finished bj' a carved 
parapet, said to represent the ducal coronet 
of Normandy. A beautiful drawing of tliis 
tower exists, made by I'uskin in 1835 under 
the inriaence of Prout. Begun in 1487 
and completed in 1507 by Jacques lo 
lloHx. the Tour de Beurre contained the great 
bell "Georges d'Amboise," the largest out- 
ride Uu8.sia. which cracked with grief in 17SG 
at l>eing called upon to ring for Louiti XVI. 

A. R. Bayley. 

IR. B— R meutiona the spirea at Newcastle and 

"God's billy vassal" (9''' S. xii. 447).— In 
September, l.'i93, when, after the Reforma- 
tion, tilings were unsettled, the Provincial 
Asaembly of the (Church of Scotland met 
at St. Andrews and excommunicated the 
Catholic lords, who a year afterwards Hed 
from Scotland, but wore recalled in l.'i9<3. 
The General Assembly, susiHSctiua; that 
James V"!. favoured the lords, resolved to 
learn the truth from himself, and in Sep- 
tember commissioned Andrew Melville (Rec- 
tor of the University of St. Andrews) and 
others t<} appear before his Majesty at Falk- 
land Palace. The king received them, but 
plainly showed he was in no mood to brofik 
interference, and declared their coming; to be 
without warrant and seditious. This was 
more than the redoubtable Andrew could 
submit to. James Melville, who wa.s present, 
says in his ' Autobiography and Diarv 
(Edinburgh, 1842) that tncraupon Mr. 
Andrew " brak out upon the king in sa 
zealus and unresistiblo a manor, that, how- 
beit the king used his authority in a moat 
colerik matter, Mr. Andrew bore him down,'" 

and declared hia warrant to bo from the 
mighty Gofl, calling the king but Goal's sUly 
vassal, and, taking him by the sleeve, told 
him, in no measured language, that there 
were two kings and two kingdoms in Scot- 
land. There was Christ Jeaua the King and 
his kingdom the Kirk, whose subject rCing 
.lames was, and of which kingdom he was 
not a king, nor a lord, nor a head, but a mere 
member. He also told the king that when 
he was in his " swadling-cloutes " the Kirk 
ever looked after his welfare, and would not 
permit him now to be drawn to his own 
destruction by the "devillisohe and rnaist per- 
nicius Counsall " he had about him ; and much 
more to the like effect. In the end the king 
gave way, and distnissed them pleasantly, 
and protested that the lords would get no 
grace at his hands till they had sati.sficd the 
Kirk. J. L, Axdersox. 

See P. Hume Brown's * Hist, of Scotland,' 
ii. 224, and J. R- Green's 'Short History,' 
sec. V. chap. \nii. C. S. Ward.' 

[Replies alao from .Ma. T. P. AbmsTRhxo acul 
0. H.\V.) 

Beadnell i^)^*" S. xii. 469).— I suggest that 
Mr. Sandfokd should write to the inerabers 
of the Beadnell family whose names he 
already uosMSses. Other references are : 
William H. Beadnell, picturo-fraine maker, 
Glasgow ; James Beadnell, tailor, Leeds ; 
William Ernest Beadnell, mechanic, Leeds; 
Charles Marsh Beadnell, M.R.C.S. Eng., 
L.R.C.P. Lend., L.S.A. (189.'3), surgeon in the 
Royal Navy ; and George David Beadnell, 
M.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P. filin. (1872), in prac- 
tice at Denman Island, British Columbia. 
Chas. F. FOR.SHAW, LL.D., F.R Hiat.S. 

This name does not occur in any directory 
I have been able to consult before 1839. 

In the 'Royal Blue Books' for the years 
1839 to 1842 are these entries :— 

" lieadnell, .John, Ean. 2 Lombard !> : Totten- 
ham, Middx. ; Caatel-y-Dale, near Newtown, Moul- 
gomeryshire. " 

*' Beadnell, (ieorge, Esq. 2 Lombard S' ; Myfod, 

In the 'Royal Blue Books' for 1843 and 
1844 George Beadnell appears as above, but 
John BeadneU's only aadress is Tottenham. 
In 1 845 neither name occurs. 

John B. Wainewriuht. 

I remember a Mr. Henry Beadnell, a proofs 
reader in the otHce of Messrs. Cox i: Wyman, 
Great Queen Street, printers to the East 
India Company. He was n man of some 
culture, and published some works on typo- 
graphy, and a small volume of original verse 
and translations. There is a Mr. U, J. 


Llewellyn Ik-adnell in 
Public 'Works, Egypt, 

the Miniatiy of 
GeoloKJcttl Stirvfy 
John Hebb. 

EriuKA^t ON Madame i>e PoMPAiHjin (9"* S. 
xii. 447).— It has beeu suggested that a line 
of Frederic the Great against llic Abbe do 
Bernis cauneti France to go against Prussia, 
If an epigram on Madame do Pompadour 
cannot be found, it may bo worth while to 
nuotoi the following ; for it is fjossible that 
Uarlyle made a mistake, and confounded 
Madame de Pompadour with her ally, the 
Abb<' de Bernis : — 

'" Frederic, a la fin d*une Kpitre &u comte (iotter, 
oil il docrit les detaila iiitiniB du travail et de 
rindustrie huinaine, avail dit: — 

Je n'ai ])aB tout di-peint, la matii>rc e&t intmenae, 

Kt je laisse h Bernis sa sturile alwndancc. 
On a suppo?!.' quo Kernis connaJRBait cetle Epitre, 
et «ue V avail ite lo motif <)ui !ui avail fail con- [ 
seiller .i Versailles d'ulwniloniier le roi de IViiase et 
<le s'allier avec rinn>^ratrice. TiirKOt, dao9 des vera 
satiriquoa aiionyme.s qui coururent tout I'itri.« et 
qui I'talaietit au vif les di^aslres fli'-trissants dont In 
guerre do Sept Aua aHli<;euit Iti France, secriait : — 
Bernis, eslce asse/ de vii-iimes' 
El lea meprii* dun roi pour vos petitea rimes 
Vous aeniblent-ils nnsez vengi'-s ?"' 

Hainte-Beuve, 'C'aviseriee du Luiidi. I/AbW de 

E. Vabdley. 

Banns of Marriage (O*"" S. xii. 107, 2iri, 
375). — It is also allowable, though by no 
niean>< a general custom, to publish the banns 
of marriage after the Xiceno Creed, and on 
my last visit to Oxford I heard the publica- 
tion in tliis place at the church of St. Peter- 
in the- East. .Tony PicKFOED, M.A. 

Newboumo Rectory, Woodbridgc. 

"PAf'ERs" (9'" S. xii. 387).— Here are 
examples of the use of the word "papers,' 
the extracts being made from ' Newton For- 
ster,' by Marryat, publi.shed in Paris, Bau- 
drya European Library, 1834, thougli the 
edition is not given :— 

" ' I will just s|>eak a word or two to my falher. 
and be on board in lesA than half an hour.' ' I 
■ will meet you there," said Uillou, 'and bring your 
|iaper«.' "—Chap. vii. p. iV). 

"Newton •....made all baste to obtain his clear- 
ance and other papers from iho cuBlorn-liousc 

Wilh his (lapers carefully buttoned in hii coat, 
lie was proci>«>dinB to the boat at the jelly."— 
''h»p if 1' '5-1. 

push or press one's own claims forward, it 
seera.s worth while to cnn.sider, among the 
possible progenitors of English /tooft, the 
verb U'stfi; rccoitled by Frt'-drric Oo<iefroy 
an a variant of the media'vat French lyuter, 
which he translates a» meaning "frapper» 
heurter, renverser, presser, j)ous!«er." Gode- 
froy gives ordy one quotation showing the 
use of this variant of the verb. To continues 
the lta««ki>>h vein, one may puiiit to ho:— 
glad, rejoiced, in Lei>;arraga s New Testa- 
ment. 1 Cor. xvi. 17. It is certain that Baski<»h 
: had, and still sometimes has, the sound of 
(z an in f Jerman. Salaberry in his dictionar>- 
notes ^'^'Z: as meaning *'voi2, suflfrage." Cas- 
tilian ro2= voice would be baskonized bv 

Prof. W. W. Skeat connectH Gothic 
hmtjktn^=^io boast willi English tvhoop and 
Dutch hojt ('A Mwso-Gothiu Glossary,' Lon- 
don, 186H). This strongtherts the tendency 
to take tfmtt for a derivative of I'ox. The 
word for htxtft in Uomans xi. 18, 1 Cor. iv. 7, 
2 Cor. V. 12, which are quoted by I'noK. 
Skeat under /drrci/wrt, is uhjrin in the Baskisii 
version of l."i7l. In 1 Cor. xiii. .'» Lei«;an-aga 
did not, like Ulfilas, read Ka»'Y>5frw/ioi, but 
Kavd^^tnonai. E. S. Donr.SON. 

BiRcn 8AP WiXE (&•'' S. xi. 4G7 ; xii. .«ki. 
29C).— John Evelyn in his 'Sylva' (book i. 
chap, xviii. Jj 8) gives a receipt for biroh-fia|> 
wine, to which ho attributes valuable medi- 
cinal properties. It is interesting to observe 
that in the same work he recommends syca- 
more-sap for brewing (chan. xiii. Ji 2), anfl, 
writing of the mountain-asli (chap. xvi. g'2), 
remarks: — 

".Some highly commend the juice of the berries, 
whiuli, forntcuting of itself, if well preaervetl, iiiakeH 
an execllenl drink against the spleen or scurvy: 
Ale and beer brewed with ihem, being rii>e, is wi 
infoni['anible drink familiar in Wales." 

,ToMN B. Wais-KWBK;HT. 


* they appear to be all corroc? 



London in the 7V»ir of th^ Sf»*trtit, By Sir Walter 

Besant. (A. &<'. Hiack.) 

Tni-< handsome volume is n i.-onipanion to the 

■ T.inil.m ill thf KiBlitccutb t'cnlutv' of (he sani»» 

. which sec 0'*' S. xt. 'M In onr uolice of 

'i\* \<Aurt\^ wp d'^pnribfKl th»< n<h*«m» of t)i»» 


I. p. :;<. 


" Boaxt" : 1T6 EtV-MOLogy (0"= S. x. 444).— 
Am to hoaH i<i to some extent to ^ boss it," to 

jincMim eiioiign miiiiLr r rum. II 

H* W WW 

eue, to cover the rnian of the Tudora, with the 
_t'lose of the Wars of ilie Rowjs, llie suppie«ioii of 
'the moiiAttenoi, the Pilgrimage of (Truoe, the alt«r- 

Butt) r>«rii<>vtittons of Liuheratin snd ('aihnlica, the 
ftiefei' ' "' "^'iianiali Armada, ntid t' i ' V ■ tual 

and -aval under the rei^M 'c'th, 

■ ivetii : I tmit and thankful, <>< hear 

^Bothiiit,:, lio\« uvcr, at ure«utit, our itiimediutu duty 
|nnt extending; beyond a welcome to the volume 

~ rfore u*- Sull^ciently varied and stininlatiiig i« the 

|>«rio<l <leolt with to sAtisfy the moat exorbitant 
r^PJietite Beginning with the < Gunpowder Plot, 

tnc record includes the deaths, among others, of 

Walter Ualeigh, Buckingham, Stratfon), Laud, 

i Monmouth, Lord KuswII, and Algtinion Sidney ; 
the growth of difficnUiea between Charles I. 
K)d ll>e civio authorities; the 'Icffut, trial, and 
death of the kins: the ( Uth : the Pro- 

tettorftie. with nil its troubles; the 

Reatoratinn; the great m .; — :: uf the plague; 
the Fire of London; the Titus Oatea )iloi ; the 
|ierKecutio!i3 of .Telfreys : the trial of the hi«ho|'9 ; 
tho Hipht of James 11.; and the acreavion of 
U'lUiniii and Mary, rndiiiK with the nile, out- 
^ wanll', i.l.i 11. of Queen Anne. Here alone, « ithout- 
^K dM< ' ' vents of aecondary inifiorlaiice, is 

^■"aii.i and vern enntiKh," It would ob- 

" viou<<ls I'v iiiijjojsible, but for the limitations Sir 
Waller haii impowd on his Bcheme, to comjirehend 

I within ft single volume any Bummary. even the 
nittst condeiiscHf . of all the matters oi>ene<i out by 
these thinit"- The limitations in qtieatiou include, 
however, tlie cr- • ^ ' -voidance of all historicui 
treatment and '<a of all literarv record 

huch mention, t. y, oa ia made of Milton is 

in conneTijon with icligiun, and not with literature, 
while naniea such as Donne, Cowley, Cleveland. 
Vunbruffh, and Farquhar are not to be found in the 
index. r^ifTering in some respeota from those in the 
I volume on the eiyhteenth ccnturj', the divisionx in 
^L the {trcsent book begin with the Stuart sovereiKiis, 
^B of each of whom— with, in the majority of instances, 
^B their ■ .v,-.^r-»a ,,.;.» rr..j,.a ■ <'^-. ''f < irttn, f avourl I cs, 
^B or < ied, A second 

^f divi: "Ut, Jbc, an<i a 

~ thii' uTii ju-^V'in^. ii-iwccu the second 

and 'ions is interoalafed n.n account of 

ihe ,^: 7\iean<l Fire, whiih is liUcly to iirove 

the most ueunrally intereating portion of tho volnnte; 
Rod at the close comes a aenes of valuable appen- 
dixes. In what is virtually tho seventeenth cen- 
tury Sir W*lter finds the City of London at the 
height "f i'5 iX'litical im(K>rtancc, and he advances 
the t even "when London deposed 

up Henry l^^ was tho City so 
I dl the events of the time as in 
I'n'iuv" It is also obvious that 
"f tho century and its close 
h ar« included the Civil 
h, the Itcslomlion, the 
ion of .Tames II. and ahao- 
•ver lialf the '■iilire jHrrioil. 
■ Ui.nt the fii-t h.ilf of the 
: , while, io 
>ri for the 

..., ..t what wc 

iiin M'lih 1 he volume pri:- 
•otiH "iich i\.-< Bn> ordifiririlv 

iudeiinit* iHtriwi hoyond, to f*r am c«n he (iro- 

phesied — from the personal interference of the 

It is not in connexion with the zreatest iioiiticnl 
events that the volume is most edifying. These ar© 
dealt with at full length in the histories to which 
one ordinarily has recourse. Sir VValtor id a pleasant 
companion, however, when he is moved to indigna- 
tion over the judicial murder of Alderman Henry 
f'ornish or the burning aUve of Klirjibeth tiaunt. 
which, if iierformed centuries earlier, might have 
brought additional infamy on the executioners of 
.loan of Arc. A curious sitiirical print from the- 
British Museum, given p, ll.">. illustrates the atrvst, 
of .JpHreys. Among thesubjeote discussed is witch- 
craft, whicii a])|«ar8, naturally, under the haati 
' Superstition.' In the itauie chapter may be found 
many strang« instances of creduhty, some of whicli 
our author is disjioped to regard as ini]>oeture. 
'Sanctuaries ahould be read in connexion witl» 
'The Sipiire of Alsatia' and 'The Fortunes of 
Nigel.' lu the chapters on ' The Plague ' and * Tho 
Fire of London' we naturally eotne upon traces of 
Pcpys, Kvolyn, and iJefoe. In the case of the former 
ft straogn and little- known tract, entitle<i 'The 
Wotiderfnl \ eare leOJt,' it cited. A picture by 
Mr. F. W. W. Topham, showing 'A Rescue from 
the Plague,' is reproduce<I by the author's per- 
miasion. .As a rule it is to the tet^kuown autho- 
rities and treatises that Sir Walter tunis, and 
much c)f what he says will be new to iho vast 
mnjorily of readers. Once more the illustrations 
add greatly to the value of the work and to tho 
delight of the reader. These are often from the 
Craoe and tho Cardner collections, and from the 
British Museum generally. Among the (Kirtraita re- 
produced is one of James I., after Paul van .Somtr* 
showing a wonderfully aenisual and repulsive faoe, 
bearing out, apparently, the scandalous suggestion 
of I'aleigh, which is said to have cost that great 
man dear, .A? in the previous volume, the matter 
it* of varied interest and value, and the book 
may be read with unending edification and 
delight. That the third, ana j)resumahly con- 
chKriiig, portion will be called for is not to be 
doubted, and the owner of the perfect work will 
be able tn boast of an illustrated chronicle such as 
has only bt-'-'om« poHxible during the last decade. 
What we regarded a.s a wild dream of ^ir Walter — 
to show in a connected form the evolution of the- 
world of Victoria out of that of Elizabeth or her 
aire— seems on the point of realization. 

'J'hr Bltfyt Royal of Britain. Being a Roll of the 
T^iving Descendant* of Edward IV. and Henry 
VII., Kings of Kngland. and Jantes Hi. of Scot- 
land. By the Martinis of Ruviguy and R&inevaL 
(T. C. & k C. .Tack.) 
TfiEitr: i% no subject on which the oiiinions of 
men have changed more than family history 
and pedigree lore. lu the eighteenth and earlier 
jiart of the nineteenth century such studies • 
were held to form abont the lowest stratum of 
useless knowlertirc. Sneers at them are met with 
lire of tlio ' i"i are 

tupid. A flsh- 

: , -. ■ .idinircd foi meiit, 

tlittt " family pe<iigree5 were but a m pb woven by 

nfliiire in which ine s)>ider of pride lurke<l"; and 

id was somctin • • f fun of , and 

■>iince<l, liwausc .ind pro»e 

;riid©ncjr to dirf< ' ^jJcvV* 'si'v.Vx* 


fAJf. 2, iwr. 

jeott. In its early days the Surteoa Society wm 
i'idiciile<i in intlueDli&I (jnartera fur pubhahini; 
a^ncienl wills, which were regarded as qaite UBoleas 
for those wiiu iwdsesiied even a little c(.>fiimon 
flenw; uid the reverence shown for illualrious 
<lesoent by 8ir Francis Palf^ave in more than 
one passage in his ' History of Xonnanily and 
England ' wati said, at the time of i)ublica- 
lion, to have injured the sale of Uif work, A 
ha))py change has. however, taken place, -vad in 
some degree, at leaat, we ought to thank our 
American cousins for the improvement. The 
educated classea of that ^reat democracy wore 
4ilwayfl free from some of those prejudices which 
overDhadowed us, and were therefore anxious to 
-connect themselves, not only in imagination, bat in 
fact, with the families of the old land ; so a larKe 
number of race-hiatorica have been produced — some, 
it is true, executed on wrong lines, but others based 
on the soundest principles of modern research. We 
may safely say that no work of tlie nature of the 
one before us could possibly have come into exint- 
enoe half a century ago. The times were not ripe 
for it, nor was there a tiltinj; architect to plan nor 
workmen to execute. It is the first book we have 
ever encountered wherein even an endeavour has 
been made lo carry out on an extended and sys- 
tematic scale the royul descents of the British 
Iicople. The Marquis of Havi^ny does not ^u back 
)eyond Edward Iv. and Henry V II. Ho thus eives 
the familic* dependent from the Houses of York 
and Latica«ler in the female line'?, so tar as un- 
M'caried research and hard work have enabled him 
to collect and arrange them. A like course has 
been pursued with re;;'trd to the descendants of 
Jatnes III. of ycotland Many families inherit the 
blood of the Plantageaets and (Stuarts without 
•beiitK i^ware of the fact ; but the Manjuis's labours 
•^n^ l)e of special advantage to those who, while 
aware of their royal ancestry, do not know the 
intervening links between themselves and their 
'distinguished progenitors. We wish it had lioen 
liossiblo for the author to begin his work at an 
•earlier period— say with Henry II. Human life 
and energy have, however, their limitations; we 
therefore dare not complain. We are too glad 
that so large an inst-alnient has been carried out 
and done so well. The author tells us in the preface 
some facts which we are sure are unrecognized by 
many who have a siiecial interest in knowing tliem. 
He enumerates, for example, some of tiie world- 
renowned heroes, with ail of whom the descendants 
of Henry VII. count kinship. Ho might have added 
others ; but as it stands the catAlo^ue is highly 
instructive. Among thcni occur Alfred the Great, 
Ht. Louis of France, K^jdcrigo iJiaz de bivar (com- 
monly known in England as the Cid), the Em- 
t)erura of the East (Isaac II. and Alexius I.), and, 
f)y far the greatest of all, Charlemagne, to whom 
we owe the redemi)tion of the greater itarl of the 
Kuroi)ean continent from barbarism, and its return 
lo such civilization as has been found altainaViJe. 

It has been commonly a-ssumed by those who have 
never given attention to such subjects that royal 
descent is very uncommon, and that when it does 
occur it is found almost solely in the families of our 
older aristocracy, whose existence is well-nigh 
hidden in the crowded paaetof the modern peerage. 
This is a strange niisuRe. « e have i>crsonally 
known men and women in a very bumble class of 
life wliose descent from Alfred— and, indeed, from 
Odin and Arthur, if these latter be anything beyond 

dream • figures —is as unimpeachable a6 that of 
royalty itself. The Marquis mentions a butcher, 
a gamekeeper, a glass-cutter, an e\c.i»emau, a toll- 
bar-kee]ier, a l>aker, and a tailor who are descend- 
ants, through the .Seymours, of Mary, the younger 
daughter ofKing Henry VII. 

In almost every direction care has been taken to 
make the work as complete as poasiblc. Thus wei 
have a little shield put against tho°e persons wb9| 
have a right to quarter the royal aim.s of the Plan- 
taeenets. It baa often been assumed that all who 
inherit the blood have a right to the amis also ; but 
this is a mistake, in order to guard against ^^ Inch we 
wish the author had explained what are the prin-J 
ciplea by which this right is protected, There i* 
but one family— that of the Duke of Athol and his 
cousin Miss Caroline F. Murray— who have a right 
to this " unique distinction '' three times over. 

This groat compilation is well wortliv of aa] 
extended commentary-. We hope it will excitaJ 
others to imitate it m directions which might bo] 
indicated. It must become a necessity for every 
one studying tlie history, and especiallv the local 
history, of the last four centuries. 

MKfstts. Arkowvjjiitu, of BrLstiol, publish A 
Paiiofc Porh(-Book, compiled by Mrs. I'heodore 


0ottr£ii ta €atxKjfiivCiftnU, 

Wt- muat call aptciiU atierUion to the foUotoing 
notice*: — 

On all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not neceaaarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake bo answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and J 
such address aa he wiahea to appear. When auswer- 
iug queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the |>aper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, imraediatelv after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, ancl page or pages to J 
which they refer. Corresj-koodents who repeat' 
queries are reciuestcd to bead the second com' 
niunication " Duplicate." 

Sin E. T. Uewlev.—" Ileardlomo" shall appear 
nest week. 

r P. A. (" Tlie> sa. Quhnt sa the ? Lat thorn 
sa").— In its familiar form, "They say." &c., it is 
the motto of Aberdeen University. 

iS. PtARCE. — The death of " Henry .Seton Mcrri- 
mau" waa noticed in the AlhiU'^ui'i of 28 November 


J. Ei.p.vr HoDGKis.— Plcose forward new address. 
A proof sent was returned through the Dead Letter 


Editorial communicationi should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"—Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lisher "—at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Qioacery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
oommnnications which, for any reoaoQ, we do not 
print; and to this rule we con make no ezcepttoo. 


WH» s. L Jan. 2. 190*-] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




186, STRAND, W.C. 


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No. 2. [ssaV.^] Saturday, January 9, 1904. {"xr?;v»^^ 


t Kn»H4-rh>f Mitttrr, 
tarly SWkwriHwi, I0< M ivtl tru. 


The LETTERS of HORACE WALPOLE. Edited by Mrs. 

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io'^s.lja-v.mow.] notes and QUERIES. 




CONTENTS. -No. 2. 

OTBS :-C*pt O. W. Manby, 21 — Cjupeoter'a ' Geognipby 
Delioeate'l.' 23— St. Miiri(arel'a Churchyani, Wntmlntt«r, 
33 — L(on&h)o <14 Vinci's 'La»t Supper ' — Japan eie Ndw 
Y^'i 0«y. :U— Berlioz and Swe«)rnborg— Leouardo da 
Vinci In Mil&n— Caul — Carious Cbrittlan Namea, 90 — 
" AowUallve "— " Tuaneliat *' : " TuanelliiR," 27. 

QUBKIBS :—%t. BridgH'i BowM'— ' Memoir* of a Stomach,' 

' 97 — •Work? fur Cutler*' -< Barliest PlayMII-SIr Jnhn 
Vanulian— OliHt Siindaj— Chaucer'iTomMnWL'^trainater 
Abh*y — StAtue by Johti of Bologna — "Col tectioner" — 
Mary Stuarty 28— " Heardlome " ; " H«ech '"— Picture of 
Knigbt in Armour— U. F.aad W. Lockhart Holt— Penian 
PalQtiogi— Penrith— <^ueea Heleoa— Setting of Precious 
Stonei — JapAnewi Oardi, 39. 

BBPLIBS ;— Grenadier Quorda, :iO— Mundy, 31 — " A gallant 
captain"— Long Lease— Uobin a Bobldn — Medical B&r- 
rliten — Klchard (la»h — "Tbe Conaul of Qod," 33 — 
"Oooitantioc Peblile"— Marriage Hooee — Shakenpenre't 
Betiolanhtp, 33 -Beyle: Stendhal— " A tlea In the ear"— 
Hlitorlcal Kime : Hhyme. 34— " Mala on revlvnt toujonn " 
— The Oak, the Aab, and the Ivy — Dorothy Mutt — 
Riding the Black Baro, ;«.'.— Mary. Queen of Scoti- "Top 
Spit "—" A* merry «■ Grlggi " — Candlemaa QIUs — ' Bdwln 
Dtwxl ' Ootitiuned -Modern Form* of Animal BnlUng, -l' 
— Orow-ns in Church Tun-er — Latioathire and Cheahlre 
WlUa- Booaomy— Weather, 39. 

KOTBS OV BOOKS :-Mr<. Toynbee'a B<11Uoa of Walpole'a 
liettai*— Burke'* ' Peerage'— Magaxlne* aad Beviewi. 
otieea to Curretpondent*. 



The following two letters have recently 
come into my posseaaion. Their writer. 
Dawson Turner, a luan of great taste ana 
intense enthusiasm aii a collector of auto- 

raphs, ia a familiar name to most. Capt. 

'an by, the addressee, deserves greater 
podthumouH honnurs than have hitherto been 
accorded him. The inventor of apparatus for 
saving life from sliipwrock, and author of a 
1 umbor of treatises on this and allied sub- 
ejects, lie had printed at Yarmouth in 1839 
an octavo volume of very interesting 
reraini'scences. This was not published. 
The author presented a copy to the British 
Museum, and his friend Dawson Turner, in 
addition to a unique copy on vellum, acquired 
the manuscript. It is tnis evidently that had 
been inquired after when the first letter was 
written ; but about the same time, with a 
view to his biography being written, Capt. 
Hauby had lent Turner a number of manu- 
«cript« and printed documents, letters, copies 
of correapondence, *kc., collectively referred to 
as *' ManDeiana." The only use made of this 
material was a memoir privately printed 
about 1851. For some reason this was 
auppressed. A copy included in the sale of 

Dawson Turner's library (1853) was with- 
drawn, although printer in italics in the 
catalogue. In 1854 Capt. Manbv died, and 
nothing more is heard of the "Manbeiana" 
until sold in 18o9 as lot 292 in the sale of the 
manuscript libiur^ of Dawson Turner, fetch- 
ing seventeen shillings only. The present 
jMjssessor I cannot trace. 

Athenaeum, 15 Nov., 1851, 
My i>EAii CvrTAur Manbv,— In giving up to 
my son-in-law,_ Mr. T. Brightwen, the manage- 
ment of tlie Yarmouth Bank, I aleo reltnquiahed 
to him the house, from which it wa* consequently 
nscesaary to remove my books and j^apers. 
These, therefore, have been carried to on empty 
bouse in Chai^el Street, where thev are under 
lock and key, and mast remain so till I can come 
down and get a new hoaso for myself and place 
them in it. This, I am sorry Co s.ay, is at present 
out of my power ; for the severe illnesB with which 
I was attacked at Edinburgh bo hangs upon mo 
that I am forced to remain in London under mecUcal 
advice, and nobody can find anything in my absence. 
Still, though I cannot just now do what you wish. 
I feel that I can serve you more effectively. Tell 
the person who hoa l^eeu applying to you to call 
upon me at this home, and send me the name of the 
eminent publisher ho proposes to employ, and I wiJI 
see them both, and sliallHoon know if tnuy propose 
what is likely to be honourable and protitabfo tu 
you. If they do, I will gladly co-operate with them 
to the utmost extent of my i>ower, but I too well 
know the state of the book-trade at the present 
time to have much hopes, and I far more fear that 
you are likely to be mode a du|>e of by «onie deeign- 
iDg {lersons, just aa has been already attempted in 
three or four previous cases from which I had tbe 
satisfaction of saving you. 

I am, dear air, very truly yours, 

Dawjjon Tubnkh. 

The second letter is aa follows :— 

My Captain Manbv, — Very glad indeed was 
1 to find by your letter that you are now not only 
in the land of the living, but, apparently, in the 
enjoyment of good health, with ifie exception of 
your eyeaiuht, which is always one of a man's first 
tailings. Have no fear, I pray you, for the safety 
of anything relating to yourself that may be in oiy 
jiOBsession. What I am about to dispose of is only 
such of my printed books aa I cannot store in this 

Whatever concerns you, and wliatever is private, 
is, aa I informed you, safe nailed down and corded 
in boxes, but not at present here within my reach. 
1 hoi)e it may shortly be so ; aa soon as it is, the 
volumes of Manbeiana shall be taken to jiieces, and 
what I have received from you shall be returned to 
you if you desire it. But you are very wrong to 
do so : for my wish is to place them intact in the 
British Museum, where they will be ready for any 
future biographers, and can never be sold or turned 
to any unworthy purpoee, but will be a lanting 
mouument to your honour, aa long as KngUnd 
remains a nation. 

I am, my dear sir, very truly yours, 

Dawsox Tukmlb. 
No. -je, Costolnau Villoa, Barnes, Surrey, 
30 March. I8M. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ik." s. i. jak. 9. i 

The British Museum purchasetl at tbe 
Dawson Turner sale tlio iniinuscript uf Capt. 
Manby's ' Itemiuiacencea.' 

Aleck Abrahams. 

30, Hillmartoo Road, N. 

Fou the sake of bibliographical accuracy, 
it may be as well that I should here reproduce 
the exact wording of the title paRe :— 

"fjeoKrajihy Delioeatod Forth in Two Bookea. 
Coiitaininsr 'llie Si)hifricall And Topicall Parts 
Thereof. l>y Nathanael Carpenter Fellow of Kxceter 
Colledge in Oxford. Ecclwiasl. 1. One generation 
commetb, and another goelh, but ihe Earth re- 
niainetli for cuer. IPrinler'a ornament,] Oxford, 
Printed by lohn Lichtield and William Tvrner, 
Printers to the Fanioua Vniveraily. for Henry Cripps. 
An. Dotn. Kl'i'i." 

From this it will be seen that the work is 
divided into two books, and, I may add, with 
separate title-pige-s. The first bo<jk is dedi- 
cated "To the Kiglit Uonovrable William, 
Earle of Pembroke, Lord Uhamberlaine," and 
the second book "To the Right Honovrable 
Philip, Earle of Montgomery," the "Incom- 
parable Paire of Brethren," to whom Shake- 
speare's Folio of 1623 is dedicated. In 
addition, the Bi-st named is supposed to have 
been the "Mr. W. H." of Shakespeare's 
' Sonnets.' He died in 1G30, when he was 
succeeded in the title by his brother Philip, 
and, notwithstanding. Carpenter retains the 
dedications in the edition of 103') exactly as 
they appeared in the edition of ten years 
before. In the edition of 163.''> the author 
ha-s a metrical address "To my Booke"; but 
as my copj' of tho first edition is slightly 
imperfect, 1 am in consequence not in a 
position to .say whether the lines are common 
to both. I extract the following ; but. with 
this exception, all the quotations given below 
are from the edition of 1625 : — 
(too forth thon haplesae Embrion of my Braine, 
Vnfaahion'd as thou art; exprevac tho etraine 
And langiiiiK^ of thy discontented Sire, 
Who hardly raiisoni'd his poore Babe from tire, 
To offep to the world and earelesAe men 
The linielcsRc fruits of his officious p!;n. 
Thou art no lonely Darling, stampt to pic&se 
The lookes of (irealuesse ; no dehRht to eiiae 
Their melancholy temper, whoreicct 
As idle toyes but what themRehies alTcot, 
No lucky Planet darted forth his Rayes 
To promise louo vnlo thy infantdayes : 
Thou rriaist t^erhapa be marchandi/.e for slancs. 
Who sell their Authors wits and buy theirgraues: 
Thou nii> of that blame, 

Which 1 1 hi! Parent's shame: 

Thou niu;. : . . : ;., .^.-t v.s'd for ii)>ort 

At Tauerne-meetings, pastinic for the Court : 
Thou maiat he torne by their nialicioiis phangs. 
Who Der9 were taught to know a Parents pangs. 


I mav mention that tbe edition of lC3r> is 
Htate() on the title-page to be "The Second 
Edition Corrected." 

A work of this kind doe« not afford much 
in the way of quotation ; but there are a few 
pa.ssagea which may fitly find a place in these 

Eages. Here is a pleasant reference to 
■olumbus (book i. p. JJ) : — 

'* Eepecially of Columbus the I i ■> (as one 

wittily alluding to hia naniei I's i)oU& 

plucking an oliue branch from Ui.. !..... fe'jvue tr»- 
tinioLiy of a portion of l.And as yet vnitnown, ami 
left naked vnto disconery And no iinesliun can l>e 
made, but a grootiiuit; led 

by our European A.' -try 

ol this age. To win... _.. : 

verses (Seneca in ' Medea,' Act il.) ; — 

In after yeares sliall Ages come. 

When ih' Ocean shall vrdoose th- 

Of thin;;8, and shew vast ample 1 1 

New Worlds by Sea -men shall Ui i..mi.i 

Nor Thal« be the vlniost bound." 

The next reference is to the distingaiahed 
Sir llonry Savile. and a very pleasant little 
bit of personal history it is (book i. p. 143) : — 

" Here I cannot but remember a merry answer of 
that great Atlas of Arts, Sir Henry Sauile in the 
like question. Being once invited vnto his Table, 
and hauingentred into some familiar diRconraea con- 
cerning Astronomicall supirositions : I asked hint 
wlmt he thought of the Hypothesis of Co|)ernicu», 
who iield Ihe Sunne to stand tixt, and tlie Earth to 
be aubiect to a Triple Motion : His answere was ; 
he cared not which were true, so the Apparences 
were solucd, and the accomjit exact : .<iith each way 
either the old of I'tolomy, or the new of Copernicus, 
would indifferently serue an Astronomer ; Is it not 
alt one (aaith he} sitting at Dinner, whether mv 
Table be btought to me, or I goe to my Table, so I 
eat my meal ? ' 

lb is not much in itself; but I cannot help 
transcribing the following (book i. p. 167) ; — 

"It ia written of that learned man Ki*»«mu» 
t" ■ ■ ' Mus, ihiit h I "■■ '■ ' ■' waa 

imuchwi: '«8t 

1 uking to u s of 

tho ApoflleJ?, he bad alwayt-aiii hiscyeLliubu Tttbles, 
where he made no small vae for the Kndjng out of 
the site of such places whereof he had occoiiion to 

And then follows this rather bitter reflec- 
tion by our author : — 

" And it were to be wished in these dajres, that 
yong Students insleed of many apish and ridiculous 
pictures, tending many limes rother to ribaldry, 
then any learning, would store their studies with 
such furniture." 

I tnay quote here another of our author'* 
reflections (book i. p. 93) : — 

''To tlicae haue associated thomseluea another 
sort, more to l>e regarded, as more learned: the 
rriti, 1...; if moane) of our Age, who like Popes or 
' hane taken vpon them an Vninersall 

'■■ ici censure all which they neuer vnder- 

81 (>•«>. Had these men coutained themselues io. 

10-. s. I. .Tax. 9. 19M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


their ow-n bounds, tliey might ..nn-i ^,..llosso haue 
fdone jrood jseniice to the (Junn nf Learn- 

ing. But when tho scrutiiit i.i coulrolle 

the Mistriwe, the liouse secnte^ mucli uiil of order." 

It is interesting to note such personal allu- 
isions as the following (book i. p. 247) '. — 

"This wny I first found in Mr. I'urclia.? his rela- 
tion of Hiill.s (iiacoucry of (Irrwnlund, written l*y 
William llalHn since this Cbaiitcr came voder the 
\ Prcsso : the expression of whioh, beini; as I 8U]ii>oae 
(shorter and easier then in the Author, I doe owo 
for the most part to my worthy Chomberfeliow, Mr. 
Nath&nael Xorrington, to whose learncil conference, 
I oonfraste niy selfe to owe some fruit.^ of my labours 
in thia kinde, and all the otbces of friendship." 

Serpents not found in Ireland (book ii. 
,p. 24) :- 

'Some Ueaata and Serpents are in some places 
seldome knowue to breed or Hue, whcre%nth not- 
withstanding other Regions swarme in abundance: 
as for example, Ireland, wherein no Ser|)«ot or 
venomouB wornie bath beene knowne in line, 
whereby Africa and many other Countries tinde no 
«maU molestation." 

I There ia something droll in the coupling of 

authorities in the next extract (book ii. p. 76): 

"That .Sea Water strained through day, will 

turne fresh : as liLewise itowdred fieab being l^y^^d 

to sonkc in salt water, will soono turnu sweet : The 

' former is verified by Baptista Porta : of tho other, 
cuery kilchin niaideoTilhe Sea side will iuforme vs." 

Carpenter refers to the possibility of a canal 
between the Mediterranean and Red Soaa, 
which, as we all know, i.s now an accom- 
pUahod fact. The passage in hin book need 
uot tlierefore be quoted. 

Edmund BoUon, in hia ' Nero Csvsar,' 
1G27 (first ijublislied in 1624), has a reference 
to the latiiraus of Panama. Carpenter re- 
cords a conjectural reason why a canal hiul 
not Ijeen cut through it, probably long before 
bis day (book ii. p. 112): — 

" Moreotier it if) otMeraed that the sea on the 
trost |>art <>f Anicrica commonly called Maro Del 
Zur, i« much higher then the Ailantick Sisa which 
borderelh on the Kast«rne part of it : which gauo 
way to the coniecture of Boran, that the lalhniui) 
betwixt Panama and Nombre Do Dio8 had bin lon^ 
aiocc out through to haue made a liae-iage into the 
Pocifick Sea, without sayling so farre about by thu 
Btfaitn of Mai(ellane ; had not many inconvonicnccs 
bin (oired out of the iiiie<iuality in the hight of the 
Water' ' 

Di^cUdsing the po3.sibility of a North-East 
PaMAge, our author interpolates the follow- 
ing (book ii. p. 1*21):— 

"Lastly, there is i finhM-hich hath a Home in hia 
fore head, nail' • 'nf Martin 

I'Vobifihorfou: ■uixiiajid, 

1.,, I ,.,,,.. It tu'.,. , '.MIS said to 

tto her \Vardr<>l»o : liut wtiuthur it Iks the 
I'.h ID at thin day to be wono at ^^'irldsor 
I iLfitK', L I] cannot toll, ' 

I olsg (iiscus^ieji al conaiderablo length the 

possibility of discovering a North-West Pas- 
aage. The opening words of hia atatenaent 
are interesting (book ii. p. 122) : — 

" Hitherto haue we treated of other ))a»saee8, 
either etieoted or attempted tot'athay and the Ea«t 
Indies, The last and most desired and sought iu 
our time, ia that by the North-west. This way 
hath bin often attempted, a-s by Cabot, Dauis, Fro- 
hisher, Hudson, .S'' Thomas Button and others, but 
OS yet not found out. Neither hath it morn iroublcri 
theinduatry of Marrinera, then the wit of Sohollei-a." 

Speaking of mountainous countries and 
their inhabitants, he mentions, among other?, 
the Scottish Higlilandera (book ii. p. 2j8) :— 

" The like ouuht to be spoken of the Welch and 
Cornish itooplo anton^^st vs, as of the .Scottish 
Highlanders ; all which liuinp; in mountanou» 
coHntrics haue withstoml tiie violence of forraipiers, 
and for many yeares presorued their uwne liberty." 

A. 8. 

[To be continued.) 


For many years this intere-sting little 
"Gixi's acre " had been in a most deplorable 
condition, and wa^s noted as being a public 
scandal. The gravestones were not level, 
many were broken, and on nearly all (or at 
least a great proportion) of them the inscrip- 
tion.*i had become unreadable, owing to the 
constant traffic over them, there being a 
right of way through the churchyard rrorn 
end to end, and also to a point nearly opnosite 
the building now rebuilt as the Mimilesex 
County Hall, but then known as the West- 
minster Sessions House. The ground, where 
there were no .stones, was in great holes and 
ruts, which held the water in wet seasons, 
and at all periods of the year presented both 
ditiiculties and dangers to those who had to 
cross it. Many attempts were made to put 
it into something like decent order, out 
without anything like permanent good- 
resulting; consequently as linte went on bad- 
became worse, and the dangers and difficul- 
ties were intensified. 

Among tho many proposals for improve- 
ment, the most notaole was one made by 
Mr, Austen H. Layard, M.P., who at the time 
held tlie oflice of First Commissioner of 
Works, and untler whoso auKuicos the im- 
provement in the adjoining bt. Margaret's 
Square was made. The extremely orna- 
mental railings by which the .square is sur- 
rounded, and the very fine granite columns 
upon which the lamps at the angles are 
mounted, we owe to tho fine taste of that 
gentleman, whodesire<i that tho churchyard 
should bo improved in ft like manner, as it 
was thought the coat could be included in> 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo*- s. i. jan. 9. i9m. 

the funrla to be vot«d by Parliament for that 
purpose. The rector, churchwardens, and 
others were called together, and the pro- 
posals submitted were agreed to, it being 
then thought that better days were in store 
for this somewhat desolate-looking spot. But 
a change in the Government was made, and 
Mr. Layard became Ambassador at Madrid, 
and at the Office of Works Mr. Acton Sinee 
Ayrton reigned in his stead. It is common 
knowledge that the ideas of the latter gentle- 
man upon the subject of art and embellish- 
ments generally wore, to say the least of 
them, peculiar, the ultimate outcome of the 
negotiations being that tlie plan as proposed 
by nis predecessor was indefinitely shelved, 
and the place remained, to tlio annoyance of 
all interested iu the matter, just as it was 
before. No one was more vexed at the turn 
things had taken than Dr. Farrar, who in 
one of his best-remembered sermons spoke 
in no measured terms of the iniquity of the 
offence of leaving in such a neglected state 
what might be a beautiful and restful spot, 
and pointedly asked if it were not time 
that something should be done, so that the 
"generations of Westminster people might 
rest again under the green turf. ' Tliere were 
some people who, in advocating the restora- 
tion of tne churchyard to something like 
order and decency, wished the stone pyra- 
mids placed at intervals between the railings 

minutes of this committee, and as they have 
passed into private hands, and may, and not 
improbably will, in the course of time get 
further alienated, I think it advisable that 
some portions of them should be preserved in 
the pages of ' N. & Q.' 

The General Committee was as here given : 
Canon Farrar, Chairman ; the Dukes of Buc- 
cleuch and Westminster, the Lord Chancellor, 
the Speaker, Lord Eichard Grosvenor, M.P., 
Lord Henry Scott, M.P.. the Right Hon. W. H. 
Smith, M.P., Sir Rutherford Alcock, Sir Henry 
Hunt, the Dean of Westminster, Archdeacon 
Jennings, and Canon Prothero ; Messrs. J. H. 
Pulesbon, M.P., Herbert Gladstone. M.P., 
Edward Easton, J. F. Bateman, F.R.S., G. 
Brown, W. D. Rarnett, J. M. Hora, Stewart 
Helder, Harry W. Lee, J. L. Pearson, I?. A., 
G. F. Trollope, T, J. White, and J. Hockridge ; 
the Rov. E. A. Browne, the senior curate of 
St. Mai-garet's, Hon. Secretary. Tlie first 
meeting was held on 18 Juno, 18S1, in the 
vestry room of the church, the rector boing 
in the chair. A proposition wa« made by 
the Speaker, and seconded by Sir Rutherford 
Alcock, that " the concession of ground (as 
indicated on a plan laid before the Com- 
mittee) be made to the Metropolitan Board 
of Works." The next proposition was moved 
by Mr. W. H. Smith and seconded by Mr. 
J. F. Bateman, that " Sir Rutlierford Alcock 
and Messrs. Helder, Easton, Barnett, White, 

to be removed. I am pleased to be able to I Trollope, and Lee do constitute a sub com 

put upon record that one powerful voice 
was raised for their retention. Sir Reginald 
Palgrave protested against any removal, 
<leclaring tnat they had remained landmarks 
through a long series of vears, and should 
coutinue to mark the boundary of the church- 
yard, no matter what wati done in the way 
of beautifying or improvement. 

The late Mr. T. C. Noble, a well-known 
and frequent contributor to ' N. A; Q.,' wrote 
in the Jinilder of 27 August, 1881, as follows : 

" Aft-er a long 8«i-ie8of year* there is some chauce 
now of it« being made a more pleasing pUoe lo look 
at than it has liitherto been. Aboat an acre in 

inittee to draw up a petition for a faculty to 
carry out improvements in the churchyard, 
and to consider detaiU to be laid before the 
next meeting of the General Committee." 
Further propositions were msuie that sub- 
scriptions be invited to supplement the grant 
of H.M. Office of Works, and tliat a special 
appeal be made to members of both Houses 
ot Parliament to contribute to the Improve- 
ment Fund. 

The report of the .nub-committee appointed 
at the first meeting was duly presented, and 
as it is of much interest and of some im- 
portance, it is here given in extenso :— 

«xtent, iw dilapidated appearance haa long been 

an eyesore both to the church and the Ablwy au- " That it appeared to them that the ainipleat 

thontiee; but aa the only way of remedying the plan for carrying out the proposed improve- 

«vil was by obtaining something like 3,0WV., the i tueat is— 

ainountrequired to plant and ornament the grounds, "Firstly: To sink the graveatoneti tit •,itu soffi- 

tbat step could not be readily taken." ciently deep to admit of the ground over them 

TliJa icoo »»i., »u„ ^. „:*;.,„ ,« ^tt • being covered with turf, the surface being roduocd 

This was certainly the position of affairs to the level of the north entrance to the Abbey, 

but in that ^vear Dr. l-arrar, the rector of and to deiwsit the surplus within the boundaries of 

fot. Margaret a, decided to make a great the churchyard. For this purpose levels have i>eeii 
effort to improve matters, and an influential ', JaI^*"!' ■« »« t** have an accurate 'profilo ^f Hm 

committee was formed to take the matter ^''"'"'■''y*''*'' A"'*'"*'!!?.?' '^^fj'.f*'"®*''*^' ' ' 

in U«...A ....I :t- :., ..i»..:.w. t^ -^„^_j .i 1 to ascertain the coaditionofthegrouudi: ■ 

in hand, and it t.s pleasing to record tliat The sub-committee have the pleasure tc 

iwi Iftbours m tho end were crowned with the conditions wore found to be moat fa^ 

0000698. I bavo been permitted to aee the the uoderUking, both in the chnrchyan 

m s. 1. Jax. 9, 1904.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



' U small ytortion which the Oenonil Com- 

' ve already agreed to make over to the 

. , -^ iicaii Board of^A'orks. The sub-cotumiltee 

Itbeiviore recommend (1) that an exact plan of Iho 

Ichurohyarvl be made, ehovciog the jireaent position 

[cf the gravcatones, and that such plan be kept in 

some part of the church ; (2) that a copy be made 

ivi tbc inscriptiona on the praveatones, to bo re- 

'tained amoDR the records of the church; and {'i) 

' that the churchyard be laid down with grass in the 

maaoer already indicated (without the addition of 

any tree? or shrubs). 

"Secondly: That, aware of the importance of 
obtainint; the very best professional advice in carry- 
ing out this worl .hey have secured the services 
of J. L. Pearson, Esq., R.A., Architect to the 
Abbey, and have entrusted to Mr. Wills, of the 
Floricultural Hall, Regent Street, the laying out 
of the ground under n'm superintendence. The 
subcommittee reconuncnd for the approval of the 
General Committee the plans for the laying out of 
the groQud (and for the railings with which it is 
proirased to surround itj as prepared by Mr. Pear- 
son, which are submitted herewith. 

"Thirdly: That, in accordance with the resolu- 
tion of thf) General Committee, the following letter, 
as written by the chairman, and approved by the 
sub-comraittee, has been sent to the members of 
both Houses of Parliament. [I would note that a 
copy of the letter alluded to does notappear to have 
been attached to the minutes.] 
"Fourthly: That, with a view to immediate 
[action, arraogiements havo been made to hold a 
I meeting of vestrymen and other parishioners on 
I Friday next. Nth of July, in the vestry room of 
tSt. Marnaref s Church, for them to receive the plana 
aa approved by the General Committee, and to 
sanction an application to the Bishop's Court for a 
faculty authorizing the pro^Kwed improvements in 
the burial-ground and the widening of the footway. 
" Fifthly : That the following petition to the 
Chancellor of the Diocese has been drawn up by 
Harry Lee, Ee<]., and is now submitted for the 
approval of the tienerul Committee. 

(Signed) " y. W. Farbar, Chairman." 

There was no copy of the petition attached. 

W. E. Hablasd-Oxley. 
02, The Almslioiues. Rochester Row, S.W. 
{To b^ eo7Uimied.) 

Leonardo pa Vinci : ' The Last Supper. 
(See 8"' S. vii. 488 :viii. 136.) — Frequent 
reference to this suoject in the columns of 
'N, »& (^.' prompts me to supplement previous 
contributions by -some note-i made on a recent 
visit to Milan. Since my lost visit the fol- 
lowing copies of the ' Conacolo ' have been 
afHxed to the walls of the refectory. 

1. Copy of Leonardo's 'Last Sapper' by 
Andrea Solari. Painted on canvas. The feet 
of Chri^tt portrayed. Drinking glasses on 
the table, em[)ty. It is alleged that Leo- 
, nardo's fresco was mutilated by the Domini- 
icans in 1G.'>2, a door having been placed at 
the centre of the wall. If the lower portion 
:>{ the central figure was thus r«moved, this 

2. Smaller copy, by Cesare Magnis, also 
showing the feet of Christ. Not a pleasing 
copy. It is gross, and lacks sublimity. Drink- 
ing glasses half full of red wine. 

3. Copy by Marco d' Oggiono. The table 
is bare. Ko plates, >jl<isses, or tdiblts. Although 
the doorway had not been pierced in 1510, 
when, presumably, this copy was made, thf 
jfftt of Christ are not depicted. If we assume 
that this copy was made in presence of the 
original, ray italicized words are significant. 
Possibly important additions were made to 
the fresco after Leonardo's departure. 

4. Photograph of the fresco at Ponte 
Capriasca (Canton Ticino). Here the feefc of 
Christ (as in No. 2) are seen. Drinking 
glasses void of wine. In the background we 
behold the sacrifice of Jacob : also Christ 
praying in the garden. On the lower portion 
of the frame the Apo-stles are thus named, 
from left to right as they appear in the 
original : St. Bartholomew, St. James the 
Less, St. Peter, Judas, St. John, St. James, 
St. Thomas, St, Philip, St. Matthew, St. Tad- 
deus, St. Simon. Henry Beyle fDe Stendhal) 
says in his 'History of Painting in Italy,' 
referring to the fresco at Ponte Capriasca : — 

" In spite of local tradition— which iixea 1S20 aa 
the dat« when ' a brilliant youth from Milan' came 
there to escape from the turmoils of that great city, 
and, in gratitude for the protection afforded to 
him, painted iho "Cenaoolo —I am of opinion that 
this picture was executed by Pietro Luini, son of 
the celebrated Bernardino, and was not painted 
prior to LjOj." 

It is especially noteworthy that in the pic- 
ture there is no wine on the table. Possibly 
the monks, more nearly to approach the 
Roman formula in administering the Sacra- 
ment, removed all traces of wine from the 
glasses. Only the figures representing Christ 
and the Apostles Peter, Thomas, Bartholo- 
mew, and James the Less pretend to be copies 
of Leonardo's ' Last Supper.' The others 
are purely fanciful. The features of Judas 
are remarkable. 

5. Etching, by Rembrandt, in fwxtifn rosau, 
lent by George, the present King of Saxony. 
It has no pretensions to be a copy of the 
masterpiece. It is merely' a fanciful sketch. 

6. A terrible performance by Antonio do 
Qlaxiate, now almost entirely cfefaced. 

S3, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

JAPANE8E New Yeab's Day.— The Dail:/ 
Chronicle of the Ist inst. had the following 
interesting notice ; — 

" To a devout .lapanese breakfast on New Year's 

Pay is a religious nto. No ordinary dishes are oon- 

sumed. The tea must l«s made with wat«r drawn 

1 from the well wheu the tir«t ray of aun strikes (.t.^^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no- s.i.jan. 9.1001. 

pot-i)ourri of mnteriiila Hi)ecitie<l by law forma the 
stiipTe dish, at the liuish a measiiro of special sake 
from a red lacquer cuji must be drained by who- 
Boever desires nappineas during the coming year. 
In the room is placed an ' clysian etand.' or red 
l&cquer tray, covered with evergreen leaves, and 
bearing a hce dumi)liu^, a lobaier, orangps, per- 
simmons, chestnuts, dried sardine?, nv-* l.-ni-i' 
ivie. All tho«e dishes have u special <•! i. 

Tho names of Homo are homonymous wr i 

happyoaien ; the others have an alleporicii! m-MiiMiy. 
The lobster's curved back and lung claws tyiiify life 
|.)rol«>n|ied till the frame is bent and the board is 
lonft: the sardines, which always swim in pairs, 
exfiress conjuir>il bliss ; the herring is synibolical of a 
fruitfnl progenv. These tlishes are not intended for 
consumption, alllioii>;h in nioi^t caseti the ftppelite ia 
fairly keen. The oithodox Japanese not only sees 
the old year out ; he rises at four to welcome the 
newcomer, and performs many ceremonies before he 
l>rflalu hit fast.' 

N. S. S. 

Berlioz and Sweuemiorc— To tlie new 
and revised edition of Hector Bcr]i()x'8 
"dramatic legend" 'Faust,' published by 
Moasra. Novello Jt Co., are preHxetl ' Hi.s- 
torical Notes,' Bijyned F. 0. Ivfwards. From 
tlieae one learnsi that the greater part of the 
libretto of 'Fau'jt' was written by the com- 
poser himself. Among tlie portions so 
«pecified is, apparently, "Scene xix. Pando- 
mooiutn," which opens with a '• Choru.« of 
Dovils (in snarling tones)." In earlier efHtion.s, 
bub not in thi.4 of Messrs. Xovelln, the 
"gibberish ' which follows is ascribed, pre- 
sumably by the librettist, to Kruanuel Sweden- 
bjrg. He, however, hafl boon dead for 
upwards of seventy years when the libretto 
first appeared, and certainly his voluminous 
writing.s will be searched in vain for auch 
stuff or for any sugnestion of it. The writer 
of the 'Argument' furnished in the pro- 
gratume of the performance of 'Faust' by 
the Dulwich Philharmonic Society at the 
Crystal Palace on \i December, 15»0I{— F nnto 
the fact with pleasure— is careful to inform 
tm reader)* that this "unearthlv lanjiuaRe" 
11 " wronj^ly ttscribe<l to Swwlennorc. 

(hlABLBS HlonAU. 

Lkonaroo DA Vinci inMtlan*.— Tbrn. ..,!,. en 
biographers of Ijeonartlo, after I 
ruisiied a-s purely ima(<;inary his tm , le 

Eastj have nut yet been able to till up tlic 
|iip in his life-.9tory between 1482 and 14s(7, 
hey are, however, all ajcreed on the point 

ijiip in his life-.9tory between 1482 and 14s(7 
They are, iiowever, all ajcreed on the r 
that there is no documentary proof forth- 
coming of his residence in Milan before 14S7, 
•Itlionjurh on<^ of them, Adolf llosenbenr to 
wii 'rai testiraoniejj by oon- 

t^ tualce it probAble that 

L T.i iive Ht Milan not later 

ti 'nardo da Vinci.' lUelefeJd, _ 

' ■ .- .j,,u,.,uijig to Eogoiio Miintz, doou- 1 AsimiMirl, .l/bcnm// /*(></, I March. 1888. 

ment!) in the archives of Milan show that 
the painter was established there in 14H7, 
1490, and 1402 (' Leon, da Vinci,' Euglisli 
edition. 1898, i. 86). 

Mrs. Ady has recently suggested (' Beatrice 
d' Este,' London, 1899, p. 136) that he 
wa«* the painter referred to, but not named, 
in the Duke of Milan's instruction issued to 
Matfei of Treviplio, liis amba.Ksador going 
to King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, in 
April, 148.'>. In order not to run any risk of 
infringing any copyrights held by Signor 
Alcssandro Luzio and Prof, Itodolfo Kenier, 
I will quote the pa.s.sago in question in its 
original text from a collection published by 
the Hungarian Aca<lemy in 1877. The Duke 
of Milan, and not Lonovico il Moro, states 
therein that : — 

"pcrche havemo inteso, che la Snn Macftn [the 
King of Hutipary] so delecta nudto •, 

pre.<!ertim. one liabino in se qu . 
rilroraiidoni. dt prtMiitt ■■"" •'••'■■ . .d 

i/ua/c harendo redtUo ■ ' uno, 

nnti cO'jiiOKff.jno pure, ha\ ■ • cpso 

piolore, clie ne facia uiiii ti<;uia • mi 

ijuanto belli excelleiite et dcvota 1 
8en?ia sparajjno de 8peaa alcnua, i-i . .. — ,i. .nl 
lojtera de presents, ue facia allro iavnro tinchc 
r abia lioita la ou.ile ]ioi mandaremo ad dunaro nlla 
prefuta Sua Muesta. Datum Mcdiohini die 13 
.\])rilic. IIS.')." — ' Monninenta Hung. Hi.storica, 
Acta Exl«ra.' iii. (on British Mu.'jcum copy vi.)44. 
Mrs. Ady is probably right in Iter surmise 
tlint the painter who In the Duke of Milan's 
e.stimatiun had no equal wa;} no other than 
Leonardo da Vinci. The passage quoted 
above has, however, hitherto e-scaped the 
notice of his biographers. L. L. K. 

C\uu— The following adverti.'sement ap- 
peared in the (rloU of 21 July, lii03 ;— 

"Caiu,. — Large Male Caul for Sale : noreasoimble 
offer refused.— Address Mrs. !S. Harris, Bruadlautf, 
Urackncll, Ikrks." 

Surely the name -should be Gamp, not 
Harris. J- T. F. 

Wint«rlon, Doncaalcr. 

Curious CiiRisTtAN Xamks —No collectioa 
of the-se having lately appeared in *N. & Q./ 
I venture to send a few, noted at varioua 
times : — 

Abdiel, Tinut, 23 June, 1882(0- 

Abeduego. Authority uncortain. 

Abiezer, > 1 2 June, 1901. 

Adigani, V, 17 ilurch, 1903, p. &, 

col. 7. 

Alm^vra, Tlmts, 7 January, 1882. 

Aquila, Tiiaff, 7 Fftbruary, 1h,S!J. 

Asunath, borne bv a [latient in the (.^it'lton* 
h:'.' " ital, and ultio found iu Siafulnirtt^ 

io«" 8. L jax. 9. iflOL] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


IBioD, 25 Jontf, 1804. — Authority -ancertaiD. 
Oindiniuh.— Ditto. 
Cuckoo, SUai'lnrd. May, 1898. 
Cyfiibt'line, Siarul/ird, 25 November, 1903. 
Darius, Guurdiniu 2 J\i\y, l^Sl, 
Demoutlierios, 7V/h/.», 30 January, 1882. 
Dotiatilla, Statulird, -2 June, 1903. 
Dorinda Casmndra, Times^ 12 February, 
Evacustes. Siandni-d, 4 September, 1890, 
K 2. col. 8 (foot). 
Gam, 7VW», G January, 1882. 
Idonea, J'imes, l February, 1882. 
Ju^urtha, S(and<%rd, t2 August, 1897, and 
il October, 1898. 

Kenaz. Tim^s 9 August, 1898. 
Koreiiniippucli, Tinu:s, 28 November, 1884. 
Lois, ^fun^tv</ I\i»(. I March, 1888. 
Lv^an'IiT, 7'iiit<:$, G or 7 August, IfMX). 
^fiirmiun .<t,,nl,ird, 21 April, 19tXJ. 
Ni I as having been born at 

lea, ' Kvho. 10 December, 19<33. 

Oriaim. ,'>tiui'/Hid, 3 Xovernber, 1903. 
Othuiel, between ]4 and 19 May, 1894.— 
|Authority uncertain. 

Pamela, nfime of a patient at the Chelten- 
rham Hospital. 

Parmenas, borne by an artisan at Ileabury, 
Phosphor, Stamlai-'l, 29 June, 1903. 
Pualj. — Autliority uncertain. 
Venice, Momiiuf Post, 1 March, 1888. 
Zelpa, Timis, 31 December, 1880, 
There wa< once a patient in the Chelten- 
firim 1I.,.i..r .1 with the name of Omega ; also 
i>f Thennuthias. I liave a. slight 
with ft lady, one of whose Chris- 
tian nanic-4 in Alpha. A man named Deborah 
Haris apf)eared at Worship Street Police 
Court, 8 November, 1894. A female with 
the name of Peter is noted by myself. Also 
^'lialia AppnarM in the CImUmham Fire I'resi, 
lit October, 1899. But Ohc inm m(i« ! 

P. J. F. OANTlI.r,nN. 

"AtntuBATivK."— I see this word is not in 
bhe'N.E.!).' It was used by tlie lato Lord 
Sali-jbury some years hack in a public speech 
with refororico to the hostile tone of some of 
,>ur continental critics. I have not got the 
reference b^- me, but no doubt some reader 
?an "tupply it. A. T. K. 

"Tunseust": "Ti\NNELi8M."— These words 
>ccur in a rare tract entitled 'Observations 
)n the Intended Tuunel beneath the River 
rimmes,' by Cliarlos Clark, F.S.A. (Crave-s- 
>n<J, 1799). Thoy art5 to l)0 found in the 
tolliiwing exprcsiiona : "the lunnelist and 
Ids friends" and "a eompleie nystom of 
tuuuflism." L. L. K. 


We muut re^inest corrrspnnrlpnt'! dc?irin» in- 
formation on family nialt<'! '■ceBt 
toatlix titeir D&iucs anil H' riot, 
ia order thai the answers in, ^> ■ . v.. lUem 

St. Buidget's Boweii.— In Speusur's 'Shop- 
heardH Calender, Julye,' occur the lines 
(.17-44) :— 

In evill houre thou hmtojit in liond 

Thiia holy \\\'.' 
For siioreil nil! ikI, 

Anil of I hern i-, 

St. Miuhfls iMouiit wiui iJoes not know. 

That waidfs the Weeturne cosiu'' 
And of !St. ISrigets liowre, I trow, 
All Kent can rightly l>oa!ite. 

Where is, or was, St. Briget's Bowre ? From 
tho context it was evi(iently a hill well 
known to all Kent, either from its conspicuoua- 
ness or from some other distinction. For the 
mere fact that it bore the name of a saint 
would hardly ju-^itify tho statement here 
made of it. So far as I see, no editor of 
Spenser has commented on the name, and 
some distinguished local antiquaries and his- 
torians have confessed their ignorance of the 
locality. Is the name, then, quite lost ? And 
if so, can conjecture adduce any hill to 
which the name St, Bri^et's Bowre would 
be for any reason applicable ,' Bower is, of 
course, not necessarily a place overarched 
with shrubs or foliape ; the word has also 
signiliod a cottage, dwelling, or abode, a 
lxK>th, and a chamber. But it would seem 
to follow that a hill so named must have 
l>een distinguishe<l by a bower of some kind 
dedicated to .St. Bridget. Perhaps it was a 
ftacred spot, dismantled or abandoned at the 
Iteformation, the very name of which has 
since been forgotten, although it was evi- 
dently very well known in irj79. But in this 
case there would surely be other references 
to it, in sixteenth-century or earlierliterature 
or records. I venture to ask "all Kent" to 
aid in the iilentincation of the locality, but 
shall be satisfied if even one man or maid of 
Kent furnishes a certain answer. 

J. A. H. Murray. 

' MEMOins OK A SroMAcn.' — Does any 
reader know the authoi-ship of a humorous 
little book, which was published anonymously, 
1 tiunk, about forty-five years ago, with the 
title "Memoirs of a Stomach. Edited by a 
Minister of the Interior"? It is brought to 
mind by the fact that, in tho pantoniijno 
at Drury Lane, tho king's cook is called 
"Minister of the Interior '^as well as "Little 
Mary," a very obvious association. 

W. It. G. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo"* s. i. Jan. 9, im 

•WoKKE FOR Cdtlees.' — * Wofke for Cut- 
lers -J or, a Merry Dt&logue betweene Sword, 
Bapier, and Dagger,' first acted "in Shew in 
the faruoua Vniuersitie of Cambridge," and 
reacted on 23 July, 1903, at Trinity Hall, 
Caaibridge, is being given once more at the 
Hall of Gray's Inn on the 7th inst. Is there 
any programme of the performance of this 
or any similar work in Cambridge or else- 
where 1 A. FOKBES SlKVEKING. F.S.A. 

Eabliest Playbill.— Can any one tell me 
if there is an earlier playbill (or announce- 
tnont of any form of isnow) in existence than 
that of 1708— the date of the earliest play- 
bill at the British Museura ? I want one to 
serve as a model for the programme of the 
reproduction of a play of 1015. 


SlE John Vaughan, Knt., P.C, went to 
Ireland and had lands granted to him a.v. 
1600. Was Governor oi Londonderry a.v. 
KJOl-43. His only daughter married the 
Hon. Sir Frederick Hamilton, son of Lord 
I'aisley by the Hon. Margaret Seton. Can 
anybody tell me his origin and the names of 
his father, mother, and wife? 

H. S. Vade-Walpole. 

101, Lesham Gardens, KeiuiDgtoD, \V. 

Obht Sunday.— I cull the following from 
the Dailij Mail of 5 October, 1903 :— 

" The quaint end ancient ceremony ordered to 
be observed upon the occasion of Obiit Sunday by 
ITenry VII.. Edward VI., Quoen EliKabeth, and 
Charlea II. at St. tieor^'s Chajjel, Windsor Castle, 
look place at the morning aervice yesterday. The 
clergy, military knights, and choir w&licocf in pro- 
cession through the nave, and entered the choir by 
the beautifully carved foldinp; doors nndoraeatii the 
organ gallery, bishop Barry delivered an int^resb- 
itiK statement as lo the royal founders and other 
belief Actora. The Dean of V'indsor also preached 
u special sonnon/' 

Farther information respecting the origin of 
this ceremony, of which I can find no account 
in *N. & Q.,' will »>e thankfully received. 
Evekakd Home Coleman. 
71, Brecknock Rond. 

CHAUCER8 Tomb ix WESTMiNatER Abbey. 
—On the authority of the inscription on this 
tomb, and of Stow's 'Survey,' Pjt8, and Ant. 
Wood, we have always given the credit of its 
erection or restoration to Nicholas Brigliam ; 
but a contemporary of his, writing lato in 
C^ueen Elizabeth's reign, the Rev. Robert 
^' I 1613), savs that one 

" •>;" wrote the Latin epi- 

^•pn lub, and got the "tumulus" 

yS^^-' leptttnted. See the Egerton 

-MS j?tw^. tv L'j3, C-aij any one tell mo who 

this Hickeraan was? None of the Hickmnns 
in the series of Domestic State Papers and 
Privy Council Records or in Hennessy seems 
to fit him. In one point Coramaunder's text 
of the epitaph is better than Rrigham's, as 
given by Skeat, 'Chaucer's Works,' i. xlvii, 
for 1400 is clearly the date viortu of the poet, 
and not his vit(f. ('ommaun«ler has also the 
two Latin lines by Surigonius of Milan : — 

"Canmina Rpitapbica magistri Hickenian, Audi* 
toris, conii>osila Anno doraini ]5im, in Laudem 
GalJridi Chaucer, que dciuio auper i|:«iu8 Tuinulum 
renovari fecit et Iiiscribi in Mooasterio weslmo- 
naateriensi, et ipsum Tumulum suis Expeoals 
decorari et repingi procuravit. 
Qui fuit Antflorum Vatea tcr maximus olim, 
< ialfridus Chaucer conditur hoc Tumulo: 
Annum in queras Domini, Hi tempora mortis, 
Ecce Note subsuut, que tibi cuncta notent. 
2.1 Octobris, Anno 1400. 
CialfriduB Chaucer, Vatea et Fania I'oesis 
Maternn", hue sacra sum tumulatns Humo." 

N, Brigham was a " teller " of the Ex- 
chequer, which would be an '' auditor," I 
suppose. This helps us to believe that he 
did not wrongfully take the credit of Hick- 
man's verses and pious act. 


(See the articles iu the Alhttutum of and 
m August and 23 October, 1902.] 

Statue by Jobs ok Bologna.— I have a 
pocket-book of 1704 which has notes in it 
in the handwriting of Dr. Harbin. Among 
them is the following : — 

" The Cain k Abel on y'' Btaircase at Buckingham 
house was made by John de Bologna, a scwlplor of 
the 2^ clas.s. It formerly belonged to the old Duke 
of Buckingham & was bought by the present Duke 
some years ns;o for 500/. It is worth l,O0(V. aa 
Cavahcr David has assured me." 

Where is this statue now ? E. M. 

"Collection EH." — In some of tlio old 
parish registers in East Anglia one some- 
times meets with the foregoing term, and 
our best dictionaries throw no light on it. 
It occurs generally in the portion allotted 
to deaths, after some aged person's name. 
Am I correct in assuming the deceased 
derived benefit from the church collection 1 
or doe« it refer to one we should now term 
& sideaman— cue vho assists in taking the 
collection? Wm. Jaogajso. 

^Iary Stuakt. — I should be greatly 
obliged if any of your readers coaid give 
mo information about the bust of lilary 
Stuart which is now in the Louvre. I^ it, 
for instance, supposed to be authcntici and 
by whom was it executed ? 

Another thing which hafi puzzled a fwod 
many ia, When was the cap with wired laco 


lO"* 8. I. Jj^N. 9» 190L] 



edgiog euiopted &h part of her costame ? and 
did sTie wear it in Scotland I Ono more 
cjae^tion. On what authority is it said that 
she was painted by Peter Pourbus ? Are 
any examples of her portrait by this artist 
known to exist in this country ? 

H. H, Craavley. 
I Stowe-nine-Churches Rectory, Weedon. 

"Heaedloxie " : " Heech."— A Court I?oll 
oFan Oxfordshire manor, dated in IG04. con- 
tains the following regulation or order : — 

"Item. Yt ys ordered in lyke niannor that no 
man within the Manoor shall putt or suffer to go« 
into any parte of the feylde any calfea uiitill 
Lammas, and then there the calfes to be kept with 
the heard amonge the heardlome of beaso until 
harvest be in, uf)oii penaliie to forfeyt to the lord 
for ever}' one which shall herein offend for every 
default, vjV/.' 

Can any reader of 'N. it Q.' kindly explain 
the meaning of "heardlome of bease"? 
"Bea-se" signifies, no doubt, "beaats": but 
can " heardlome" mean lamb pens or folds 1 

Another order in the same Court Roll 
refers to " land in the new heech." What is 
"heech "? EoMcrjn) T. Bewlev. 

Picture op Kxight in Aumouk.— At the 
I' Duke's Head Hotel," Ham Street, Kent, I 
' ave found a small panel on copper, very 
iuch in the stylo of Antonio Moro's ' Tailor ' 
in the National Gallery, representing a 
bearded, middle-aged man in armour and 
cloak, with a ruff", somewhat high, and wear- 
ing both round hLa neck— by a gold chain (i) 
—and embroidered on his black cloak a red 
Maltese cross outlined with a single gold 
thread or fillet. What order of knighthuod 
■would thin be? and who is the probable 
artist? The picture was bought by the land- 
lord some years ago at a village sale from an 
old native of Ham Street, in whose possession 
it had been for some time. H. 

Henry Frbderick .ind Walter Lockbabt 

Holt. — The former gentleman appears to 

posses,sed a considerable collection of 

^lics of Gustavus Adolphus and kindred 

Jatters. He died at King's Road, Clapham 

Park, on l'> April, 1071. He apparently had 

brother Walter Lockhart Holt. Is any- 

ling known of the latter 1 

T. Cann Hughes, M.A., F.S.A. 

Persian Paintings.— I have lately come 
ito possession of two Persian paintings, the 
le representing the portrait of a man, the 
"ler of two women. 'Thero is an inscription 
I each picture, which has been translated 
as follows— over tlio man, '*Ali Adil 
the Leaser " ; over the two women, 
»oa Bonti Haroun." Can any of your 

readers give me any particulars about the 

Fersonages named 1 lliere was an AH Adil, 
know, who succeeded his uncle Nadir as 
Shah of Persia in 1747; but would he be 
referred to as "the Lesser"? and if not, who 
was the man whose portrait I have ? 1 should 
greatly value any information whatever about 
nim and about the queens. R. M. L. 

Penrith. — May I ask where was Penrith, 
mentioned as a suffragan see in the Act or 
Henry VIII. (I think it is spelt Pen ret he)? 
Also where is the town of Pereth in the same 
Act? John Bird was consecrated Bishop of 
Penrith by Archbishop Cranmer. 

W. S. Lach-Szyrma. 

Barkingside Vicarage. 

[Penrith is still prononnced Perith in the North. 
See a"" 8. xj. 32». 411, 471 ; xii. 7aJ 

Queen Helena. — Has any Queen Helen 
entererl London since the age of the Empress 
Helena (mother of Constantine the Great» 
who probably was here) until Helena, Queen 
of Italy, passed in state to the Guildhall in 
1903? It is said the Empress Helena was 
also a Dalmatian (in spite of the British 
legend of her being daughter of King Coel of 
Colchester). If so, the coincidence is singular, 
for Queen Helena is a Montanigrene, bora 
near Dalmatia. W. S. Lach-Szyrma. 

Setting of Precious Stones. — In Ben 
Jonson's ' The Devil is an Ass,' acted first, I 
think, in 1616, the goldsmith, Gilthead, 
speaking of a precious stone, says, '" He 's set 
without a foil too." Jewels set, as it is called, 
a jour (that isi, without a back or foil) were 
not, I believe, common before the end of the 
eighteenth century ; but I should bo glad to 
be enlightened on the subject by any of the 
readers of 'N. <k Q.' who are learned in the 
matter. Burohclere. 

Japanese Cards.- In which of the in- 
numerable works on Japan can I find 
described the various kinds of Japanese play- 
ing cards? I have a pack of forty-eight 
cards, which, I understand, consists of twelve 
suits (four cards each) representing the 
months of the year. Tney appear to bear 
the following emblems: (1) pines and a stork, 
(2) plum blossom and some bird, (3) cherry- 
blossom and a curtain, (4) wistaria and a 
cuckoo, (a) flags, (6) peonies and a butterfly, 
(7) clover and a boar, (8) eularia, geese, the 
moon, (9) chrysanthemum and a cup, (lu; 
maple-leaves and a deer. (11) rain, a 8wa"ow, 
a willow, a frog, a man with an umbrella, 
(12) paullownia and the phcenix. 

* jAMKa Platt, Jan. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. im b. i, j^^. ». im. 


(Q"* «. xii. 4S4.) 

With the exception of tlie recently raiae'l 
regiment of Irish Guartls, there is hardly a 
regiment in the British service which owes its 
present designation to thedate of its inception, 
therefore there is nothing r?xtraorditiAry in 
the fact of the Grenadier Guards receiving 
such a title from the Royunt on 2S> July, lyl5, 
as a reward for their defeat of tiie Grenadiers 
of the French Imf)erial Guards at Waterloo. 

The present Grenadier Guards talfo pre- 
cedence in our army, as a regiment, since 
1660. when a standing force was originated 
after the Restoration, and has remained 
under the same constitution ever sinco. 
Cliarlcs 11., in consequence of the "Fifth 
Monarchy " outhreak, issued an order for a 
new regiment to be raised (all the Cromwellian 
troops having been disbanded by Act of 
Parliament), which consisted of twelve com- 
panies of 100 men each, and was de'iipnated 
"the King's Regiment of Foot Guards," the 
king himself being its first colonel. It was 
subsequently known as the 1st Foot Guards 
until 181.5, when it received, as already stated, 
its title of 1st or Grenadier Regiment of Foot 
Guards, now shorteneri to Grenadier Guards. 
As a matter of fact, Charles had raised a 
regiment in Flanders in 165G, known as 
the Royal Regiment of Guards, under the 
colonelcy of Lord Wentworth. Althougli 
this regiment was dislianded through in- 
ability t<j maintain it, most of tiioso who had 
served were enrolled in another regiment 
rained and commande<l by C;ol. John Russell, 
which evetituully became absorbed into the 
King's Regiment of Foca Guards. 

The grenade, a-s a weapon of war, was in- 
vented at Granada in 10y4. and the soldiers 
who carried and threw these missiles were 
termed grenadiers. They were not intro 
duced into our army; until 1677. when a num- 
ber of pickrd men in each regiment were so 
armetl, and termed the 1st or Grenadier 
Company. The Guards and all oilier regi 
inents had such companies, and later on, in 
ICal, the Horse (irenafiier Guards were 
ruise<l. From Evt'Jyn's • Diary," under date 
Sa June, 1678. I extract the following :— 

:-^ ' '■ ■ ..f 



jWli .wi,,^ ,,.„,.,- i.-.iimu;; U..VI1 liCUlIHI, ,ll VV t> ] Hi' [ U ( I" 

loU, thmr cloUnug likewise pioUija — irj and 

In Saodford'a 'History of tho Coronation 
of James II.' the costume of a grenadier is 
dcscribe<l, showing that ho wore the conical 
cap, and that., in addition to a carbine and 
cnrtouch-box, he carried a grenade pouch, a 
sword, a hammer, and a hatchet. 

There is a plate in the Archffologioxl 
Jouifuil showing a grenadier preparing to 
tlirow the grenade. The plate depicU a 
soldier of 174.">, and as the grenade is held 
in the hand, it would seem that, after all, the 
manual projection of tho missile was found 
as reliable as the mortar, and it wa.s doubt 
less more convenient. The soldier holds the 
grenade as though he were about to throw 
an overhand ball at cricket. 

Although hand grenades were long ago 
abolished from the army, great use was maao 
of them during the siege of Mafeking. 

Whilst on the subject of the Guards, it is i 
as well to note that although the Cold^treamsl 
come next in seniority to the Grenadiers,! 
their origin is actually older than that of th»j 
latter regiment., for whilst in the act of beinf 
disbanded under Monk, they were broughtij 
into the army establishment as the Cold- 
stream Regiment of Foot Guards. The fol- 
lowing anecdote shows why ihey retained 
their name of Coldstreau). Afior the Re- 
storation the three regiment-s of Guards were 
assembled on Tower Hill to take the oatli 
of allfgiauce, and .as a sigti of repudiutioti of 
the Comraonweallh they were ordered to layj 
down their arms. Having obeyed tliis ordeB 
witli alacrity, they were tnen cofrtmaddod by' 
the king to take them up in his scivioe as 
the first, second, and third regiments of Foot 
Guards. The hrst and thinl did so. with 
cheers, but the second slodd firm. ''Why 
does your regiment liesiiale?" inquired the 

kilif iif fi'ctrciiil Monk. *' W:w ir tilraM- Viiuf 

M M.' stern "' 

" 1 1 < are youi ' 

servants, but after tlie wrvicts they have 
rendered your Highness, they cannot consent 
to bo frrnml to any regiment." "They aro 
right,"»aid the king, "and tliey shall l»e nccuntl 
U> none. Let them lake up arnix as my Cold- 
stream Ri'uiinent of Foot Guards." These 
w..i ' ' ' ' ■•' rt : the arms were 

rtn -if '"Long live the 

kiny .^iiiLf 111.11 iiiiif the motto of the 
regiment lias iM'en "NuUi secundus." 

The Scots Guards, so n - ' *■ "'d 

in Scotland under the c*' I 

of Linlithgow in iuti2. aiii ..i.^, .^ 

five companies. In l"l.'l they wen; known 

as the 3rd Rpgintent of Fnut Guards. In 

1831 the rrginieni was di-tignaled the Scot« 

I Fusilier Guards ; and it wa^ only a short 

1()«* S. I, Jis. 9, 19M.] 



iimr' - • -n to the dei\ih of Queen Victoria 

jllia 'lefl t<i them iheir original narnc 

|of iJc^,T v.^..»icls. TuoRNE Geoeoe. 

Briti(»h Grenadiers date from 1677, first as a 
Ifow specially trained men, and immwiiatelv 
fiifterwards as a wliole company, in eacn 
] regiment. Evelyn mentions having seen 
«omo of thorn at the camp at Hounslow in 
1678. A regi?nentftl drinking song of some 
[•dozen stanzas, date<l IGSl, commemorates ihe 
[heroic deeds of the Grenadier Company of 
.the First Royals— "the brave Granadeeis," 
*' the brave Scottish boys." Chappell. in hi* 
I' National Airs,' says that the march known 
I&8 ' The Grenadiers ' is two hundred 
J years old. A veiy rare book is 'The Grena- 
dier's Exercise of the Grenado in H.M. First 
[llBgimeutof Foot Guards,' 174.">. W. S. 

It would bo easy to infer from Mr. North's 
remarks tliat the name of "grenadier" as 
applie*] to ihone soldiers of the line who 
practised the use of the hand-grenade was 
unknown until 1815. Before this, however, it 
was generally customary for ever-j' battalion 
of foot to possess a company of Grenadiers, 
who were first known in the service 
in 1065, and first instituted in France in 16(i7, 
where four or tive only were allotted to each 
U'ompanv. (See Ch. James's 'Military Diet.,' 
1181<>.) In the Fl-VeX/y Jounud of 29 January, 
1 1722, is the announcement that " the Grena- 
fdiers of the Army in Hide-Park are before 
their decamping to perform an Exercise of 
throwing llami-Orenadoes, Ac, before hi? 
Majesty." There were two troops of Horse 
Grenadier Guards in England, the first being 
raised in H193, find the command given to 
Lieut.-GeneralCliolmonileley ; and the second 
in 1701, commntkded by Lord Forbes. Horse 
Grenadiers were first established in France 
by Louis XIV. in 1676, and formed inl«) 

*' ^ V the scvcrftl Troops of Horse and 

Hoi- t <itiard8, itifftnifi'd in Hyde Park, 

wen" iiri^lL'i- li. ■— If '' ' :' ■-■' ' ;.-, 17-J. 

"We hear ■ it twenty 

licutluiiieii of ill'' ^ ! : ! »t) Grena- 

r diets, have !• .I'd on Atcuuut of their 

IA^a, or being ■, or some such Reasons, 

■' - • for di >;ini< 1 1..II to the <' ■ ^ -,t, or 

iiors; and that ik certain : mey 

■ id for eath of them aa ii > tjon ; 

iiovvcvcr onfi of t hoses <!en tie rii en shot liiiusfalf that 
[••vcning."— /fc«/, 22 Oot., 1723. 


Ml'NpT (a"' S. xii. 4S5).-Sir John Mundy, 
[|;oldsmitti, of London, was Lord Mayor 
iin the years 1.V22-3. Ho is statcil^ to 
ilmvn been a son of Sir John Mundy, Knt., 


by his wife Isabel, daughter of John Ripes, 
Alderman ; but pedigrees and hi^toiianw 
alike difTer with regartl to his parentage. Ho 
married firstly a wife ilargaret, who wat 
buried in St. Peter's, Cheapsido, and by 
whom he ha<J one daughter, ^largaret, wh 
married Nicholas Jenuyngs in 1026. and 
afterwards became the wife of Lord Edniand ' 
Howard, ilarsiial of Horse in the battle of 
Flodden, a son of Thomas, second Duke of 
Norf oik, and father(by his wife Joy ce,daugbter 
of Richard Oolepeppor) of Queen t'atharino 
Howard. Sir John Mundv married sonondly, 
before 1.514, .lulyan. daughter of Sir William 
IJrowne, Lord Mayor 1513-1 1, by his first 
wife Katherine. daughter of Sir Edmund 
Shaw, Lord ^layor 11S2-3, and by this 
marriage he liad several children. Having 
been knighted at Whitehall in i:i29. Sir Joha 
Mundy died in l.'»37, and his will (proved 
P.C.C. in the .same year) contains many 
genealogical data. In it he mentions his 
children Vincent, John, Nicholas, William, 
Mildred, Anne, Elizabeth, and "Marceret 
Hawarde" hi.^ daughter. Bv codicil, dated 
a month later than the will, he a|)()oint3 
" ray lorde of Norfl'" to be overseer to his 
daughter "Anne Darcy and her husband 
Thomas Darcy, an<l to Anthonye Darcv, 
father of the said Thomas, and to the child 
that the said Anne is conceived w"'." ■ 

Dame Julyan Mundy, widow of the Lord'fl 
Mayor, died in the same year, 1537, and, 
together with her husband and his first wife, 
was buried at "St. Peter's in Cliepe." Her 
will (proved 1537, P.C.C.) is valuable genea- 
logical evidence. Of Sir John Mundy's sons, 
Vincent (will proved P.C.C. 1573 ; slain by 
one f»f his own children, according to all _ 
r>edigreos) wuoceeded to the property offl 
^larkeaton, co. Derby, which ha'; remained ■ 
in the family from tho year 151(J until the 
present day. Thomas was Prior of Bodmin 
(will proved P.C.C. 1554}, and is probably 
identical with tho "Thomas Monndate" of 
Wriothesley's Chronicle, who was condemned , 
to death for having preserved as a relic and 
conveyed across the water tho left arm of] 
John Houghton, who suffered death forj 
treason, denying the king's supremacy. Of] 
the remaining sons of the Lord Mayor littlaj 
has been a.soertained. Anne and Elizabeth 
married respectively Thomas iJarcy of ToUea-j 
hunt (second wife) and Sir John (!) Tyrrell 
of Heron. T1)0 Lord Mayor's nauio ^^" "^ 
several times in the Calon.lar'* "f '" ; ' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no*" 8. i. Jas. 9. i9w. 

brother to Sir John Mundy, was likewise a 
Boldsmith, and married a wife Elizabeth. 
By will dated 1562 (proved P.U.C. 1562) he 
left to his son Nicholas " my gowne faced 
with budge [badger ?] and furred with lambe." 
He refers to his other son John, and daugh- 
ters Margery and Elizabeth. 

No connexion is claimed in any family 
pedigrees between Anthony Munday, drama- 
tist, and the Mundys of Derbyshire. 

Peecy Dhyden Mundy. 

Hove. Sauex. 

[Mr. E. H. Colemak. Dr. Forsuaw, and Mb. 
W. I). Pink are thauked for abort replies.] 

" A GALLANT CAPTAIN," ic. (O"" S. XU. 506). 

— The reference is to the third verse of the 
'Elegy on the Death of Jean Bon St. Andr<5' 
in the' well-known Anti-Jacobin. The correct 
quotation is as under ; — 

Poor Johu was & gallant captain, 
In battles much delighting ; 
He fled full soon 
On the first of June— 
But he bade the rest keep iif;htiug. 

A note to the edition, by Charles Edmoudu 
n85l)j of the poetry in that work, states that, 
'having been appointed [by the French 

Government] to remodel the Republican navy, 
he was present at the action or 1 June, 1794, 
in which he showed excessive cowardice." 

G. E. C. 
pklR. A. K. Malden and Mr. A. F. Rosbinh also 
supply the reference to the AiUi- Jacobin] 

LONC, Lease (9"' S. xii. Sri, 134, 193, 234, 
449, 613). — An old liouse at the corner of 
North Street and Taprell's Lane (Lostwithiel, 
Cornwall) bears a granite tablet with this 
inscription : "Walter Kendall, of Lostwithiel, 
was founder of this house in 1638, hath a 
lease for three thousand years, which hath 
beginning the 29th of September, Anno 1632." 


Robin a Bobbin (9"" S. xii. 503).— I sent a 
note on this rime several years .since, but it 
never appeared. My maternal grandmother 
—a very old woman — used to sing it to us 
children sixty years ago. Her version differed 
from Mr. Ratcliffe's, but I remember dis- 
tinctly the first verse only. It ran : — 

Let 's go a-huntiog. says Robin to Bobbin • 

Lot's Ro a-hunting, aays Richard to Robin ; 

Lot's KO a-hunliDg. says Little .John ; 

Let 's go a-hunting, mya every one. 

The mention of Little John is particularly 
interesting. C, C. B. 

Medical Barristees (9"' S. xii. 486).— Dr. 
George Eugene Yarrow (an uncle of mine). 

who died on S.") November last, in his sixty- 
ninth year, was not only a well - known 
medical man, holding epv^^r .1 miblic appoint- 
ments, but wa.s also a Im -law, being a 
member of the Honour. luty of Gray's 
Inn. For several years he held the judicial 
office of Deputy - Coroner for the Nortb- 
Eastern Division of the County of London. 
G. Yaruow Baldock. 
South Hackney. 

In Ireland, at the close of the eighteenth 
century, one of the Ignited Irish leaders, 
T. A. Emmet, was first a ph vsician and after- 
wards a hamster. See Mauden's ' Lives and 
Times of the United Irishmen,' vol. iii. pp.28, 
32, 33, 34. FraNcesca. 

iMB. Atkiksok in his query implies that Mr. 
ward Pollock is no longer living. 8uch is not 
the case, and we regret that we were unable to 
correct our correspondent. ] 

RiCHABD Nash (9"" S. xi. 445 ; xii. 15, lie, 
13.5, 272, 335, 392, 493).— I regret ray failure to 
understand the drift of Mb. Anthony 
Tuckee'.s letter. The point at issue was 
whether a statue or a picture was erected in 
Nash's honour in the Pump Room at Bath. 
Goldsmith, in the first edition of his 'Life,* 
stated that a statue was placed in the Pump 
Iloom between the busts of Newton and 
Pope. In the second edition, in which the 
errors of the first were corrected, he stated 
that a picture of Nash was placed in 
Wiltshire's Ballroom, between the busts of 
Newton and Pope, while the statue was 
erected in the Pump Room. This point, there- 
fore, may be considered settle*!. Mr. Tucker 
says that six verses of a poem by Jane 
Brereton were published in 1744, the last verse 
being "similar to both versions of the last 
verse of the epigram in Goldsmith's first and 
second editions." Now as Goldsmith's first 
edition named a statue, and the second edition 
a picture, it is difficult to see how a third 
versiim could be "similar" to both these 
versions, which varj' in an essential point. 
But I shall be grateful if Mr. Tucker can 
throw more light either on the picture or the 
epigram. As 1 am shortly leaving England 
for some months, I am unable to look into 
this question myself. W. F. Prideaux. 

" The Consul of God " (9'^ S. xii. hiW>).— 
Thin occurs in the last two lines of the epitaph 
on Gregory the Great and refers to him ; — 
His(|uc Dei Consul factus liBtare trinmi>hia : 
Nam mercedeni operurn jam sine fine tenea. 

The epitaph is given by Bede, whose 'His- 
tory' ends with 731. In 729 Gregory, who 
had been buried in the atrium of St^ Peter's, 
was translated within the church, and pes- 

io^s.lja.v.9.i904.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 



aibJy the epitaph belongs to that time. But 
Gregoroviu8 (' IJome in the Middle Ages,' ii. 
99 note, Eng. trans) says : "A g(x>d inscrip- 
tion was later place<l in his honour. This 
waa composed by Petrus Oldradus, Arch- 
bishop of Milan and Secretary of Adrian I." 
Adrian w&s Pope 772-95, and therefore the 
epitaph (or inscription — assuoiing their 
identity), if composed by Oldradus, must 
have been written by him whilst quite a 
youog ecclesiastic. Perhaps some reader of 
N. & Q.' can say what Oldradus was doing 
about 730. C. S. Ward. 

"CONSTANTKNK pEBBLE " (9"' S- xii. fiOti).— 

This is a name ironically applied to the 
enormous dolmen of granite, weighing 750 
tons, which existed in the parish of St. Con- 
stantine, Cornwall, until (I think) the late 
seventies, when it was destroyed by opera- 
tions in an adjacent ciuarry. It is minutely 
described and hgured by Borlase in his quaint 
' History of Cornwall '; and a description will 
be found also, with a woodcut, in Cyrus , 
Bedding's • Illustrated Itinerary of the 
County of Cornwall,' 1842, p. 135. 

John Hobson Matthews. 
[Dr. sends a long extract from vol. ii. 

f). 453 of ' The Beauties of England and Wales ' 
Longman, ISOI); and Mit C. S. Waki» refers to 
the inscribed Constantino Stone found at St. Hilary, 
Cornwall, in lSi"i3.] 

Maruiagk Uousb (9"' S. xH. 428, 609). — 
Miss Pollard says that the Marriage House 
at Braughiiig has been pulled down. It is 
generally state<I to have been destroyed some 
quarter of a century ago ; but I do not think 
this was the ca,se. The very interesting old 
half-timbered house on the south side o? the 
churchyard, now divided into tonementn, is, 
I feel certain, the original building. 

Another Wedding House was at Anstey. 
It stood partly upon the lord's waste and 
partly in the churchyard. At an inquisition 
held At Hertford in 1G30 it is stated that it 
was ancienti V ^iven to the town of Anstey to 
keep the weddings of poor people who should 
be marrietl in the said town. There had been 
therefoi-o divers goods belonging to the said 
messuage and used at the said wedflings. but 
of all such there remained only " four great 
Hpytts," all the rest having been consumed or j 
lo*jt. At that date it was apparently no ' 
longer u.sed for weddings, but ha<l become a I 
poorhouse and was both " noysome and | 
filthee." It was pulled down quite a century 
ago, but the site is pointed out by the old 
people. W. B. Gbbish. 

[Dr. F0R8UAW notaa that the • Xatioakl Gazet- 
teer," 1868, states under ' Bratitthin' that the Mur- 
riaKO House was given by Mr. Jenyus.] 

Shakespeare's ScHOLARsnrp (9"* 8, xii. 
427).— It may be that my statement that 
"Mr. Churton Collins has proved that 
Shakespeare was one of the best Latin 
scholars who ever lived" needs qualification, 
and that the phrase "an excellent Latin 
scholar" should be substituted for the 
stronger expression. What Mr. Churton 
Collins says is :— 

"What has been demonstrated is that Shake- 
speare oould read LAlin. that in the Ijilin original 
he most certainly read Plautus, Ovid, and Senoca, 
that the Cireek dramatists, and all those Dteek 
authors, besides Plutarch, wlio ajutear to havo 

intiuenccd him, wore easily accessible to him in 

Latin translations." 

And again : — 

"With some at least of the i)rinoipal Latio 

authors he was infimaJtfi/ a^fuainM and of 

the (ircek classics in the Latin versions ho had a 
rr.inarkaMy fx(niJficc hnowlafj/r." 

Me. Haines maintains that Shakespeare's 
"knowledge of Latin cannot be properly 
teste^l until we can determine what part, if 
any, of ' 1 Henry VI.,' and what part of 
'2 Henry VI,' '3 Henry VI.,' 'Taming of 
the Shrew ' ' Timon of Athens,' and especially 
of 'Titus Androuicua,' were his." I fail to se© 
this reasoning. Why not take the accepted 
'• Shakespeare" dramas, as Mr. Churton Collins 
does, and prove theLatinity therein displayed? 
In the 'Comedv of Errors' we fintl that the 
author of the dramas was acquainted with 
the ' Mostellaria,' 'Trinummus,' and 'Mile.s 
Gloriosus,' and, omitting the doubtful 
'Titus Andronicus' and the three parts of 
'Henry VI.' (which are "saturated with the 
tragedies of Seneca"), Mr. Collins proves 
that in the undoubted 'Richard III.,' 'The 
Merchant of Venice,' and 'Much Ado' the 
dramatist shows a knowledge of Horace ; 
and in ' Hamlet,' 'Lear,' 'Antony and Cleo- 
patra,' ' Cyrabeline,' and ' 1 Henry IV.,' a 
remarkable acquaintance with Juvenal. By 
unmistakable parallelisms Mr. Collins has 
proved that thedramatist had read— in Latin 
translations — Plato's 'Alcibiades' and 'Re- 
public,' and also the principal tragedies of 
Sophocles, ..'Kschylus, and Euripides. Of 
these parallelisms it is of interest to note 
that Mr. Sidney Lee maintains that "such 
coincidences as have been detected between 
expressions in Greek plays and in Shake- 
speare seem due to accident," and that they 
are "no more than curious accidents -proofs 
of consanguinity of spirit." This Mr. Collins 
directly and successfully controverts. He 
say«i such a contention "is, of course, quite 
within the bounds of iHmihility" but that 
"it is not with ftoiuibintiea but with profxi' 
hilUitt that investigators of this kind are 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo"- s. i. .i.y. 9. \m. 

concerne<I." A careful examination of the 
three articles in the Forlniijhth/ for April, 
May, ami July, liM;)3, will convince sceptics 
of llie dramatist's classical knowledge that 
Ben Jonson was u bit " too previous " when 
he stated tliat Sliakenpoare (if he referred to 
the author of the play^) had "snialle Latin." 
Opinions have changed, however, since the 
days of the critic Dennis, who wrote : — 

" He who allows .S)iakc<ii>eare had learning, aud 
a learning with the anciunls, ought to be looked 
ui>on as a detractor from the glory of Great 

Very much on the«e linea run the remarks of 
a loader-writer in the Dnily Ncw», who, in 
resenting Afr. Churtou CoUinsj's argutuenU, 
stated : - 

" It is rJKht to say that in the ftrtii::!e not a litlle 
in-idenco ia iidrUiced to »liow tliat .Sliake«peare 
might conceivalily liavc ue'(|<iire(l iho neccMiiry 
rlttsiiicnl kiiowludtjc in the gi-aninii\r .school at Striit- 
i'\rA. Thei-e is Tioihinjf absolutely itntM>ssibIe in the 
'■ II that, heilid so. excej>t tfii' atrouf; evi- 
■' !, (IS a. matter of fact, ho did not. Had 

ii . ".it. i>« I'xtremely hard to account for the 

o(iiin..u ol Ilia friends and oonletnponiriea that he 
did not possess this knowledge" 

It ig evident that the theory of Dennis and 
Dr. Farmer— founded on the blunt a*i«erlion 
made to Drummond by Ren Jonson— that 
there is not a particle of classical know- 
leJ^o to be found in the plays, will die hard, 
if It ever die.s. Of course the oninion of 
Aubrey \n worth nothing that *'he under- 
»jtcK>d Latin very well." 

It seems ludicrous that .Mr. Haines should 
condtfraii lh»' dramatiH's Latinity because in 
' Troiiuy and t.Vessida ' tho word '** Arinchne " 
ippears for "Arachne." But was tliat the 
lult of the writer of the plays ] The 
]uarLoij aud the Fuliu are full of typo- 
iraphical errors, of which this is only an 
)rdinary example, just as in 'The Alerry 
'ives'a clever compositor has puzzled com 
montators for all tirno with what tho expres- 
sion *' an hcir«s ' is suppo'jed tu represent. 

ifi:. M.M.NKs also refers to "two or three 
instance** of false Latin in ' Love's Labour '« 
Lost." " i find in thi!* play— written a few 
_jroai;-< after Shakenpoare left Stratford, the 
parlipst of the dramati' and one no 

leaiiie<l and scholarly i j,f. and allu- 

sion tl)at it is uiifiL fi.i jKijuiJur rcprcsen- 
tntion— the foilowiny Latin wordi: "tninirne," 
*'veni, vidi, vici," "videlicet.," "baud credo,' 
" ill viii," " faccre," "osteutaro, " " In'x coctus," 

" Icrr.i. " iHM"'_'i'." '■ iii.'i iiiiii^'r ' " 1 i I- "'i>>iL 

*\ ! .', 

I' .- .vk 

fujuuMU,' Hj- "caroi^"^ " pauca 

it, " "oovi homjiiein 

tauquam te," "no intelligis doiuine,' " laus 
deo, bone inlelligo " {correcteii by Holofernea 
to "bene"), " vide.<«no ouis venit," *' Video et 
Raudeo," " pueritia," exit." All t\\\n. dog- 
Latin is not intended to be classical Latin — 
the Latin of the writer— but the Latin of the 
pe<lantic Holofernes, of whom tho author 
(uakes .such splendid game, and who speaks 
of "the ear of coilo " (for "o<flunj") and 
"iraitari" (for " imitare,' perhapH another 
print^^rs error), but may all thi.>* not be 
intentional, instead of accidental, bad 
Latinity ? We have in the same play speci- 
mens of excellent Italian and French, all of 
them graiiiinatically accurate, au is also the 
case in the French dialogue of 'Henry V.' 

In similar manner the dramatist's Latin 
has been calltHJ in question because in 'The 
Merchant of Venice ' one line reaii.s " St^'phano 
ia my name "'(why not, possibly, .Stcphilno f), 
and another, "My friend Htepliano signify, 
I pray thee " ; but against this we can set 
the ptonunciiiiion of "Stepliano" in 'The 
Terape»tt,' w irerc the word occurs nine times — 
five in pnise and four in verse— in every one 
of the latter the won! being pronounceu cor- 
rectly, "Stephilno." To e.splain thi^ dia- 
cropancy between the pronunciation in 'The 
Merchant of Venice' and that in 'The 
TemiK'st,' an ingenious critic has maintained 
that Men Jonson had in the interval in- 
formed Shakespeare how the word should be 
properly pronouncetl I Very likely 3 OI)Iiging 
" rare old Ben !"' GEOEt;E i^TRONAfU. 

I>eyi.e: Stksduai, (l>"' S. xii. 127). — Henri 
Boy le'-ifathetvloseph CJhc'rubin Beyle, as>>umed 
the title of nobility {"dc'). Hnnri Beyle 
took the "de" abouly 1810, but abandoned it 
later. See 'Journal do Stendhal, 1801-14' 
(Uharpentier), Appendix, j). 47u. 


"A FLKA TS THE EAU" (9"* S. xii 67, 138, 

19G).— The following story. lhoU|?li not quite 
relevant to the query, may interest £ome of 
your readers : — 

" Thp annvy^ing-hiiR i« ftI>lo to »nt»»r tho htrman 

.-■ ' ... . ..... ^^^^ 


■''■■. ' „ -iCC, 

Uimiiuu wiiAliiver ■••fiongr-ij lo liin t.iiuily. After 
wvcmf venrH hi^ fnrtunwi wor* tot4lly ruiued. when 

j< to tho^ disorder. 
lie."—' Vuen-kicn- 

rurba," ^* 

Mauol X«£hi, KiS, Japau. 


330 ; xii. 3.1, 491).— The Hiwlling , 
to be tho more correct Tlie 
oociirririi-' whcro it might !).• tu 

m s. I. .Tax. 0. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



«ynouym of "hoarfrost" is as small a« that 
attached to rhi/nn' us a gpoken sound. In 
the Tinm Literary Supplement of Ift Uecern- 
i)pr, 19<)3, p. 365, it is pointed out that John 
Milton favoured the spelling rim-:. The 
article on 'The Manuscript of " ParafJise 
Lo*«t"' contains these words : — 

" And alill more charactoriutic of the individual ia 
tlic chauge of 'rhinie' in(o • n(n<«.' This is nni\ of 
lite (lorreotions that the print. ' ': ,[, 

I'earce, noticiii); thai in tli.' -: 

tht) word ' rime 'six times wii . id 

that Milton had used the uurd wLme \i uci:iti'8 
in the jvoctii (t Ui) in a special sense. A reference to 
this iiianiiscript would have showu him that the 
inconBiateney was not the poet's." 

Would not Milton bid us write " poets" ? Of 
what use is the apostrophe before thogenitival 
or potsBessive s\ K. S. Dodgsoh. | 

fMu. IfoLDEN MAf'MicnAKL iiotes that '"To 

Wttlsheniftn for makiua a ri/tnt. 10,*.," occurs among 
Henry Vll.'s I'rivy Purae cxitentes (S. Bentley a 
• Ej:cerplR Hislorica,' 1831, p. 101).) 

" MAIrf ON REVIENT T0U.J01IR.S " (0'*' S. Xii" 

308).— The words "On revicnt toujoura a ses 
preraicTe« amours " are quoted by several 
authorities as a French proverb, and pro- 
bably Etienne, in ' Joconde,' merely intended 
to quote the proverb. Tliu follovving lines, 
from ail ode by Lebrun (died 1807) entitled 
'Mes Souvenirs, ou les Deu.x Jlives de la 
Seine,' are at all events of earlier date than 
' Joconde': — 

Ce iiremier senliment de I'aaio 
Lai^se un Jong suuvuiiir <\\iii ricn no jwut uaer; 

Kt cost dans la pren>i*-re flammc 

Quest tmit le nectar dn h&iser. 

If the idea were token literally, it might 
be referred perhaps to Pliny'a 'Hist. Nat.,* 
X. C:\, where he say*: " Cervi vicissira ad 
alias traiiBeunt, ct ad priores rodeunt'; but 
the French proverb is generally held to mean 
that one returns to ones firut love eu souvenir 
only. Another proverb has it that "II ne 
faut pas rcvenir sur ses premieres amours, ni 
aller voir la iju'on a admin'e la voille." 
Proljably </</.« advice nhould be taken lite- 
rally.^ Of, "Toujoursi souvient a Hobin de 
ees tintes, ' another French nroverb. 

The first paracraph of ch. xii. of Scott's 
* Peveril of the Peak ' contains Boriio remarks 
that are periiaps pertinent to the question. 
Edwaki* LATtrVM. 

TiiK Oak, the Asii, asv tue Ivy (9"' 8. 
xii. 32H, -13.3, 4!l2).-To a Notlliorner "bonny 
ivy tree."' is, as I have said, meaningless, 
aimply because ho would not, say that the 
ivy, whether a tree or bush or what not, wasi 
" bonny, ' which the mountain ash i^. The 
.juotftiion given by U. 0. P.. from Wickliff's 
Bible in beside the question, as it is not ao 

"ivy" tree that is referre<i to, but a yew 
("yue"). In the Authorized Version it is a 
juniper tree that is named ; in the Revised 
Version the broom, much more likely trees, 
or rather bushes, than the "ivy" to sit 
under. II. B— n. 

Mr. Colema>' is, I think, mistaken, 
Xothing has been said, unless at other refer- 
ences than those given by him (9'^' is, xii. 433), 
concerning the lines in question. The refer- 
ences to which he directs attention relate to 
the question of the priority of the oak over 
the ash, or lutv iw«tl, in leafing. 

It docs not seem to have been noted by any 
of your correspondents that the lines 

The oak, the ash, and the bonny ivy tree 

Flourish bravely at home in my own country, 

are the burden of an old ballad, a black- 
letter copy of which is in the Koxbuighe 
collection (see 'lloxburgho Ballads,' isy.3, 
ed. by J. Woodfall Ebsworth, vol. vii. p. IGy). 
The proper title of the ballad is 'The 
Northern Lassie's Lamentation ; or, the 
Unhappy Maid's Misfortune.' Tlie whole of 
the verses will also bo found in William 
Chapijell's 'Popular Music of the Olden 
Time, vol. ii. p. 4.o7. Here also the burden 
of the ballad is 

The oak, and tlio ash, and tiie bonnie ivy tree. 

Another black-letter ballad, in the Douce 
collection, p. 135, is entitled 'The Lancashire 
Lovers ; or, the Merry Wooing of Tliomas 
an(i Betty.' I'c. (early Charles II.), .ind this 
also has the burden as first quoted above. 
(See * Old English Music,' by William 
Chappell, new edition by H. Ellis Wool- 
dridge, 1893, vol. i. pp. 270-7.) 


DonoTUY NuTT (0"^ S. xii. .387).— Sir Henry 
Blunt. Bt., married, March, 172 J, a Dorothy 
Nutt, daughter of William Nuit, of Walt- 
hamstow Essex. Sir Henry wa.s great-great- 
grandfather of Major Edward Walter Blunt, 
who married the Countess of Cromartie. 

H. S. V.-W, 

BiDINu TIIK Br,.itK Bam (0"' S. xii. 483).— 
CoUinson's ' History of Somerset' quotes this 
"ancient custom " in the manor of Kilmers- 
don ; and I have an engraving of it 
which was given to mo many years ago by 
the former steward of that manor. Tho 
widow in ray print is seated astride in the 
orthodox fashion : she is attired in a fJre«ij 
which the artist evidently meant to represent 
as of tiie Eli/.al)ethan era, but I am pretty 
sure tho dale of tho engraving is not earlier 
than the end of the seventeenth centurv. 
The name of tho publisher has unfortunately 

-^ •- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io«« s. i. jan. 9, i9w. 

been cut off the priut, below which appear 
the words "Custom of Riding the Black 
Ram.' H-x, 

This old manorial custom is probably of 
far higher antiqaity than the illustrated 
broadside alluded to by L. L. K. would 
appear to indicate, for there is an account of 
it in Cowel's 'Interpreter; or, Law Dic- 
tionary,' the first edition of which appeared 
in 1G07. Whether it is to bo found in this 
first edition, however, I cannot with certainty 
say, but it probably is, and it certainly is in 
the edition of 1727. The passage referring 
to the widow should be : "The widow 
shall have her Free bench in all [not " hall "] 
his Copyhold Lands" (i.e., in the lands of 
the customary tenant deceased). *'The like 
custom,'' continues Cowel, "there is in the 
Manor of Chaddleworth in the same County ; 
in that of Torre, in Devonshire, and other 
Paris of the West" {vide 'Free-Bench ') ; and 
in Blount's ' Law Diet,' 1717, in the Reading- 
Room copy at the British Museum, is what 
appears to be a contemporary MS. note, 
which is added to the article on 'Free- 
bench,' stating that "in effect the same 
custom is in the manor of Leichland," in the 
county of " Gloucester " (query the chapelry 
of Leighland in Somersetshire, or Leenlado 
in Gloucestershire). See also Toralins's ' Law 
Diet.,' and the Sjiectator, No. 614. Lysons 
says that "at every court the jury still 
present this as one of tlie ancient customs of 
the manor " {i.e., at East and West Enbourne) : 
"The peaalty ha» not been literally enforced 
within the memory of man, but it is said that a 
pecuniary commutation has been received in lieu of 
it, which perhaps may have been more readily 
Bcoepted, from the ditiiuully of procuiing a proper 
asimat for the pur|>08e.'' 

J. HoLDEN MacMichael. 

A copper- plate engraving representing this 
ceremony will be found in tho Witi' Mttun- 
line for April, 1785. Tlio letterpress de- 
acribing the picture is extracted fn>m the 
Sptrtatf/r, No. 623, Monday, 22 Nov., 1711. 
W. F. Pbidkaux. 

Places and particulars of this custom np- 

Bear in connexion with the word ' Bench ' in 
Barclay's 'English Dictionary,' 1808. 

H. J. B. 

Maet, Queen of Scots (Q"" S. xiJ. 148, 
196, 23R).— 1 quote the following from Hill 
Burton's 'The Scot AbroatI,' first edition, 
1864, vol. J. p. 68 :— 

" Mo.qt conrpicuous and illuatrioos amonK the 

•mr- " '" i-'-o.,,... ...^,.. .1 ...1,,, i.,.i — :,i .,, 



lotMii, iiirtaucr. Il w Uie old iScoU ainiUiug, 

the other— namely Stuart— having been gradually 
adopted in deference to the infirmity of tlio French 
lanfcuage, which is deficient in that ainewy letter — 
a half -breed between vowel and conaonnnl— which 
we call If. This innovation itand» in the pereonal 
nomenclature of onr day, a trivial but distiitct relic 
of the influence of French manners and habits over 
our ancestors." 

\v. s. 

The following order for the proclamation 
of the marriage between Darnley and the 
queen may be of interest in reference to 
above. It is taken from the ' Piuik of the 
Kirk of the Canagait.' 

" The 21 nf July anno domini 1565. The quhilk 
day Johne Brand, Mynieter, presenlit to ye kirk 
ane writtinc— written be ye Justice Clerk hand 
desyring ye kirk of ye cannoyait ande Minister 
yureof to proclame harie diik of Aibnynye Krle ' 
of Roise on ye one ])arte. And Marie by ye graco \ 
of (Jod nuene of Scottis Soverane on ye uyer part. 
The quilk ye kirk ordainis ye Mynister to do, wyt 
Invocatione of ye name of God." 


"Top Spit" (9"' S. xii. .Xi.')).— This is a, 
well-known gardeners' term for green swardjl 
taken up to the depth of a spade, or loss* 
depth, and piled up to decay for liglit soil 
used in potting, J; c. See 'Mary's Meadow/ 
by Mrs. Ewing. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

This term is hardly a provincialism, for it 
abounds in horticultural literature. Thus,, 
"The top spit of an old pasture mak( 
capital potting soil" (Sutton, 'Cult, Voget 
and Flowers,' 1892, p. 311), To save the 
expense of removing it themselves, builders 
sometimes advertise "top spit given away." 
Only a day or two ago I noticed a board 
with this superscription. J. Dobmeb. 

"As MERRY AS GbIGGS" (0'^' S, ri' '"'*-^ — 
Griofjs is a StafFordslni-e word for 
and Josiah Wetlgwood, the Stui: 
potter, no doubt used it in this way. 

W. HoDOEa, 

My wife tells me that in Yorkshire she has 
often heaifl children called (7jiW<— that is, 
when they are about four to eight year? of 
age. W. U. M. G. 

I have always understood that a grigg was 
a tadpole. Afl a youth I used to fish for them 
both under this name and that of "^ bull- 
heads." Cha8. F, Fobsuaw, LL.D. 

Baltimore House, Bradfonl. 

C.VNI.LKMA.H OH.t> (9"" S. xii. 430).— This 
custom was doubtless a survival of the once 
universal "church ale." Church ales wef 
when the people went from afternoon praye 
on Sundays to their lawful sports anc" ^ 


io^s.i.j^s.9.i9o*.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 



times in the churchj'ard, or in the neighbour- 
hood, or to some neighbouring inn, where 
they drank ale and made merry. By the 
benevolence of the people at these pastimes, 
raany poor parishes iiad their bells ca»t, 
b^utified their churches, and raised stock 
for the poor. Warton, in hi« ' History of 
English Poetry,' says that the church-ale wan 
a feast established for the repair of the 
church, or in honour of the church saint, &c. 
In Doda worth's MSS. there is an old inden- 
ture, made before the Ileformation, which 
not only shows the design of the church-ale, 
but expfaiuH this particular me and applica- 
tion of^ the word "ale." Tlie parishioners of 
Elveaton and Okebrook, in Derbyshire, agree 

" to brew four Ales, and every Ale of one quarter 
of malt, betwixt this and the feast of Saint John 
]taiitigt next comini>. And IhnI ertrn uihahUaiit of 
tht naifi toii'ti of Okrhrook ahtiU Ik «/ the xtreraJ AIm. 
And every liiisband and his wife shall pay two- 

Jieneo, every cottager one tienriy, and all the in- 
iiwbitanta of Elveston shall have and roceivo all 
the profits and advantages coming of the said Ales, 
to the use and behalf of the said church of Klveston. 
And the inhabitants of Klveatou shall brew ei^ht 
Ales betwixt this and the feast of 8t. John Baptist, 
at the which Alea the inhabitants of Okebrook shall 
come and par as before rehersed. And if he be 
away at one Ale, to i)»y at the toder Ale for both," 
fcc— MSS. Bibl. Bodl.. vol. oxiviii. fol. 97. 

See also the Church Canons given in 1603, 
Can. 88 (Warton, ed. 1870, p. 709). 

The ehurchwardena' accounts for the 
expeu-ses of Pyrton village church, in Oxford- 
shire, which dat« from 1547, show that the 
various ales or feasts constituted its chief 
source of income. See also 'Church Ales,' 
by E. Peacock, in the Archoeological Journal 
of, I think, either 18&3 or 1886; Stubbs's 
*Anatomieof Abuses,' 1585, p, 95 ; Introduc- 
tion to Aubrey's ' Nat. Hist, of Wiltshire,' 
p. 32 ; and Brand's ' Pop. Antiquities ' (Bohn, 
1853), vol. i. p. 282 


}0l. Hammersmith Road. 

Has Mr. Andrews forgotten that a similar 
question from him appeared 5'" »S. i. 608, and 
that a reply, aLso from his pen, was given at 
j)U> S. iii- 274 ? EvERABD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

'Edwin Deood* Continued (9"* S. xii. 389, 
510).— The small pictures on the original 
green covers of ' Edwin Drood ' must have 
been inspired by Dickens himself, and some 
of them clearly relate to unwritten parts of 
the story. Any hypothetical conclusion must 
^t in with these drawings. It has always 
seemed to me that Mr. Uatchery— thegentle- 
JOOAa who, ostentatiously carrying bis uat in 


his hand, makes a show of his head of white 
hair, and ciuietly interviews the persons con- 
nected with the *' mystery "—is no other than 
Lieut. Tartar, the naval friend of young 
Landlots, trying, in disguise, to get at the 
bottom of it. 

Jasper probably used the knowledge of the 
cathedral which he obtained from Durdles to 
secrete Edwin Drood, alive, in one of its ob- 
scure recesses. W. C. B. 

Vidi ' Watched by the Dea<l : a Loving 
Study of Dickens's Half-told Tale,' by Hichard 
A. Proctor, the well-known author of many 
popular works on astronomy. It was pub- 
lished in 1887 by W. H. Allen i Co., 13, 
Waterloo Place, London. 

T. N. Brushkield, M.D. 
Salterton, Devon. 


xii. 127).— 

*' Yet we ore very Rravely assured by some of the 
reverend in issionariea, that ' the Chinese are entirely 
igiioraut of all games of chance'; that 'they can 
enjoy no amusenieiits but snch as are authorised by 
the laws.' These gentlemen surely could not be 
ignorant that one of their moat favourite sports is 
cock-fight in<r, and that this cruel and unmanly 
antit^'mtu/, as they are pleased to consider it, is fiill 
as eagerly pursued by the upper cloasea in China as, 
to their shame and disgrace bo it spoken, it con- 
tinues to bo by those in a similar situation in some 
parts of Kurotw. The training of quails for the 
same cruel purpose of butchering each other fur- 
nishes abandanoe of employment for the idle and 
dissipated. They have even extended their en- 
quiries after fightmg aaimals into the insect tribe, 
in which they nave niscovered a species of gr(t(ltu, 
or locust, that will attack each other with such 
ferocity as seldom to quit their hold without bring- 
ing away at the same t»me a limb of their antagonist. 
These little creatures are fed and kept apart in 
bamlMo cages ; and the custom of making them 
devour each other is so common that, during the 
summer months, scarcely a boy is seen without his 
cage and his grasshoppers."— Barrow's 'Travel* in 
China,' 1804, chap. iv. p. Id0. 

"Thifi insect [the praying mantis or soothsayer] 

is a very stupid and voracious creature It devours 

without mercy every living insect it can master. 
Their propensities are so pugnacious that they fre- 
quently attack one another. They wield their fore- 
legs like sabres, and cleave one another down like 
dragoons; and when one is dead, the rest fall on 
him like cannibals and devour him. This propensity 
the Chiucse avail themselves of. They have not 
the veneration of Europeans for their imaginary 
qualities, so they use them as game cocks, and 
wagers are laid on the best fighter."— Dr. \\'»l8h 
[r. lKiS-30?J. 

" A ferocity not less savage exists amongxt the 
Muntfi. These insectA have their fore-legs of a 
construction not unlike that of a sabre ; and they 
can OB dexterously cleave their antagonist in two, 
or cut ofi his head at a stroke, as the most ex[>ert 
hussar. In this wav they often treat each other, 
even the sexes fighting with the moet savage 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo"- s. i. j.n. ». i904. 

animosity. Rii'^el en/lenvonrcd to rear seve'i-nl 
speciinons of Mnutix reli'tiuAn, hut always fitiled, 
tne atroiit^ei' oonHtantly tle\'oiiriiiK tho weaker. 
This ferotioiiB jiroperjsily the Uhineso children 
bave. B-'coriiin? to Mr Ilarrow, emfiloycd as a 
80; ' I'Uia anivisemunt, selling to tht'jr 

C" ' <:a(;e8 containing eiich n Mantia, 

wL .'thcrtofight. '— Kii'byaudyiience. 

'lutroiiutiiiuu U> Kiitoiiiolugy,'aevenlh «ditioa, 1856, 
letter ix. r- 100. 

Adrian Wheeler. 

Ckows8 iw Towkb ok Spire of CHUR<;n 
(9'" S. xii. 4^5 ; 10"' .S. i. 1 7). -I caunot find 
any such place a-s Chauipery in ihis county, 
atifl Kelly, usually to be relieJ on, fails to 
help to discovery. Has your contributor 
misread his notes, or has the compositor 
misread the MS. of the query? 

Fred. U. Frost, F.S.I. 
TeiRDcnouth, Devon. 

In a story publisheil in ' (?o<xJ Words,' 
1863, it is 8tate<l tlmt the Swedish Senate 
placed a large gilt copper crown upon the 
spire of a church in the Dalecarlian Hills, to 
coininfitniMata the fact that in the church 
there the curate sheltered and hid Oostavus 
Vasa in the hour of his danger and distress. 


xii. 480).— There are verv few Lancashire wills 
to bo found of earlier date than tho middle 
of tho sixteenth century. At the CliCiter 
Probate Court your correspondent will find 
the wills for Cheshire from 1545 to the 
present date. Those for Laiteashire south of 
the Kibble are also there up U> a quite receut 
dale. The wills of people liviuf; north of 
the nibble were provetl at Klchinond, in 
Yorkshire, and are now preserved at Somer- 
set House, London, except those after 1724, 
which are at Lancaster. 

A complete list of all wills has been 
printed by the Ilecord Society of Lanca>ihire 
and Che.shire, as a list of 'Wills, Inven- 
tories, Admini-stration Bonds, Jcc , 1487-IG"20,' 
which are deposited at the Diocesan Ilogistry, 
Cheshire. These documents have only 
recently l>een discovered. If your corre- 
aponrient. will write to rae, I will give him 
farther detail.^. Henry Fbhwick. 

The Heights, Kochdale. 

A complete index of the wills proved at 
Chev<»ter oetween 1545 and 1800 has been 
printed by tho Record Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, and the originals may be con- 
sulted at Chester in the ordinary way. 
Sotue few Ijancashire wills prior to th' 
fnrr •' -•■ f. of the Chester bishrr- — - ' 
/>' ! at Lichfield, where t! 
f/a/ ,, jr.w. The index to ti.. .. - 

to [f)')2 has been printed by the J^rilisli 
Record Society. vV. D. I'ink, 

Lowton, Newton-Ie- Willows. 

In a very useful little book which I have 
consulted on many occasions, entitled * How 
to prove a Will,' by Thomas Kiua (fourth 
edition, 1884), I find that the jurisciiction of 
the District KeKistry at Chester ejctcnd'* 
throughout the county of Chester, including 
the city. The oflice at Lancaster embrace* 
the county of Lancaster, except the hundred 
of Salfoni and West Derby and the city of 
Manche*iter. No date* are piven. 

The Ijanoaster anfl Cheshire wills were 
edited for theCIhetlmm Society by the Kev. 
(J. J. Piccope, which may answer your 
correspondent's purpose. 

71. Brecknock Road. 

[Mn. AucuiB.\Lrj .Si>akke sends aimilftr infornia- 

Economy (9'" S. xii. 486).— The thought is 
from Juvenal, Salii"© xiv, lOS-13, 

H. A. Stkos<j. 
University, Liverjwol. 

Wrathkr O'" a xii. H8).-E. P. VV. asks. 
" Who was the cynic who wrote ' When tho 
Knglish summer set in with its usual 
severity ' " } See the postscript of Lamb's 
letter to Vincent Novello (cclxxvi. in Canon 
Ainger's edition) : " Suinm<r, as my friend 
Coleridge waggishly writes, has set in with 
its usual severity." The letter, or rather note, 
dated 9 May, ItfilO, begins, " You will not 
expect us to-morrow, I am sure, while these 
damn'd North-Eastera continue." 

El>\vabi> Bensly. 

The University, Adelaide, South Australlji. 

NOTK.'< ON B(X)KS, &c. 

'/7»e Ltllri-A of Ilorni-i: WtJpiilr, FoHrth Etti'l of 

O.rfftnl. (_"hronoloi;iciillv urrAUKod otid edited liy 

Mrs. I'dsel Toynljee. Iti volo. \*o!«. I., II., III., 

1\'. I173-J-<>S). (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

Tu.vT a new edition of Waliiole'a letters ia roqiiirttl 

has long l>een known to acnolara : that ono was in 

prepuraiinn mider the care of tho {ireaent e<liu>r 

tiiM l>e<?n evident to the attentive student, of our 

col. I ■*' • . r 1. , . ■ J .^ 

b.- , 

in I 

Iki" tiiuily at uur olluw, ami i 

US' i the rnain, truatworthv. i F 

1 '*-i III til. LVl \i } \tl 

I nun.'! I VI. t I': 

10". 8. 1, JA.V. 9. im.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Wnlpolc'B letters were iesued between ITOS, when 
370 of them tirtst saw the liuht, and IS37i when 
Cunninj;htim's ciitioii— proniisi'fi in eicht voliniicn. 
but eulaiged to tiiue — was issued ay RiL-hard 
Benlley, wlio was responsible for previfmg t-oltec- 
tious edited by Loril Dover, John Wright, K. 
Vernon Jjniitii, arrl ihe Rev. J. Milford. Since 
1857 over 400 new letters have been recovered, 
raisirii,' the cniiro number now published to 
It.iKil. SujiirfH-ftci and ol)litcraled pasflu^et*. the 
history of t.ijii]e of whlcli i» curious, have been, 
so far as is possible, restored, the chronology 
of the entire series has been carefully checke(f, 
ilUifltratis'e notes and comments have been added, 
.■»ii(l the edition may bo accepted as virtually com- 
iilcte and 6nal. Access for purposes of revision 
has been in one or two instances withheld with 
what seems almost like churlishuesa. In most 
ca>se3, however, constant efforts to facilitate Mrs. 
('agetToynbee'a taakhavebeen made, and thoedition 
is iledicated to the Earl and Countess Wuldeijravo, 
wlio posBefis ot Chewton Priory the finest collection 
of \ValiK.ile .MS8. 

HiRhly us they have always been rated, the Wal- 
pole letters have not even yet obtained adequate 
recognition, Thot Walpole ii the beat English 
letter-writer is yenerully admitted, though in this 
instance, ai in others, fertility is one of his chief 
claims to distinction, f'o have left among so many 
brilliant ]>agc8 uot a sin&;Ie dull page is, iu it.self, no 
■mall triumph. Une still higher is accomplished in 
giving us, as he ditea, the very best picture we 
pouesa of the social aspects in England of that 
•ighteenth century which we never weary of con- 
templating,'. In u way Walpole is to be compared 
with Pepys. The men were, of course, aa unlike as 
they can he. Wli,it Pepys did, however, for a few 
years of the seventecntn century Walpole did for 
more than half of the eighteenth— that is, sujiplied 
a series of pictures so lifelike and exact that 
from them we obtain a view clearer and more 
definite than can be gained from all other sources. 
Among minor points of resemblance it may be 
indicated that both had to wait long before their 
Itreat work was set in an adrtpiate form before the 
^World, and tliat in the case of each mi unsavoury 
residuum was left which defied the courage of their 
latest editor. In the case of Pepys we have a fair 
jdea what are the iiissagea Mr. Whentley with- 
; in Ihnt of \valpol6 we are loft in entire 
nee, though we arc jirejiared to find cynicism 
" of indiscretion tlie cause of the suppressions. 
We are not comparing the works in value. To 
obtain a couple of years more of a record $uch as that 
tjf 1' ^ v\e would pay gladly the most exorbitant 
y ' ould easily l>e demanded. No similar 

ei 1:6 of joy Would attend the recovery of 

illier Itllcrs of Walpole. Yet all such would be 
lilioat valuable ond welcome. From Mrs. Paget 

^T 1 -■ ■ •■•'ihiction we learn that taniftering 

' f Waljiole is not unknown. For 

t '.'8 under which transcripts of the 

Lcnginal lolur^ were executed by Walpole, and 

(for tiio manner in which Walpole's intentions were 

thwarted in part by his seuretury Kirgate, who 

inade what seem to be unauthorized copies, we 

ftnust tvft-r tlip •■c.\'b"r to ihii editor's x>reface, p. xvi. 

Mr?, i wiiys at the same reference: 

**(>ii lOo Waljiolo's transcripts 

f'>" .cry was made that a very 

1 iKDv have been nuppressed in 

ii ' , iilthoDKb no indication what- 


ever of any omission was given by the original 
editors." Many of these passages, occurring in the 
earlier letters, are pronounced "quite unfit for 
publication. ' Whatever it has been found possible 
to restore lo the text has been restored, and ontia- 
sions from the text atid the notes are, it is slated, 
plainly anil sutKuiertlly indicated. Letters to H&nnali 
More, of which there oro thirty-four, have also been 
tani]iered with and disfigured by the cancelling of 
passafie.s and the eriuture of proper names. Worst 
of all, the chaste Hannah inserted iu the text, 
apparently in livr uwn handwriting, words and 

Ciirahes of which Walpole is guiltless. The beat has 
eeu done to remedy these laches, but the work of 
destruction has been in some coses only too care- 
fully carried out. 

bnlil the work is further advanced, and we aro 
in possession of the careful analytical index which 
is to be a sftecial feature, it is impossible to deal 
fully with it. The scheme, commendable in itself, 
is, 80 far as we can see, finely carried oat. We 
know not what conceivable boon could be more 
welcome to the scholar. How zealously the editor 
has worked is known lo our readers, and the result 
is proportional to the labours bestowed. Vol. iv. 
ends in 17*30 with the death of (!eorge II., and the 
most interesting jiortiou of the record, though not 
perhap!) the moat historically important, is to 
begin. Each volume contains four illustrations, 
oonsiBtin;; ])rincipalfy of photogravure reproduc- 
tions of Walpole and his circle. These are excellent 
in themselves and of undying interest. Nothing 
can be better than the general execution of the- 
work, which will be a grace aa well as a necessity 
to most shelves. 

A Qmeodogieal ami Htraldie Tilctioiinfy of the 
Peerage ami Barointaije, t(-f. By Sir Uernar<l 
Burke. Erlileil liy Ashworth P. Burke. (Har- 
rison i!k bons.) 
Tmf. pre-eminence of Burkes ' Peerage,' never 
seriously contested, remains unassailable. Efforts 
to impugn its auihnrily are not unknown, and 
endeavours lo establish some form of rivalry are 
continuous. Si> far as they mean anything, the 
former const ilute an attempt to undermine th« 
htHtorical basis of much genealogy, while the latter 
are but familiar oJiiiccts of trade competition. What 
our great historical families have to tell concerning 
their own origin and annals is communicatpd l<> 
Burke. The information thus derived is subjected 
to minute investigation, in the conduct of which 
the best and most trustworthy heralds and genea- 
logists are engaged, a list of those by whom the 
labours of Mr. Asnworth P. Burke are assisieii 
embracing the namcj of almost all in whom yiublic 
faith is placed. The latest issne now np]iear8, 
bringing up the information to December, 190.'l. 
It is, of course, as complete and trustworthy as the 
best of its predecessor.'', and remains praisoworlhily 
full in regard to the information it supplies as l<» 
precedence. So far as regards the i>ecragei the 
year IWlS was. for reasons easily grasped, less event- 
ful than its predecessor, the nuniber of jjoers whose 

t' '■■ ■•:•" recorded being only fourteen as ogainst 

le. Three peerages became extinct, those 
'.,, DeVesoi, and Rowton, all throe recent 
•Mid popular additions to the lTpi>er Houfte. Lord 
Rnwtnn leaves unfinished— and, it is to be feared, 
j,ii i.,,f iiiirvtlempted — his promised life of Lord 
I, his former chief, but will be long 
(, od by the industrial dwellings that bear 




NOTES AND QUERIES. [m b. i. jak. ». iso*. 

hU name. Ainontt the new orcatians the most con- 
^pkuous ia that orLord bumhniM of Rait lUcn, the 
history of whose funiUy and deaceut is thiit l>rac- 
tloally of the great daily iiewgnaper he owns. None 
but too editor, wo are told, ana iiossibly the printer, 
can realize " how innumerable are the frenh facts 
that are anuuallv chronicled, and how many the 
changes constantly takinK place in family history." 
One of the most interestine articles in the pre- 
Aeut volume is that on the Barony of Faucouber;; 
and Conyers, the abeyance of the former barony 
having on "29 September, 19(.l3, been settled by His 
Majesty in favour of the Countess of Yarborough, 
already in her own right Baroness of Conyers. A 
barony, accordingly, which has been in abeyance 
for over four centuries, now rca|<pears. In con- 
nexion with the Barony of Conyers further altera- 
tions have been made, tlie proper style of the widow 
of the late Lord Conyers beine now Baroness Daroy 
He Knayth and Conyers. The decision of the 
Ponlett peera((e in favour of the younger claimant, 
son of the late earl by his late wife, which had been 
anticipated, ia recorded. Mr. ]tarko favours the 
establishment of a Committee of Privileges to decide 
on the succession to baronetcies, often an unsettled 
and unsatisfactory matter. Matter in abundance 
of actual and of enduring interest is discussed in a 
work each new issue of which is sure of a welcome. 

By beginning in the nunil>cr for liNH a review uf 
'Current Continental Literature' the FortniglUly 
retunu to an earlier condition of alTairs, the first 
flumbers of the Rfrun- including critical notices of 
books. Mr. A. J. Dawson, an authority on the sub- 
ject, writes concerning ' Tlie Situation in Morocco.' 
His ooansel, we may l>o sure, will fall on deaf ears. 
Two separate articles are devoted to Herbert 
Spencer, and one, by Mr. G. S. Street, to * The 
Creevey Papers.' ' Ibsen's Appronticeahip," by Mr. 
William Archer, shows how much the Norwegian 
dramatist, in bis earlv work, owes to IScribc, and 
constitutes a virtual history of the esta1>lishment 
of the Norwegian stage, the growth of which is 
modern.—' Some Notes as to London Theatres Past 
and Present," by Sir Algernon West, which appears 
in the Nineteenth Ceninry, demands consideration, 
but ia not (juite trustworthy in dealing with the 
past. It is not absolutely exact, for iustatice, to 
.May that up to the time of tiie Restoration no woman 
had ever appeared on the stage. Mr. K. B. Marstou 
(editor of the Fii/iitiy Oa.tlte) speaks of 'The In- 
crea»e of Fiah-destro>nng Birds and .Seals,' and 
aeems to think that some modification of recent 
legislation as to the protection of birds, &c., is 
oecesaary. He brings forward much testimony in 
favour of this view, which we are reluctant to 
accept. Prof. Herbert A. Titles writes on 'Jade,' 
Mr. Ernest Rhys on 'A Knight of the Sangreal,' 
Mr. W. S.Barclay on 'Life in Tierra del Fuego,' 
Prinoe«B Kro|xitkin on ' Lending Libraries and 
ChAap Books,' and Antonia Zinmiern on ' New 
Dtsooveries in Electricity.' — The frontispiece to 
the Pall MnJt consists of Maurice lireifTenhagen's 
drawing of 'The Murder of Kizzio.' M. Santos 
IJutiii 1 ribcs 'The .Sensations and I" 
f>f .'• igation.' In bis 'Litemi 

phy Jliam Sharp describea Hau 

the bleak "Bronte Country." In 'The Round 
Table ' .Mr. George Strunach falls upon Mr. Sidney 
Lm. and expoanaa his familiar views on the Bacon- 
ijhakesi*eare oontrovoray. — The Atlantic Motithlu 
<i0at/kiaa» fartiier instjilment of Sir Leslie Stephens 

'Editing,' which, w moat recognize, is virtually an 
Butobiogroiihy. It begins with his oondiioi of th'J 
Coiiiliiu Aiaijaduf,o.nrl passes on to the ' I'ictionary 
of National Biography, in dealing with which Sir 
Leslie pays u haudsoiiic tribute to his associate Mr- 
•Sidney Lee, .Subseciuenl portions descrilje men 
whom he met — Teiiuyaon, Matthew Arnold, Ruskin, 
Browning, Spcdding, Darwin, Huxley, Tynd&U, 
Herbert Spencer. The contribution is important, 
but the work is disappointing to admirers of Sir 
Leslie. ' Books New and Old ' i^ interesting, but the 
articles are of unetjual value. Warm encomium is 
in some instances rather recklessly bestowed. 
Mr. Kipling and Whistler are the stibjects of 
articles.— Lady Broome continues, in the Cornhill, 
her 'Colonial Memories,' Dr. Richard Carnelt bin 
'Alms for Oblivion,' and Mrs. Richmoud Ritchie 
her ' Blackstiok Papers.' Viscount St. Cyr«s is 
appreciative, perhftii.s unduly so, i ' "" .. 

dore Hook. Sir Altreruon NVesl 
about ' No. 10, Downing Street.' I H i| 

title of 'Historical Mysteries' Mr. Andiew Lang 
be^ns, with 'The Mystery of Caspar Hauser, the 
Child of Europe,' what will doubtleas prove an 
interesting series. Mr. Lang is at present addicted 
to the study of mysteries, but docs not claim to gu 
far in the direction of their solution. ' A Nineteenth- 
Century Philosopher' is a piece of persiflage. —Mr. 
William Miller supplies to the (.ffiitliman'i an 
account of ' Athens under the Franks ' ; Mr. Single- 
ton describes superstitious surviving in County 
Meath, many of which are, in fact, widespread ; and 
the Rev. W..T. Ward writes on 'Ciiaracter in Birds." 
— In ' At the .Sign of the Ship,' in Loii'/maus, Mr. 
Lang discusses the treatment accorded by M, < •. de 
Mortillet to Dr. Schlieniann's discoveries, and deals 
generally with the jealousies of antiquaries. Other 
subjects are humorously treated, including the 
< Eacycloptedia Britannica.' 

IFe muaC call sptcial cUtaUiou to the following 
notices ,— 

On all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secare insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a Bepai-atej 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer anff' 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer^' 
ing queries, or making notea with regard to previoos 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
Heading, the series, volume, and page or pages 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeal 
queries are re<|ue8ted to head the secood com 
Diunication " Duplicate." 

B. H. <i.— Reciprocated greetings. 

"'" lial communications should be addressed"! 
Kditor of 'Notes and Queries'"— Adver*^ 
1.4 ikod Busineos Letters to "The Pnb- 
liahei '— at the Office, Bream'a Buildings, OhADCerr 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to r«tumj 
oonunnnicattODS wbioh, for any reuoa, we do notj 
pciot; and to this mle we can make no exceptioo. 


io»s.Lj*j.9.ieM.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 




^m~ Last Week's ATHEN^UM contains Articles on 




NEW NOVELS :— Prior's Roothlng; Camilla Faversham ; A Forest Hearth ; Marie five; The Revellen. 

OUR LIBRARY TABLE :—Montaign©'8 Journal; The History of Hormizd ; Rome in Many Lands; 
A New Edition of Strutt ; A Woman's Walks ; In African Forest and Jungle ; La Jeanesse de 
Cyrano de Bergerac ; L'Apprentifsage de Valurie ; Pour ma Finlande ,- The Post Office London 


AL80 — 


SCIENCE : — Round Kangchenjunga; The Home Mechanic; Geographical Literature; Societies; 

Meetings Next Week ; Goaaip. 
FINS ARTS:— J. J, Foster on Miniature Painters; French and American Art; The Burlington Fine- 

ArtaClub; "Photogravure"; Sale; Gossip. 
MUSIC:— New Music; Oossip ; Performances Next Week. 



DRAMA : -' The Darling ot the Goda ' ; ' Gaston de Foix ' ; Goasip. 

TV yntttm r«r pbcshbem » nMtaini;— 




A oilMimiuoB Huox (» rrHtcs 


XIW MOVBLB :— Bkrb* ol Orud Ikjoa . l>»au Ucal, Tke VoUUUac 
at Ibe L«w i Allaoa't Ordeal . The Chaaer'i L.Q«k 



OIB LIKRABT TAKLS.'-A KB;«»aa« ot rinpln . Bamaatlc Tain i>t 
ttap raajilh ; Faatlnla ot Ptoitac* , Tba tUfe of TMaio i The 
KttlBf Oenanulon i TarrM «t SolaU n tfr Hronillanl ^ HlMolrc d«« 
LitU'catarM Oaiiipar(<«< : Vtt Anlti^t FrancalMi . f. C. O.'l Oarl> 
^are>. Uifnr4 Mlalatura 8haJicip«an , Uarden IHarTi Tha 
Gaatlt Art ol Makla* Eaemm i t'otiilet da Fojer et de Vflaoia: 
Tiro New Calaadan. 




80IBHCB; -Hooka en BaflaoerlBfli Chamlcal Iloflki ; B. Bih«- 
rkd(«, F.K.8 ; Soeletlaa -, Me«ilB|r< Next Woek. 

VUIB ABTS.— Th« Art o( the Italian ILenalaMae* : OampMltlna a« 
AppUat to Afskllcetare. Aiuortcan SheaiM . An OoUeoUoaa and 
Biovrapfcloi I Boocot frlaM , roruait MJalatnm-a Otatloa i 
O aia I |). 

MVaiO:— Oar Llbtmr; TkMa (Hamaal ropn. Lovar ol Uoalqae i Tblrtr 
Taara mt MaataM Ula i Wmmuru Ceiapoaara) Banr tcoutih 
MalaOaa; Tha leaca ot Bobari Bsraai Hoaaa at Famoai 
KaiteUiu , How to Mac i , Ooaaia , reriomaaeaa Next Week. 

UKlKA-' Ml ri«tch«r't Fault ' i ■■ i%thalrea " i Ooulp. 

TV XUMBJUt for DMCMMBU U eoMrati — 

LOKnoM In the TIKB of the 8T0AHTB. 

The OOIIS ol tha BOVPflANg. 


Tha roKM ol tho Cll>. 

MBW Ii<>VBLS:-The Waft ol the Mlllloaair* . CtirliUaa Tiial , Ijt. 
Larendar't People i Hire* DLaaai Tk« Voaait GeraJiOai How 
Uariiun Won , The Rtraoner Claim j The Uayi ol oar A(« ; LU. 




OUR LiBHABY TAULB.— The Middle Catteni QneUInn ; War 
Skotchea la Colour: Soma I.ea»ooft from the Boer War; Farther 
MecoUaelioni of a Iiiplnmall.t ^ Prvm farit to Neir York I17 Land ; 
Mr Poor Kela>lon> , lliaitraled IMItloDi of the Vicar of WakrOeld ; 
Baltoda ol the Uldca lime. Mra t'Iper and the i^oclctr for 
PlTChleal Beaoarchi SalKUona from Uarler'a roemi ; Jha Oin- 
hridse ValrenlS) Prati ' Mlcrocoamotr*phle , Paical'i ' 
Two Naw Shakipearoa ^ Year Bookn The PubUihcia' Ci 




SCIBNCB-UUB LIBRARY TAKLR — Kfimaac* of Modara Baal- 

■aoriac: Star* ol the AUaailc Oaoie ; Farmlef ; FracUoaal Olaal- 

latloai Sact«ti»< ; Meetiofe Neit We<k ; Opealp. 
7IMB ART.4 :— llolhain ; Tha Ooupll Oallary , " PhoiOfTavnrc " . Malaa 

Ironi RoaM s Sale* ; Ooealp 
MUSIC:— Harlloi Oealaaarr CoacoR, Popolar coacorti , Brmphoar 

Ooaiart: Hadane carrcoa'a piaaol»rt« RaelcaJ . Ooaitpi 

rorlooBAaoaa Baxt Weak . 
DRAMA :-Tha WtatnUaatcr rup 1 Oawlp. 


JOHN C. FRANCIS. Aibeiueam Office. fir«&m's BoildingB, Cbanoerr Lane, S.C. 

And of ail N«waag«ats. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo-- s. i. j^.v. 9. im 





Revised hy Btrype, many fine Copperplates, 2 vols, folio, c«lf gilt, 1720 £^ 10 


Suppleuient, i! vol^. I'ulio, ciilf, 1781 . . . . . . . . i'lO 


C'0L.NT1ES, (JouiplKe iSet, fi-om Comineucemeut in 1871 to 1898, in H vols, liiilf- 
calf, only 100 Sets printed .. .. .. .. . . X13 

Another Series, 1876-1890, 15 vols, in 9, half-«ilf . . . . . . XB 


BENTLEY'S MAGAZINE, Complete Set, 64 vols, new half-ca 

gilt, 18;!7-09 .. , . .. .. .. ., ,. X20 

FRASER S MAGAZINE, Complete Set, from Vol. 1, 1830, to the 

end of the Second Series, 106 vols, uniformly bound in huckram, 1830-1882 

£17 10 


the EICIETEEXTJI CENTURY, Ix)th Serie.s Complete, 17 volts, new half- 
morocco, gilt, t.e.g. uncut, 1812-58 .. .. .. ., -filO 10 

WALPOLE (HORACE).— LETTERS, Edited by Peter 

CUJSININGllAM, y vols. 8vo, cloth, lientley, 18UI . . . , £5 

WALPOLES LETTERS, Mrs. Paget Toynbee's New Edition, 

Bast Issue, 16 vols, (now being Subscribed) . . . . , , £V1 


1'>UI*IM<I tr«(klr bf JOHN C rHlNClB. Rrvam* Boliillkrt Ckaaeiry Uu«. S.O. ■ mil Pnaird bv JiiBK KljWAjtIl rKARCIB, 


% Ulfbium of liitcrrommuuication 



'WiM found, au.k« a sot« «f."--CAPTXIir CUTTtB, 

( Pkici 

No. 3. [s^rVoJ Saturday, January 16, 1904. \^'y^ 

Pkio: Fourpfjick. 

a Ntrntpnpn. SwOtrri tl 
I'tarly SHiMripH*n, lOi U p«< >»«. 



Or, Twenty-Four Years of Soldiering and Sport. 
By Brigadier-General Sir JAMES WILLCOCKS, K.C.M.G. D.S.O. 

With IIlostratioDS by Ladj HELKN OBAHAM, oameroiu Mapa, and a Portrait of the Author, ko, 
I Demy 8vo, 2I«, net. [Jvtt mU. 


Sometime Member o( Pkrilnment for Inv-ernm-fhtrr, iind 
DltMtor of the But India Companj- By HKNRY MOKKIS, 
Btadrat Civil Service (retired), Autbor of ■ The Livea of the 
Qoremor»-Generml of India,' kc With Portraits and other 

rlUiutratioo*. Demy 8to, \'H. net. [ Jfut out. 


With PbotOKTavure Illuitratloo*. 
In 9 voli. demy 8vo. lOi. erf. tiet each- 


{Jutt out. 
Vo uniform BdlUon of Motley'i UUtorieal Worki bat ever 
•xiit«d In BoKlaod, and for many yeara paat the original 
Ubrttry BdlUoiu o( the earlier worki hare beun completely 
ont of print. 


By O. H. KITTNKU. Illuatrated by a Seric* of beautiful 
Photographs taken l<y the AUTHOR. 8i)uare demy Bvo, 
lOi. M. net. [Hmxiy ntii itari. 


cted with China. By J. DYBR BALL, 
..Br.a.AS, H.M. Civil Service. Hong- 

' of 0«nt<>ilP>e Uitde Baiy,' * How to Speak 

Fourth Bdltion, R«vi*ed and Bnlarged . Demy 
lR4ady »tzt wttk. 

ETON IN 1829 1830. 

A Diary of Boating and other Event*. Written in Oreck 
by THOMAS KYNASTON SBLWYN, Newcutle Scholar. 
IKW. Bdlted, with Trantlatlons and Note*, by Kev. 
■DMOND WARKB, D.D., Hewl Matter of Br^n. With 
Map* and Illaitratiotu. Large crown 8vo, lOi, Sd. net. 


And other Studlet. By the Very Kev. O. W. KITCHIN, 
D.D., Dean of Durham. With IlluitratiuDi. Square demy 
Bvo, 13*. net. [Heady immtdiattly. 



Frfim t(« Commencement In IfDS to the Capture of Genetal 
Cronje'a Force at Paar<!cb«rg. An Account of the Cam[ialgn, 
with Comment* on the Strategy and Tactic*. Compiled In 
the Hilltaxy Ulitory Section of the German HoaiI Qiiartera 
SUIT. Tranabited by Col. W. H. H. WaTKRS, R.A. O.V O., 
late Military AtUch^ H.B.M. Embaaiy, Berlin. With Map* 
and Flan*. Demy Bvo, 1ft*. net. [Htaiy \mmtdiat4iy. 



For BngtUh Beader*. Book* 1 -VI. An Ki- 
tlon. with hilrfducllon ao.1 SoUn by 
BAMSAY. LIll.D. LL D. WHU Maw. Ac 
15*. net. '"' 

■ i{IUIi Tranila- 
OBOnnB U, 
Doony 8vo, 
'iaiy immtdiatti-/. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street, W. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. iw* tj. i. jax. i«. igw. 


Dr T- L WA-noH, 
oin/toxa OF tum PMMSt. 

hKtUUr.~"Am<Mt ralaaMscmtHbvUaalouebUMtBmtUUmtar*," 
hitUiuif A'bii.— " Mo t>«(C«r nM« «oaM to ■■■■<■' 
limMtr,' jMinuiL—'' AAmlnlblf pfOdBMd." 

- In" ~ 

Ultfaywv ibrohi— "A WHt iBIereatkac toIwo*, kb4 
J>iuU« >MKr<ii«r.--- A moM renurksM* book." 

(••M •( 

JAMI» MEUUKUWICK «. 80N8. OlUfow, ruWIikcn. 

ot Bonki, FkinplikcU. Ac , rataUnr U» liit CottBlf e( Samanoi. 
Wim rail Iii<l«x. »; KUANUBL UIUIEM. r.B.A. J veU. 4M, 

icnpp 31- >i. 

HAKUIMO. OnM Uanell Ufwl, W.C. 

TENTH BOITtUN. pric* t^KiwBre, <IMb. 

E SHARK ABLE COMETS : a Brief Survey of the 
nott lawrMUBi racu Ib tli« Hlitory ot CoBMiarf AMroBonf 
Br W. T HSK. B A. F.B.A.S 

■AMPllON liOW ft CO aL UaattBB'a Hoau, raUer Lbb*. BO. 

pkietl. DC m&ciar o* wnftt fttLb]«ci Arkafi«ii>dc»ii lac world o*«r 

rKAMUtB pnBUr of tac AVttH^u-m. Ktut mni u<Mrwt, *« . la 
pnparaa u 8l'HMIT BSTlMAVMa tor AU klaaa of HOUk, MBITS, 
ana PKKIOUICAL PKIMTIMO.— U, BrtMB'i l<«U«U(a, CkAsaarr BC 

\o NUTIIt krv urBKIBRrrvakwett i>10< 14. tor Kii MoaUt; 
•r«)> M inrTwalv* Mob»«,IbcIv«ib( Ut* Talaoa laaci -Jcjhn C. 
nLAMCIl, Xawi wU OwrMtUftM. Braua a BBil<tiaf«,UAaac«rT Lab*. 

■• KimiBaM wall row Mood. Ha 

Prom 4o*a or Oaau 4oU ItrlBg Ma padltrec "-SatEiamu. 

ANCESTRY. EnglUh. Scotch, Irii'li, and Americas, 
TRACBD from ^ATB RSCtJHlM. OpcclallCf . Weat of Bb>Iab4 
•ad BmlKiAat FAaiUiaa -Mr. KKIMELL-UPUAM. K. HaMoa UoM, 
Xx«i«r, AB« 1, rpban PbA IUaiI. Cht»wlek, Loadm. W. 

L. Ct'LLSruM. ti. PtoiaBlllj. Laaditt. 

Dtoa, Hou Papar.Be BpaelAl kli«BU»a aitto to a««ncT ol 
hMaMIc deaU. 

riHITIMO CAKIM: kac>«**< Copper plAta aad M toil a 
Card*, 3>. 

CULLferoMt. M, FiacBauir. Laaioa. 

(Tka LBAUBNUALL I'HBBft. UA . PaMi.lianud ]>rlBt«n. 
M, Loadaahall atraaC. Looaaa. HO 1 
Ooalala* kalrlaaa paper, our ariil;i> the pan ilipe wiife portaal 
troaaoat. Mtpaaaa aaah. it per doiaa. rated ar plaia. Ma« IVMkoi 
Msa. I*, per d«a«a, rolad or plala 

ABlkan aliaaM aeta Ibaa The Laadeakall frtaa. Ltd , eaaaar be 
raapaaalhia tar iBe laea a( lUB. kj Broar oiBeraiae. Uaplleaio eoplaa 

STICKPHAST PASTE is miles better than Gam 
tar eUaklBt Hi H(rap>. loiniat rac«r«. B<. M .M.. aad I). «ltb 
tmxf, «a«f«i Itfaaii (not a ri>T). Mod (vo aiaatpe le eatar poataf* 
lor a Muapla MoiUe. ib«1uUii>( lit«» Fatlarr. Basar Leaf Oean. 
LaadaahaJ Suooc. ac. urall«taiiaaer«. SUefcpbaatrMMNlaha. 

TUN BRIDGE WELLS.— Comfortablv FUR. 
1 MUHBii en-rrijio-HuoM aad umb or Twu r'bokuomb. 

aalat. plaaoBt. aad eaatiml Tkm mUntea' wmlk Iraai B.KR * C. 
BtaXtoB. Mo otBera OAaa.— K. U., M. Omre HIU Koad, Taakriet* 



Last Week's ATHEKiEUM contains Articles on 






OUR LIBRARY TABLE:— Our Regiments in South Africa ; The Russian Advance; Hortus Vitic ; Queer 

Things about Japan ; From Joarnalist to Judge ; Brugea-U-Morte ; Debrett and other Year<books ; 




SCIENCE :— The All Red Line ; Jlalfiematical Litcratnre ; 8 -cietiea ; Meetings Next Week ; oo.ship, 
F1N£ ARTS:— The Old Maaters at Burlington House; Blake Exhibition and Sale; ' Miniature I'ainiets'; 

JIUSIC :— Haydn's Arrangemenu of Scotch, Iruh, and Welsh Melodies; Gossip; PcrformancciNext W€ 
DRAMA :— Gofiiip. 


JOHN C, FRANCIS, Atbenieam Offioc, Breams Baildinga, ChaDO«ry Lane. K.C. 

Aod of all Newsa^nls. 

10". s. 1. xis. 16. 19M.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. -No. 3. 

nOTB8 :— The Ip«»l<ih Apprentice Books, 41 — Burtnn'i 
' Atmbniny o( tfelAnchoIy,' 4a—' AdArou to Poverty '— 
Pronunoi'&tlon of Seoul, 4U — 8hakMpt»rUn Altuilnot— 
Downing Family — Blbllo(lr»phy of Bpltapba — ' Martin 
Ohuzzlewit '—Fraudulent Ameruaui Diploma*, 41—" New 
facta re^ardiaK Sbakespeue," 45 — Wut Haaidon Fluld- 
namec, 48. 

QUBRIBS :— Weatem Rebellion, 1M9, 46 — Qlowworm or 
Firefly— Tln»el Charactera— 'Oxford Uolversity Oaleodar ' 

— Fltzhnmon— Veniion in Bummer — Comber Family— 
" Synclironlw "' ; " Altcrniitt " — ' Aurora L«l|;b '—Duke 
of SuflolWi Head, 47— ' Willy Wood and Greedy Qri«le' 

— Bohert aile«- We(t-C!ouatry Fair — St. Patrick at 
Orvieto — Tockett — Herbert Sprnoer on Billiard*-" All 
rxMds lead to Rome"— Cspt. Death, 48— A. C. Swinburne 
— Batelgb't Head—" ICeynca " mud " Khinea," 40. 

BRPLIBS -— Tbe Mother of Rlnua, 40— Immurement Alive 
— Cardlnala-Wykehamlcal Word " Toyi." fiO-"FI«cal" 
—Dr. Parkin* —SUake«pcare'a Geotfrapby— Qlaaa Manu- 
facture, ni — Morganatic Marrl^ige— Bmmet Md De Fon- 
teony Letter* —Carion— Pamela— Tidecwell and TIdealow, 
fta — " Paper*," 6:i —" Chaperoned hy her falber"- Flo- 
tltlous Latin Pluraii — "O com*, all ye faithful," 54— 
"From whence"— Ban^n WainirriKbt — Boui or Rowie 
Family, 6-S— Obildren'* Carol* aod Lullabie*— Quotation* 
— KlKut Hon. Biiward Southwell, 5S— 'Memoir* of a 
StoniACb '—Envelope*, b'. 

HOTKS ON BOOKS :-Inne*'i ' New Am*t«rdam and tU 
People '-CUrke'* ' Rlrgia Oralana'-' Burlington Maca- 
dne' — 'Scrlbiier'a Ma((azin«' — Book*eUer«' Catalogue*. 

RoUoM to CorrwiK>n<l<:nt«, 


The ftoding of these books was Qoite acci- 
dental. When I first went to the Town Hall 
and a»kc<l to be allowed to aeetbeearlv Appren- 
tice Books, I was told, as others iiad oeen 
before me, that there were none. A Hyetematic 
search among the accuuulatious in the muni- 
ment room inij^ht, it was admitted, lead to 
the diacoverv of a few scattered indentures, 
but the re«ult« would never repay one's time 
and labour, while as for any otticial register 
of enrolments, none had ever been known to 
. exist. 

Reference to the catalogues so obligingly 
|)rovi'led for tlie u»e of searchers seemed to 
put thi? view of the case beyond question, 
^he^c catalogues are two in number— the 

uport of the Royal Coramijtsion on His- 

>rical Manuscripts, 1883, Ipswich section, 
a manuscript catalogue compile<l bj' a 

imntn»'.iit private hand in 188i). Both are 

the outcome of much patient and 

1. research, and in neither of them 

there any mention of indentures of appren- 
iofiMhip prior to 1700. 

In tiiese circumstances I was quite pro- 
;»ared to accept the Ipswich Apprentice 

Books as a myth, when chance placed the 
books themselves— or, rather, what remains 
of them— in raj- hands. 

While scanning the pages of the Report on 
Historical MSS. I happened to observe that 
a certain register is described as containing 
early assessment lists, and thinking that 
these lists might perhaps include certain 
names in whicii I am interested, I asked for 
the book. 

It proved to be a thick, small folio, bound 
in ola parchment. The modern label on the 
back reads: "Register of Deetls and Wills, 
45 Elizabeth to IC'iI " ; but the moment I 
opened the volume I saw that the label was 
wrong. The familiar ''This Indenture" 
caught my eye, and turning page after page, 
to the number of several hundreds, I louaa 
nearly the whole book filled with articles of 
apprenticeship. It was, in fact, one of tbe 
" lost " Apprentice Books. 

One other similar register appears on the 
calendar, and this I immediately had oat. 
But here I was disappointed, for the rej^ister, 
although containing a score or two of inden- 
tures, is chiefly made up of deeds and wills. 
This volume is a heavy, large quarto, bound 
in old leather, and the period it covers is 
29 Henry VIII. to 3 Elizabeth. 

Between this register and the one purport- 
ing to begin 45 Elizabeth there is a lament- 
able gap, such as, I fear, no lucky chance can 
ever bridge. Repeated search has been made 
for the missing volume, but without succeaa. 
The gap is not quite so wide, however, as 
the fallacious label of the later volume would 
lead one to suppose, since the date of the 
earliest indenture in this volume is 1582. 

The two registers contain altogether about 
421 indentures, of which 40 are enrolled in 
the earlier volume, 21) Henry VIII. to 3 Eliza- 
beth, and 381 in the later. It will thus be 
seen that the important period 1582 to 1651 
is remarkably well represented. 

A brief search among the old court rolls of 
the borough brought to light two otiier Eliza- 
bethan indentures. These are originals, 
neatly engrossed on parchment, antl in both 
cases they have been utilized as covers for 

To turn next to the indentures themselves, 
a careful analysis of the enrolments di.scloses 
some highly interesting facts. Of the 423 
lads and lasses (for 3 are girls) who of their 
own free will and accord bound themselves 
apprentices to various trades, I became a 
chandler, 5 butchers, 14 tailors. 20 shoe- 
makers, and 50 shipwrights ; while 228, or 
rather more than one-half, succumbed to 
"the art, craft, and mystery of the sea." 




When we remeaber bow beAvy vm Uw 
eougnUioo £roai Ipswidi aad nei^boBxiiood 
between tbe years 1090 aod 1650, this iMi b 
sorely ose of greet ajgniftniica 

Tbe nwiority of t£e kpfneatkcs w«re, at 
ooane. Suffolk hd% bat Dot alL WUk 19 
bafled from Eaaex. and 18 fram Norfolk, 
▼arions other coantiet foond oiaaten in the 
town, or oat of the port of Ipswich, for -II of 
their restleas sons. 

Fifteen out of tbe 423 were tbe aocn of 
gentlemen, and nearly all of theae were 
apprenticed to tbeaea. 

I have made comfdete abstncte of tbe 
indentures, and flhall be PJeaaed to 
any inqoiries concemiiUE tneai. 

M. B. Hmnsmov. 

87, Lower Brook Strwt, Ipawieh. 


(See 9* 8. li. Wl. 222. 383, 322, 441 ; xiL 2, «; 
lfl2, aOl, 362, 442.) 

Ttre first six of the following notee oogbt 
to have been given earlier. 

Vol. i. p. 13, 1. 23 ; 2, 4e, "mihi A mnsia." 
See lipeiQii, ' Eplitolic. Qusest.,' lib. iii. epi 6 
(to Joeeph Scaliger) : " Non est alia conaolatio 
qoam ilia Antigenidse, iiihi ik Mosis." For 
the allusion see Cicero, ' Brutiw,' 30, 167. 

P. 20, 1. 13 ; 6, 39, "scriptoresntaalatentar."' 
See Strada, 'Prolaaiones Acad.,' lib. iii. 
pnelect. i. (p. 335 in Lyons ed., 1627) : 
*' Exeditque maltos mala hiec scabies. Poets 
ul vnlgo walatentar " ; and cf. Hor., 'A. P.,' 

|», 20, n. 10 ; 6, n. x, " Exercit. 28a" This 
reforciicxi t4> J. C Hcaligor vt left uncorrected 
by BhilleU;. It nhould'ho 22H. 3. 

R St. n. H; H, n. d, " Fam. Strada, Momo." 
H«e hi* ' FroluN. Ac»fl.,' iii. 1 (p. 33& of ed. 
tilled;. Tl)«) fthturd "volitando" in left by 
HhillnUt. It should, of (Ddrii! bo voluitindf). 
Ktra<lii'M w:ir<U " ■ :'-.nt" are an 

adaptation of i'laut, i ';2, a line which 

wa«i unwi by Au^iouiuii (a(>3. i). 

P. 22, Ji. 13 ; M, ri. f, "In opitaph. Nep,," 
tie. The pnMn^tt cif Jnromo in trom Epint. W>, 

LIO ; vt)f. xxii. col. r>iir> of Migne'u * Patr. 

p. 31, n. 7; 13) ti. q, "Non hio colonuH." 
Ac. To Ihift apparontly bolongn BartC)ti« 
imm«liat<'ly r»ri)(-i'dirin iiotii : "Put. Nnnniu.i 
not. in Mor. ' S<>g I'ot. Nnnriiu<4. ' MiMc«'l 
ianoa,' lib. iv. c 2« ; vol. i. p. l2HJi of Oruter'H 
'Tliwiiunn CriliouM': "Kko, i" iloratijitilH 
non (nn(]Uiini colonin doiiiiciliuin liaLnjo, iit»<l 
topinrii >" <<>>>iiMit iril^ir [»ro«rodiiinduiii hiiic 
iiidn lliii >." I won unablu to ciinNull 

tliii ' 'ri>' ^vh()n writing my lant pa|H!r. 

P. JB, L 17, and S. 3 ; 17, n. a, ** A«rip|» 
de ooc WSi,.. — Pnt Lectori" See dn. x S 
veno of GofMBn Anippa^ *Op^'^>L LX 
Lyoaa (per Dtoiam a fciitewi. •a,\ UShtUeto 
mv tbe orisiaK paaMflB bis tmnrfatioo 
•hoald bftve beas impoMblB. 

P. la, L » ; 17, SS^ »*a Hiaraa eat oC 
•Srang imaciBaSaoQ,* Ac Ep^ 32; Mi 
' E^tr. Lat^^ToL xxd. ooL 3U. 

P. aa, L 31 ; 17. 41, "carea ttoltorUB." CL 
Pdtag., *Zod. ViL,' isL 44: '*BWMlae stal* 

40^ L 14: 18, 38^ "leasbter itaelf ia 
aiiiii mii i ig to S ohMD Q o. "-- * - " --^ 

P. 41, L 9 ; 19. 18, ** Wbicfa Denocrita? 
well BignHWH is an Eptatle of Im to Hippo- 
ctmtea.'^ Hipp^ £pu la, L 

P. 43,0. 8; 90^ n, * "Ufai SL Platoots 
CooTiTia* Syinp. 231, c, a Tbia ■^^'tripfft is 
twenty-fifth in the order of tbe I^yooa ed. 

of i5oa 

p. 431 n. 4 ; 90, n. a, **natane wmenlaaii'' 
[D. Hernnns, *Orat. m los. SoaSgeci TtaMro/ 

p. 51 in his 'Orat,* ed. nov., 16J2J ; **tp^ 
eroditio'' [Heins., op. ciL, p. 46, "qui abiqoe 
nomen ScaJigeri famam^oe^ non at erttditi 
hominisj aed at eruditionis osorpare aolent^; 
" sol scientiaram, mare " [ih.^ p. 51, '^•cien- 

tiarum mare doctomm Solem "I ; "aotistes 

literarnm et sapientise'' [cf. the Utle of 
.\abertus Mirseus's'Yita lusti Lipsi Sapientise 
et Litterarum Antistitis'J ; "Aqaila in nubi- 
bus " [Lips., Epist., CenL t. misc. ep. 6, to Jos. 
Seal., " Aqaila in nabibu.<), (^nod Gneci dicunt, 
vere tu es^; "columen literanim " [Liptt., 
Ep., Cent. iL misc. 31] ; " abvssus eruditionis" 
[deina., C7>. at., 51] • '' ocellus Euronie, Scali- 
ger " [Lips., Epist., Quiest., i. 8, to Joe. ScaL,. 
'* ocelle Europ» Scaliger "]. f 

P. 13, 1. 13 ; 20, 28, " dictators." Heins., op"! 
cit., 51, " alii perpetuom literartim Dictatorem 
vocAr©- *' 

K 43, I. 17: 20, 31, "Atlas" [Lips., Ep.,j 
tJont. i, misc. C] : "portentum hominis" [setf' 
Heins., op. cit, 50J ; "orbis universi rausseum" 
[Hcins., op. cit., 59, of Scaliger's houfe] : 
"ultimus humanae naturte conatua " [see 
Heins., op. cit., 51]. 

P. 43, I. 19 ; 20, 33, 

— merito oui doctior orbia 
HabmisBU dofert fasoibua iroperiuin, 

ia taken from Lipa., Ep., Cent. i. misc. 21, 
where it is appliea to J. J. Scaliger. 

V. 44, 1. 11 ; 21, 6, " scurra Atticua, aaZeno." 
Cic, ' N. I).,' i. 34, 9.3. 

P. 44, I. 14; 21, 8, "Theod[oretu8] Cyren. 
hIh." Oricc. Affect. Curat-, serm. xii. ; Migoe'a 
' Patr. Oneo.,* vol. Ixxxiii. coL 1140, 1141. 

P. 46, n, 4: 21, n. b, "Cor Zenodoti et 

W^ 8. L Jan. 16. 19W.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



jecur Cratetis." Last line of an epigram 
of ^I. Furiug Bibaculus on P. Valerius Cato, 
given by Suetonius, ' De Grammaticis,' xi. 

P. 45, 1. 21; 21, 44, "Quis est sapiens? 
Solus Deus, Pythagoras replies." Diog. 
Laert, 'Pnxem./s, 12. 

P. 45, 1. 23 ; 21, 45, "only good, as Auatine 
well contends." ' De Nat. Bon. coutr. 
Mauich.,' 39; vol. xlii. col. 563 in Migne's 
' Patr. Lat.' The reference " Lib. de Nat. 
Boni" is wrongly attached in Burton, and 
left by Shilleto. 

P. 46. 1. 5 ; 22, 11. "asini bipedes." Paling., 
'Zod. Vit,' ix. 58G and xii. 3J4. 

P. 40, 1. 19 ; 22. 2.3, "as Lactantius provea 
out of Seneca." Lact, 'Inst.,' ii. 4, 14 ; Sen,, 
'Fr.,'121 {Haase). 

P. 48, 29 ; 23, 37, " Hippocratea, in hia 
Epistle to Damagetus." Ep. 17- 

P. 53, n. 6 ; 27, n. x, " E. Oriec. epig." ' Anth. 
P.'ix. 148. 3-4. 

P. 53, n. 7 ; 27. n. y, "Eras. Moria." P. 39, 
ed. 1851 ; a quarter through the * Enc. Mor.' 

P. 55, n. 6 ; 28, n. *. The reference to 
Josephus should be lib. v. c. 9 (69, 70). The 
Latin version is that by RufinuH of Aquileia. 
See vol. i. of Card well's ed. of the • De Bell. 
Jud." (Ox., 1837). 

P. m, n. 7 ; 28, n. h, Seneca. 'Fr.,' 34, ap. 
Augustin., ' De Civ. Dei,' vi. 10. 

P. 59, 1. 6 : 30, 12, "ignoto cselutn clangore 
remugit." Mart. Capella, v. 425, 1. 2. 

Edwabd Bensly, 

The University. Adelaide, South Australia. 
(To be eoHtinued.) 


A LKTTKRof Mr. R. A. Potta in the AthentFutfi 
of 3 October, 190.3,inducesme to hope that that 
gentleman may be able to afford a clue to the 
authorship of some lines which were pub- 
lished unaer tlie above title in ' The Poetical 
Register, and Repository of Fugitive Poetry, 
for 18136-7,' London, 1811, vol. vi. p. 264. The 
lines wore ^jigned with the initial L., and dated 
1 February, 1796. As they were printed in 
the seotioD of 'Fugitive Poetry,' they had 
prwumably been published earlier in some 
other form. By a letter from the e<litor, 
K. A- Davenport, addressed to Miss ilitford 
under date 17 Januan*, 1811, and printefl in 
the Rev. A. G. L'Estranee's book, 'The 
Friendships of Mary Russell Mitford,' i. 56, 
it would appear that tho authorship of the 
lines lay between Charles Lamb and Charles 
Lloyd. Though Coleridge or Lamb might 
reasonably invoke the muse of poverty, there 
seems no ground for Lloyd, who was tne son 

of a banker in easy circumstances, to do so, 
nor do I think that in the second month of 
1796 he had come sufficiently under the 
influence of Coleridge to write poetry of this 
pessimistic cast. At the date at which the 
lines were written. Lamb wa.s just emerging 
from the asylum at Hoxton, in which he had 
been confined during the winter of 1795-6, 
and hia mind was attuned to the gloomy 
atmosphere in which the jwem is envelopodf. 
I will venture to subjoin a transcript of the 
lines as a pendant to the sonnet under a 
similar title which is conjecturally attributed 
to Coleridge by Mr. Potts :— 


'Tis not that look of anguish, bath'd in tesrn, 
0, Poverty ! thy haggard visage wears— 
Tis not those famish d limbs, naked, and bare 
To the bleak tempest's rains, or the keen air 
Of winter's piercinij winds, nor that sad eye 
Imploring the small boon of charity— 
'Tis not that voice, whose agoni^.ing tale 
Might turn the purple cheek of grandeur pale ; 
Nor all the host of woes thou bnngst with thee. 
Insult, contempt, disdain, and contumely, 
That bid nie call the fate of those forlorn, 
Who 'neath thy rude oppression sigh and juoum : 
But chief, relentless pow'r ! thy hard control. 
Which to the earth bends low th' aspiring soul ; 
Thine iron Krasp, thy fetters drear, which bind 
Each gen'rouB effort of the .strugi^ling niiud !— 
Alas ! that Genius, melancholy iHow'r, 
Scarce op'ning yet to Kven's nurturing show'r, 
Shou'd by thy ]iitilo&B and cruel doom. 
Wither, ere nature sntilea upon her bloom ; 
That Innocence, touch'd by thy dead'niiig wand. '"^ 
Shou'd pine, nor know one outstreteh'n guardian 

hand ! 
For this, O Poverty ! for them I sigh, 
Tho helpless victims of thy tyranny ! 
For this, I call the lot of those severe. 
Who wander 'mid thy haunts, and pine unheeded 

there ! L. 

Feb. 1, 179(!. 

It is hardly outside the range of possibility 
that Coleridge and Lamb may both have set 
themselves, in friendly competition, to write 
verses on a subject which at a certain period 
of their lives possessefj in each case some ele- 
ments of personal interest. 

W. F. Peideaux. 

Seoul : its PRONUNcuxioy. — Standard 
works on Corea leave us in doubt as to the 
spelling and pronunciation of this name. 
Dr. Griffis, in fits 'Corea,' 1882. p. 188, writes 
as follows : — 

"The common term applied to tho royal city i» 

Seoul, which means the capital Seoul is properly 

a common noun, but by popular use has become a 
proper name, which, in English, nmy bo correctly 
written with a capital iuiliat. .•\coording to the 
locality whence they come, the natives pronounce 
the name Say'-ool, bnay'-ool, or Suy'-oor.' 

Inability to distinguish between s and «A, or 





[!()'•' S. I. Jan. 16. 190L 

/ and r, is a feature of both the Corean and 
Japanese languages. Ou the other hand, 
Capt. Cavendish (1894) always writes Soul, 
ana says it is "pronounced Sowl by 
foreigners, but Soul by the natives." It 
ama admitted that the word is of two 
_/llable8, stressed on the first, and that the 
second syllabic rimes with English "pool." 
The difference of opinion refers only to the 
first syllable, which some observers hear as 
English "say," others as English "so." The 
Germans accordingly represent it by the 
intermediate m (Soul) or fjiJ. It is charac- 
teristic of the confusion which prevails that 
Oppert, in his book 'A Forbidden Land,' 
]880, gives Saoul (iic) as the name of the city, 
but sjd-ur in his vocabulary as the word for 
capital. Jam£8 Platt, Jun. 

Shake3I'E.vriak Ajllubiomh. (See ante, 
p. 6.) — The following are perhaps worth 
adding :— 

" Truly intendiog what the Trag. Q. but fainedly 

In second hiuband let mee bee accurst ; 
NoDe weds the second but who kils the first: 
A necond time I kill uiy husband dead. 
When sccoikI husband kisses nice in bed." 

'The Philoaojihers Itanquet,' 3rd edit., 
1(33, p. 17-2. 

Printed also in the second edition of this 
book, 1614, p. 150. 

" And the longer our life ia, the more uumeruvis 
are our ainnes, even whole miriofU't: and at laat 
comes death, and with a little pin bores through 
our wall of health, so farewell main."— J hid., p. 25.1 

"This goodly frame of the world" {ibid., 
p, 321) is perhaps reminiscent of Hamlet. 

•'The frighted jndgnient of his braio, that ihen 
wae ray'd with his own hair, standing stiifo an end, 
like ported featJiers of some Porcupine." — ' HerUa 
Parietis,' Thomas Bayly, 16.10, p. 51. 

"/ thoiujht At hail Ijctn alilt. to /larc pluckt 

bright Honour from the pale-fac'd Moooe."— /7>i(i., 
1>. 124. 

There sits Ben Jolinson like a Tetrarch, 
With Chaucer, Carew. Shakeapcar, Petrarch. 
' Maronidci, a New Paraphrase upon the 
Sixth Uook of Virgil's .Eueids,' John 
Phillip». rnili, J). 108. 
All in lac'd Coats of Soarlet Chamlet ; 
And with them. Prince of JJniinnrk Hamltf, 

Jl>id.,i>. IW, 
This Kngine curst Sycorax her self could subdue, 
And they did a Viceroy out of Trincalo hew, 
"See I he famous * History of the Tempest, or the 
Inchanted Island,' wh«r»? thii is enplaiued."— 
* MaggotB.' Sii ' "■ ■ 1.116,118. 

When loft iim your Pen, 

Methinki ' 
•To .Ni 

Downing Family.— The following entry is 
to be found in one of the registers of Spex- 
haU, Suffolk :- 

"A.O. Fullerton, E«i., 27, Chaiwl Street. Park 
Lane, W., writes to me December 1, 1370, thus, in 
reference to the family of Downing, whose, name so 
early and fretiuently occurs in this Regisler Book : 
* I have a pedigree of the family from the Conquest 
downwards.' " 

As the author of the ' History of Downing 
College,' r have in vain tried to find out any- 
thing about Mr. Fullerton. 

H. W. P. Stkvens, LL.D. 

Tadlow Vicarage, Royston, Herts. 

Epitaphs : their Bibliooraphy.— Notices 
of works on epitaphs have apneared in 3"' S. 
iii. 287, 356, and v. 191, but they do not in- 
clude various books also existing on the 
subject, e.g., " A Collection of Epitaphs and 
Monumental In.scriptions, by Silvester Tis- 
singtou" (London, 1857), 517 pp., the most 
comprehensive I know. It would be very 
useful if a list of works were available up to 
date, as several have been published in recent 
years. W. B. H- 

Dickensiana : ' Maetix Chuzzlewit.'— I 
have recently noticed a slip in ' Martin Chuz- 
zlewit,' which — so far as I am aware — has 
not been pointed out by any correypondeut 

Pecksnili is in the vestry of the village 
church. He had just overheanl a conversa- 
tion between Tom Pinch and Mary Graham 
while he was resting in the churchwardens' 
pew after a long stroll on a warm summer 
afternoon ; and he had intended to slip out 
by a window in the vestry, because Tom 
Pinch had lock&l the door of the church ou 
leaving it with Mary :— 

"He was in a curious frame of mind, Mt. Peck- 
sniff: being in no hurr>' to go, but ratln 
t.o a dilatory trifling with the litiie, whi' t 
him to open the vestry euuboard, if-^ ' 
self in the parson's little glass that < 

door He also took the liberty ot 

cupboard; but he sliut it up again uui 
rather i^t&rtled by the sight of n b/nrl- 
ourpfii-t dangling against the wall, whu . 
much the u^'iicaraiice of two curates wh^ 
nutted suicide by hanging themselves.''- i 
vol. ii. p. W, Gadshill F-dition. 

Dickens evidently intended to say s gfrttm 
and a guri>lic<:. An academical gown, of 
course, is black : a surplice is invariably white. 
Frederick B. Firman, al.A. 
Castleacre, SH-aflfham, Norfolk, 


pii I 

Kuwicatioua,' IU»», A. li. 

G. TiiowfDaottY. 


■ -. (See references qu<jtcd at 0'^ S. 
xii. Itil.)— A certain matron in repented in 
the AOttxI«H Fttt Pit»», S9 April, ir«t3, ta 


lo- 8. 1. .UN. w, imi NOTES AND QUERIES. 




have hftd the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws conferred on her oy the Barrett 
College, North Carolina, but, shame to nay, 
both college and decree are fictitious. This 
is a timely illustration of my article in the 
last volume. There is no institution of this 
name in North Carolina, but there is one 
suggestively similar in sound, " Barrett 
Collegiate and Industrial Institute/' at Pee 
Dee, N.C., under the charge of its founder, 
the Rev. A. M. Barrett, D.D., LL.D. The 
Institute has a useful place for its purpose as 
a school for negroes (Keport of the Commia- 
siouer of Education, 1901, pp. 2318, 2328), or, 
as said in its charter of 12 March, 189.% "for 
the education and industrial training of 
colored people,'' with "all the corporate 
powers, nehts, and immunities of trustees of 
similar colleges in North Carolina," including 
the "power to confer all such degrees a.s are 
usually conferred in colleges or universities" 
(see Curriculum of the Barrett Collegiate and 
Industrial Institute, Pee Dee, North Caro- 
lina). As to the conferring of degree in 
Europe, Dr. Barrett writes (19 August, 1903) : 

" We have a Board of Directors in that country, 
and we are governed by them. We do not sell any 
degree whatever. If a genllemaii wUh to aid us, 
we thank him, and as thoro has been ao much said 
through the pajiers al)out the oollege in Tenn., we 
shall be very careful, as we have already been." 

The source of the lady's LL.D. degree is 
obvious, and bo is its value ; so is also the 
difficulty of providing against all abuses of 
the degree-confernng power. There appears 
to be no limit to the power of this Institute, 
and an M.D. or D.D. is as ea-sily conferred as 
the LL.D. The coloured gentleman at the 
head of the Institute is probably expressing 
truly hia own feeling : " We are struggling 
to educate the race, and we are compelled to 

Eush if we are to make it." If we read 
Btween the lines we can realize the whole 
situation ; but there is no excuse for the 
State's granting any such unlimited power, 
or for the powers bein^ exercised in Scotland, 
or for any one's accepting an unknown degree 
from abroad. 

As I write, the following satisfactory' note 
comes in from the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, dated 9 September, 1903 :— 

"The name of Barrett College in North Carolina 

iloei not ajiftear on any of the lists of edacational 

'uatitutionx i>iiti!i»h»»d by this office, and I have no 

* rn i i!. The Barrett C'ollo«iate 

■it Pee Dee, North Caro- 

■ 1 tlio edncation of colored 

All ol Its teitchers are of the colored 

nd it (irmn not havo any students in college 

^--.-^■■—- to the oataloffiie, it claims to 

l»av. lied in November 17. Ii:<91, by 

the t of North Carolina. It is pos- 


siblo that the right to grant degrees was conferred 
by the charter, but the institution is classed as a 
secondary school." 

James Qammack, LL.D. 
West Hartford, Conn., U.S. 

*' New facts reoardino Shakespkabe."— 
Some time ago, in an editorial note appended 
to a letter in ' N. ii Q.,' you stated that you 
wanted some "new facts regarding Shake- 
speare," not "new theories about what he may 
or may not have writteru" 

"New facts" about Shakespeare are so 
rare— since the appearance of Mr. Sidney 
Lee's standard 'Life'— that I have had great 
difficulty in landing a fish that will be con- 
aidered fresh enough for the taste of vour 
readers, but I think I have hooked a likely 
one iu * ShakeHoeare's Life ' as written by 
Mr. A. H. Wall, lor some time " Librarian of 
the Shakespeare Memorial" at Stratford — 
' A New Biography of the Poet, deduced from 
Facts as Fire is from Smoke and Flame from 
Sparks,' as the title informs us. 

Mr. Wall took to taj»k Aubrey for relating 
" new facts " which came within his ken, 
although " the old gossip " had declared they 
were " things which, for want of intelligence, 
being antiquated, have become too obscure 
and dark." Mr. Wall was specially indignant 
with Aubrey for venturing to state ;— 

" His [Shakespeare's] father was a butcher, and I 
have been told heretofore by some of liis neiKhboura 
that when he wna a boy he exercised his father's 
trade ; but when he killed a calf, he would do it m 
hi^h style and make a sijeech." 
This was similar to what Mr. Gladstone did 
at Dalmeny, when he was cutting down a 
tree in Lord Rosebery's domains, But Mr. 
Wall calls Aubrey's statement a "fallacy," 
and for "true biography " substitutes the 
following : — 

" In fancy we can Bee him, while boms roaso 
workers ana the cocks are crowing, stripped to the 
waist and having a good wash in the pump in his 
father's back yard. Anon he urescnta himself to 
his mother ready for school, and when she has seen 
that her darling's hair is well brushed, his gown 
clean, his flat cap free from dust, and his white 
collar neatly tied, she gives him a kiss and a hug, 
which he returns with greater heartiness, and then 
away he runs, having a nod and good-night for tho 
tired watchman as be goes oat, and for the comine 
workpeople many good-mornings. And they all 
had pleasant smile for cheery little Will." 

As 1 have been unable to find these " new 
facta " in the life of Shakespeare recorded by 
Mr. Sidney Lee, I send them to you in the 
hope that they may be considered worthy 
of more extended publicity than they havo 
hitherto received. 

Some time ago Mr. Asquith stated thai. tb» 
work of a Shakespeare biographer "is not 




[10^ S. L 3 AS. l(i, 1001. 

eo much an eHsay in biography as in the 
more or Um scientific use of the bionraphu' 
itiiitjiiiation" Mr. Asquith has hit the nail 
on tne head. George Stronach. 

AMPTON.— Having been at work for some 
time past on the field-names of thia village, I 
venture to send to ' N. & Q.' a Hat of all but 
the more common designations. I know there 
are many readers interested in this subject, 
and possibly thej' may be able to Hucgest 
meanings for some of the words- Where 
local corruptions occur I have placed thera 
in parentheses after the names. 

Hollow Lour (" AU-aloDB "). 
Neil Moor. 
Cuokoo Thorn. 
Duddemore Hill. 

Riot Hill. (Ii ia said that a tight betwe«a rivul 
gleauers once look place in this field.) 
Rugby Gap. 
Hawk's WoU. 
Lane Hills. 
Lone Furlong. 
PeasDorough Hill. 
Duntpll (^ soft). 
Shoe Acres. 
CUv PiU. 
Peclt Meadow. 
Lord's Piece. 
KinK William. 
Fly Thome Close. 
Ooppy .Moor. 
Nether (jioand. 
Hollow Moor Head. 
Marl Pits. 
Toot Hill. 
Hedge irons. 
Broad Hill. 
Birch LeysCBySlays"). 

*'•< li>ae. 


Ti,,. »i„. i.,ji torn Moor Farlanda, 
Brown's I'ongue. 
Narrow Well. 
Cockle Close. 

Upwards (" Upriards"). 
Rye HillB. 
StaiuD borough- 
Near and Far Acre Dykes, 

'*• ■■ ■ Poor Man'i* Close, 

It 'It'll Hole. ■ 


Stony HolniB. 

Lower and Upper Punch BowL 

Mallow Field. 

Taverner'a Close and Meadow. 

Black Hill Meadow. 

Top and Bottom .Tonathan. 

Sedge Hollow ('' Sag Holler "). 

BoBworth's (" BOiuths "). 


Wheatbo rough. 

Wad Close. 

Oroat Castles. 

Little Castles or Rush Hill. 

Crump or Crumb Dykei. 

Bush HilL 


Hunger Wells. 


Marker's Homo. 

Old LevB. 

Slade Acres. 

Felder Long and Hill. 

Capshill Pit. 

<ireat Close. 

Thorn Tree Close. 

Lime Pit Clo«e. 

Fox Hill Close. 


John T. Page. 

West Hoddon, Northamptonshire. 

We must request uorrespoudents desiring in- 
formation on family mailers of only private iiiU;t^e«t 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order ihat the answers may be addressed to themi] 

Western Rebelliok of 1549.— lam engaged ' 
in writing an account of the ri-sings in Devon 
and Cornwall against the introduction of 
King Edward Vl.'.-i Prayer Book, commonly 
called the Western Kebellion of 1549. In 
the Camden Society publication, 'Troubles 
connected with the Prayer Book, <Jrc.,' are a 
number of letters from the Privy Council to 
Lord Russell. Lord Privy Seal, afttirwards 
the first Earl of Bedfonl, in which references 
are made to his letters to the Privy Council,.] 
describing the course of events in the West. 
So far I have been able to trace only one 
of these, a copy having been sent to Sir 
Pliilip Hoby, then in Brussels ; this is 
preserved among the Add. MSS. in the 
British Museum. So far as can be - 
the missing letters of Lord Bussell'- ^ 

the above) bear date 12, 18, 22, iJ July. 
7, 11, 10 August, and 7 Soptomhfir. Thore 
was also one of 22 Septemoei ' " ' o 

the Duke of Somerset, I shot i 

obtain any inforn;*' - ' |- i ,, 

discovery of tin 
the MSS. at the J'nii-Mi jMuti-uiu hum .h. iuaj 


20*8,lja.v.i6,i9ol] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Record Office, and have made inqairiea at the 
Office of the Privy Council. Any references 
to unpablished document^ however brief, re- 
lating to this rebellion would be of interest 
to me. (Mrs.) F. RosE-TnoDP. 

Beaumont House, Ottery St. Mary. 

Glowworm ok Firefly.— Can any reader 
inform me what modern poetry has b^n 
written on the firefly or glowworm ? Or has 
the subject been almost as neglected in our 
day as in clasuical times ? F. G. 

[ilre. 0|>>e wrote some eentiniental lines in the 
"Anna MalildA" vein addressed to the Klowwornu 
beginning;, " Ueni of the loue and silent vale." 
Moutgoniery (? James) has a poem to tlie same, 
begimiiuj;, ''When Evening closes Nature's eye." 
A poem in * Time's Telescope,' 1830, opeQB :— 

Little being of a day. 
Glowing in thy cell alone. 
Barry Cornwall has a poem to the firefly; and 
Heber, ' Tour through Ceylon,' writes : — 
Before, beside as, and above 
The tireHy ligliUi his lamp of love. 
We do not know if you will consider "nioderu" 
these effusions of the early nineteenth century.] 

Tinsel Characters. —Can any reader put 
me in communication with collectors of 
tinsel characters ? I have a very nice collec- 
tion of such in folio volumes, and should be 
pleased to exchange notes or show the same 
to any one interested. J. King. 

dot, Essex Road, lalinKton, N. 

'Oxford Universitv Calendar.'— I have 
one dated 1845, which I would not part with 
for many rea.sons ; one is that it contains 
lists of heads and colleges from the founda- 
tions thereof. M<xJern calendars do not con- 
tinue these valuable lists. Can any old 
Oxford man tell me when first they ceased 'i 


FlTZHAMON. — It is stated in Hoare's 
* History of Wilts ' that a Stephen Fitzhamon 
having established himself at Burstow, Surrey, 
in the reign of John, changed his name to 
"* iphen de Burstow, and it is suggested that 

^ was n descendant of a vounger brother 

'^ Sir Robert Fitzljamou, trie conqueror of 
Glamorgan, who died 1107. Can any one tell 
me what M'as the name of this younger 
brother, and where a pedigree of the Fitz- 
hamou family may t>e found ? On the seal 
of Stephen de Burstow appear the words 
"Sipillum Stephani filii Uamonia." Does 
" filii Haiuonis" necessarily Aean the sur- 
name Fitzhamon, or mav it not mean only 
the *' son of Hamon " 1 Was Uamo or Hamon 
a common Norman Christian namel In the 
Surrey Fines there are Walter fil Hamo and 
Richard fil Hamo (11&*J), Norman fil Hamo 

(1206), John fil Hamo (1251). Was *' fil Hamo " 
and Fitzhamon the family name, or waa 
Hamo only the father's name in these cases 1 

G. H. W. 

Venison in Summer. — Lemery, in his 
' Treatise of Foods.' of which an English 
translation was published in 1704, has the 
following passage in the chapter dealing 
with the stag : — 

'* However, some are of opinion tliey oaebt not to 
l)e eat in Kunimor, because this Animal then feeds 
uiKiu Vipers, Seriwnts, and the like Creatures, 
wliiuh they look upon to be very Vcnemous, as if 
the Ulaji did not eat of them all the Year round." 

Was this idea general at the time 1 Letnery 
apparently believed it. W. D. Oliver. 

Comber Family.- In 1887 (7'" S. iii. 516) 
a reference was made to some manuscripts 
relating to the above family which were 
offered for sale by Mr. Wm. Downing, of 
Birmingham, and I should be very grateful 
if any reader of 'N. & Q.' could put me on 
the track of the purchaser or present pos- 
sessor. I applied a few years ago to Mr. 
Downing, but most unfortunately all his 
books relating to that period had been de- 
stroyed by fire. I have lieen for some time 
engaged on a history of the family, and shotild 
be very ^lad to correspond with any one in- 
terested in it. John Comber. 

High Sleep, Jarvis Brook, Timliridgo Wells. 

"Synchronize" : " Aj-ternate.''— Am I a 
prig, or am I an ignoramus, that I object to 
the use made of these words in the following 
passages 1 According to the A}-t Journal of 
September, 1003, one reason why " Mr. 
Whistler was considered a roan of absurd 

Eretensions was because no one before him 
a<i dared to synchronize the terms of music 
to those of painting " (p. 267). The ^ thejunuii 
of 12 September, 1903, in heralding the issue 
of Dr. Furnivall's Shakespeare in the old 
spelling, asserts: "The plays will each occupy 
one volume of square octavo shape, and two 
alternate qualities of paper will be available" 
(p. 351). St. S^nTHiN. 

Mes. Bhownino's 'Acrojsa Leiuh.' — 

As he stood 
In Florence, where he had come to spend a month 
And note the secret of Da Vinci's drains.— 1. 72. 

Whatdoes this mean ] Can the word " drains " 
be a misprint for </rfaff(«? Locis. 

[No : Leonardo was a famous hydraulic engineer.] 

The Head ok Hknrv Grey, Dukk of 
SurFOLK— A writer* in the Antiqwiru for 
December, 1903, in alluding to the Duke of 

* ' FUmblea of an Antiiioary,' by (ieorge Buley. 



[lO* S. I. Jajc. 16, 1901. < 

Suffijlk, father of Lady Jano Grey, says : 
"A photo was taken of his head when the 
alterations took place in St. Peter*.i Church 
in tho Tower of London. There is a good 
deal of grim expression in the face." One 
would naturally infer from this paragraph 
that Uie duke's remains were found int&ct 
during the alterations of 1876- Is this sol 
In Juno, 1893, when visiting the church of 
the Holy Trinity, Minories, I was shown a 
human head (preserved in a glass case) which 
is presumed to be that of the said duke. It 
was discovered in the vaults below tho church 
by the Earl of Dartmouth in 1852, in a box 
filled with oak sawdust, which acted as an 
antdseptic and preserved the skin in a remark- 
able manner. But as the duke cannot have 
possessed two heads, I shall be glad to learn 
further particulars concerning the discovery 
at St. Peter ad Vincula. Wore the Duke of 
Suffolk')) remains positively identified ? and, 
if so, was the head missing or not ? 

John T. Page. 
West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 
[See S"- S. viii. 286, 383; x. ?2, 144; xil. 114.] 

* Willy Wood akd Greedy Grizzle.'— Is 
the author known of this eighteenth- century* 
booklet ? The title-page ran :— 

" Willy U'ood and Greedy Grizzle : a Tale of the 
Present Century, founded on Fact. Evil be to him 
who evil thinks. To which are subjoined Three 
Now Son^. London: Printed for the Author; 
Sold by J. Forbes, Tavigtock Row, Covcnt (Jarden ; 
and all the Booksellers in town and country. I'rico 
♦)no Shillinn." — viii-;i2 jip. 8vo. 

Tho work is dedicated to the Magisterial 
Rooks of tho Corporation of ^ur-castle (New- 
castle upon-Tyne), and is not written for 
TOUnK per.sons. At the end is a song for a 
Newcastle man, an exercise in the "burr" 
calculated to try his articulation severely. 
It begins :— 

Rough roU'd the roaring river's stream. 

And rapid ran the rain, 
When Robert Rutter dreamt a dream 

Which rack'd hia heart with pain. 

This is almost as bad as the well-known 
shibboleth '■ O'er rugged rocks the ragged 
rascals ran," which, until theadventof Scliool 
Boards, was supposetl to try the anatomy of 
an ordinary Novocastriao. 


Robert Giles.— In a recent article in the 
DxiUin Rnview, vol. cxxxii., the Bishop of 
Salford has noted that Robert Gile»i, "legum 
Anglire professor egregiu.s," who had married 
a daughter of Sir Thomas Stradling (as to 
whom see 'D.N.B.,' Iv. IG), died at Louvain 
in ir^TR, aged forty -four, and was burietl 
ip the church of *St. Michael there. He 

does not app»ear to have been at Oxford. Was 
he at Cambridge ? On 3 May, 1 ri64, one Robert 
Oyell was admitted to Lincoln's Inn. On 
23 July, 1566, Edward Randolph (as to whom 
see ' D.N.B.,' xlvii. 271) constituted Sir Jame» 
Shelley and Robert Giles his true and lawful 
attorneys (*S.P. Dora., Eliz ,' xl. 35). The 
name of Robert Gyles, gent., of Kent, occars 
in a list of fugitives over the sea dated 
29 Jan., 1576 (Strype, 'Ann.,' 11. iL 597). 
Any further details concerning him would 
be welcome. John B. WAiinEwwoHT. 

WssT-ConNTRY Fair.— I should l»e glad to 
be referred to any sources which illustrate 
fairs in the West of England at tho end of 
the seventeenth or beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, especially in Dorset. 


St. Patrick at Orvieto.— The 'Encyclo- 
piedia Britannica' mentions, under 'Orvieto,' 
a celebrated " pozzo di S. Patrizio," or well of 
St. Patrick. I have consulted several works 
on Orvieto, but none of them do more than 
mention this well, some not even so fully aa 
the 'Encyclopiedia' does. Is there any tra- 
dition that Ireland's apostle ever passed 
through Orvieto, which might account for 
the name of the well \ Where may some- 
thing on this subject be found 1 

F. C. W. 

Tut kett. — Biographical information ia 
desired for an lii.storical publication concern- 
ing the late Mr. John Tuckett, of Kentish 
Town, especially the dates of birth, death, 
itc Any information will be acceptable. 

Herbert Sfencee on Billiajids. — Can 
any one give me tho exact text and locate 
the original publication of a remark said 
to have been made by Herbert Spencer to 
a young man who defeated him at a game 
of billiards ? '* Sir, a moderate measure of 
skill at billiards may very properly be ft 
source of satisfaction ; but .such a degree* ' 
proficiency as you exhibit is conclusive pre 
of a misspent life." D. M. 


"All roads lead to Rome."— Can yoxi 
tell me the origin of this saying I 


Capt. Death,— Who was "the celebrate*! 
Capt. Death' for whose widow a benefit 
performance of 'Cato' was given at Drury 
Lane on 27 February, 17r)7 f It is note- 
worthy that Oenest has no record of thit 
remarkable jjerfonnancp, despite the fact 
that the principal members of both theatres 

io-8.i.ja!».i6.i9w.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



united forces on that occasion in honour of 
the lugubriously named captain. F. F. L. 

A. C. , SwiJTBURXE.— The editors of the 
"Centenary Edition'' of Burna quote in 
the notes, vol. i. p. 368, the following stanza 
by Mr. Swinburne : — 
Men, bom of ihe land that for ages 

Haa been houonred where freedom wu dear, 
Till your labour was fat on its w&gea 
You shall never be peers of a peer. 
Where might is, the ri^ht is : 

Long purses make strong swords. 
Let weakness learn meekDess. 
God save the House of Lords. 

In which of the poet's publications can the 
rest of the poem be founa ? 

J. J. Fresman. 

Raleigh's Head. — I lately, quite by 
chance, came across a copy of a booklet 
entitled ' History and Description of the 
Windows of the Parish Church of the House 
of Commons' (1895), by Mrs. J. E. Sinclair, 
a lady of antiquarian tastes. In this I find 
it stated, at p. 30, that 

"Ralegh was beheaded in the adjacent Old Palace 
Vard, in 1618 ; his body was interred beneath the 
chancel of the church, bis head bein^ placed on 
Westminster Hall. A tradition, handed down from 
rector to rector of St. Margaret's, says that the 
dissevered head was buried in the same grave with 
the body of his son, Carcw Ralegh, a few years 

I should be glad to know how much 

redence is to ne attached to this "tra- 

ition," and whether the statement can be 

y any means traced to its source. I believe 

nat the accepted, and probably authentic, 

ccount is that the head was buried in the 

hurch at West Hprseley, in Surrey. I ad- 

[dressed a communication on this matter to 

^ he editor of the ,S7. Margaret's I'nrifk Slurfa- 

'kine, thinking it a likely means by which to 

obtain the information, but it did not secure 

insertion. DA^^D Easterbrook. 

■ [See Dr. BBrsBFiELD's article, O'l* S. xil. 289.] 

" Meynks " AXD "Rhtnrs."— At Orange the 

other day I came across a curious jxjtois word 

rhich IS of some interest. The waterway 

/hich iH led throngli the town, and which is 

Usually about one metre broad [? deep] and ten 

^etrcH wide, ia locally known as a " meyne." 

VU(sn one recollects that the drainage chan- 

lels on Sedgeraoor are known as " rhines," 

'pd that the chief tributary of the river 

Ihine is the Main, one is tempted to ask 

khat the origin of tnese two terms really is. 

It is, of course, well known that Orange 

Ks once a principality under the House of 

lassau, and it is possible that Dutch engineers 

ly have been brought tliere by them to 

superintend the irrigation works with which 
the whole of this part of the Rhone plain is 
intersected. Similarly I believe that many 
of the drainage works on Sedgemoor were 
laid out by Dutchmen. Are there any tech- 
nical terms in Dutch or Flemish from which 
" meyne" and " rhine" could be derived ? 

I do not know if the compilers of the 
• N.E.D.' have as yet reached the word " main," 
but Dr. Murray might well have French 
patoit dictionaries loosed up as to " meyne," 
lu view of our own ga.s and water mains. My 
informant said the word, which I have not 
seen written, is pure French ; but I have not 
Littre at hand to verify his assertion. H. 


fFor rejie, a, small watercourse, see 9"* S. ix. 329, 



O"* S. xii. 128.) 
As Osiris was at once the son and husband 
of Isis hi-s mother, and the Indian go<l Iswara 
is represented as a babe at the breast of hisi 
own wife Parvati, the Indian Isis, so Ninus 
or Nimrod, the beginning of whose kingdom 
was Babylon (Genesis x. 10), was both hus- 
band and son of Semiramis, who, as the first 
deified queen of Babylon, was probably 
identifiecl with Mu-Mu or Ma-Ma, the great 
mother of all nature, who in her varying 
forms, says Mr. Boscawen, was Mumu 
Tiamut, the Chaotic Sea, and Baku, the 
spouse of Hea, who presided over the south 
of Babylonia, the region of the marshes, and 
bore the title also of the "bearing mother of 
mankind " (' From under the Dust of Ages,' 
1880, p. 35). So that, in the conflicting rela- 
tiunshipa of the earliest divinities with which 
the researches of Assyriologists have made 
US acquainted, it is perhaps permissible to 
recognize in Mu-Mu or Ma-Ma attributes 
whicn were transferred to Semiramis, the 
great goddais-mother, upon one of whose 
temples in Egypt, where she was known as 
Athor, was inscribed : " I am all that has 
been, or that is, or that shall be. No mortal 
has removed my veil. The fruit which I 
have brought forth is the Sun " (Bunsen's 
'Egypt,' 1848, vol. i. pp. 386-7). Similarly 
the Babylonian epic of tne creation begins by 
describing the generation of the world oat of 
Ztlumma or Chaos, the primeval source of 


things ('The Religions of Ancient ^^iP^^l^ 
Babvlon,' by Prof. Sayce. 1U02. P- 130; IM 
first tablet of the ' History of Creation «ay« : 

1. When In the heiKht heaven was not nanie<i, 

2. And the ©aflh boncath did not yet bear a name, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no-" s. i. Ja». le, iqm. 

3. And the primev*! Apsu-ma (T or mn) who begat 


4. And Chao«, mu-um-mu Tiamat, the mother of 

them both, ico. 

See 'The Seven Tablets of Creation,' by 
L. W. King, 1902, p. 3 e( aeq„ and 'The 
Religions of Babylon and Assyria,' b^ Morris 
Jastrow, 1898, p. 105. One seemH justified, 
therefore, in assuming that the mother of 
Ninus. after the divinity of both tiio fonner 
and tne latter had become an established 
belief, vras his own wife SemiraraiB, whose 
attributes, when deified after death, gradually 
became identified in the eyea of her wor- 
shippers with those of Mu-Mu or Ma-Ma, 
the Mother of All. 

J. HoLDEir MacMichael. 

Immubkment Alive of Religious (9"^ S. 
xii. 25, 131, 297, 376, 517).— The interest of 
historic truth must be my excuse for taking 
exception to Mr. H. G. Hope's version of the 
Bruntisfiold mystery. " The venerable man- 
sion" was not "demolished in 1800"; it 
stands at this day, and is still inhabited, a 
well-preserved example of Scottish castellated 
building of the sixteenth century. My father 
rented it at one time, and part of my child- 
hood was spent there ; but the story of the 
secret chamber, as repeated by Mb. Hoi'E. has 
deepened in gloom since my time. Miss 
Warrender, a daughter of the house, has given 
what may be considered the auttientic ver- 
sion in her 'Walks near Edinburgh,' pp. 13-1 j. 
It may serve as a useful warnitig against too 
easy acceptance of fanciful variants if I quote 
what she says : — 

"After the purchase of Bruatiafield by George 
Warrender [in 1095], it reniaiued for nearly a hun- 
dred yoan in poasession of tl»e younger branch of 
the family, wliiih came to an end in 1X20 by the 

death of HukK Warrender He was succeeded by 

his couain, my graini-iinclD, the Right Hon. .Sir 
George Warrender, M.R, who, on taking possession, 
discovered the oxistenco of a secret room. The 
house was then thickly covered with ivy. Lee, the 
Royal .\cademieian. and au architect that Sir 
George had brought down from Loudon with him, 
were the hrst to ■iiapect its existence, from tiuding 
more windows outside than they could account for. 
The old woman who had charge of tlie house denied 
for a long time any knowledge of such a room ; but. 
frightened by Sir George's threats, she at length 
showed hnn the narrow entrance, that was con- 
cealed behind a piece of upcstry, 1 his was torn 
down and the door forced open, and a room was 
iouad just as it had been left by some former occu- 
I>ftut— the ashea still in the grato. Whetlier, as 
one Btorv said, it had been used as a hiding-piaoe 
in troubled times, or whether, aocordinx lo another 
"Ittcend, it had been tlie room of ado^irly loved child 
m the house, after whose lieatb it had been hur- 

knowing ; but the bloodatainB on the floor point to 
some darker tragedy, and a tradition still UngerSii 
tlint, not loui after the discovery of this room, a' 
skeleton was found buried below tne windowi." 

It would have been most improper if that 
skeleton had not turned up ; but there is no 
suggestion of immurement, as Mr. Hope 
would have us believe. 

Hebbert Maxwell. 

Perhaps M. N. G. will be kind enough, in 
the interests of historical accuracy, to furnish 
one or more of the following |>articulafs : 
(1) the name of the convent ; (2) tlio name of 
the nun ; (3) the name of the person or per- 
sons who "captured" her; (4) the means 
whereby the capture was effected ; (6) the 
name ot the " recent book on life in America *'; 
and at the same time to give a reference to 
any contemporary account of the events 
alleged to have taken place at Charlestown, 
Mass., in 1835. The fact that the law (in 
England as elsewhere) did in times past 
punish heretics with death by burning does 
not seem to me to be one from which the 
prevalence of an illegal custom of burying 
recalcitrant religious alive can be by any 
known process of reasoning validly inferred. 


Cajidinals (9"' S. xi. 490; xii. 19. 174,278, 
334, 497).— Mr. Marion Crawford, writing of 
Rome in 1865, says of Cai-dinal Antouelli :— 

" He had his faults, and they were faults Little 
becoming a cardinal of the Holy Roman Church. 
But few are willing to consider that, though a 
cardinal, he was not a priest— that he was prac- 
tioally a layman, who by his own unaided genius 
had attained to great power — and tliat those laulta 
which have been charged against him with such 
virulence would have passed, nay, actually pa&a, 
unnoticed and unconsured in many a great states- 
man of those days and of these.' 
This passage occurs in the novel of 'Sara- 
ctnesca,' but here Mr. Marion Crawford is 
evidently writing as an historian, and not as 
a novelist, and 1 think may be considered an 
authority on the subject, as he has made 
Italian life so much bis own. 

J. H- Murray. 


The Wykehamical Word "Toys" (9'" S. 
xii. 345, 437, 492 ; 10'" 8. i. 13).—' Winchester 
College Notions,' by Three Beetleites (Win- 
chester, P. Jc G. Wells, 1901), is the book from 
which the present goneratioti of Wyke- 
hamists acquires its essential modicum of 
knowledge of notions, and is the immediate 
source ot the " accepted derivation " cited at 
the second reference. The authors give due 

ricdly shut up, never to be entered again by the acknowle<lgment in their preface to tlie work 
broken-hearted parents, there are now no nieaoa of of previous writers, and say that "deriva- 


lO"- 8. 1 Jan. 16, 19(H.j 





tions have been uaually omibtetl or com- 
pressed as far as possible, oecanse Mr. Wreoch 
80 extensively deals with that departmeDt in 
hia admirable work " ; the word " toys " is, 
however, one of the few exceptions to which 
a derivation is attached, that given being 
"Fr. toise — ek fathom, the space allotted to 
each man in CoUega" Right or wrong, the 
Beetleites clearly preferred this derivation. 

I, B. B. 

" Fiscal " (9"< S. xii. 444), —Every word, no 
lesfl than every dog, has its day, and now is 
the chance otfiral. It has a close coini>eti- 
tor in dump, but it manages to maintain 
pre-eminence. The use of it has increased a 
thousandfold, and tongues utter it glibly, 
under eyes that bat a year ago hardly knew 
the wor^l by sight. Not long ago the keeper 
(fem.) of a registry office informed a lady who 
was in searcli of a kitchen-maid that tho 
Jiical conditions of domestic service had 
entirely changed in recent times. 

St. Swithin. 

Dit. Parkins (9'»" S. xii. 349 : 10'" S. i. 15).— 
Besides the books mentioned in Mr. Beale's 
contribution to the Grantham Jouriuii, John 
Parkins was the author of ' The Holy Temple 
of Wisdom,' an edition of Uulpeper'a ' Eng- 
li-sh Physician,' 1810, 1814, and ' The Universal 
Fortune-Teller,' 1810, 1814, 1822. He has 
already figured in 4*^ S. ix. 76, where other 
books are mentioned. I have seen none but 
•The Universal Fortune-Teller.' W. C. B. 

In the • History of Ufton Court,' by A. M. 
Sharp (1892, 4to), there is at p. 239 a pedigree 
(Grantham, co. Lincoln) of this branch of the 
Perkins or Parkins family, from the Visita- 
tion of Lincoln, 16.")4, with additions from 
parish registers. There is another of Parkins 
of Ashby, parish of Bottesford ; but the 
pedigrees are not carried down to the dates 
mentioned of publication of books by Dr. 
Parkins. Vicak. 

[Mr. E. H. Culkmak also sends a list of Parkins's 
works. ] 

Shakk-spkark's Oeoohaphy (9"* S. xi. 208, 
333, 41()' l«y ; xii. 90, 191).— Mk. Stronalh 
selectji from my letters a few sentences, and 
takes no notice of the rest. I gave reasons for 
what I wrote, and if Mr. Stronach is blind 
to them, I may suppose that other readers of 
•N. & Q.' will not be so. I pointed out to 
Mil SruoNACii that Shakspeare thought Milan 
to be on the sea. It is impossible that Bacon, 
a traveller on the Continent^ and a man of 
gooeral knowledge, could have made thii 
mistake. I have formed my own opinions 
from ray own reading, and it is not necessary 

to refer me to others, who cannot have con- 
sidered the question under discussion more 
thoroughly than I have done. There have 
been, and are, many competent critics who 
dilTer from the views of the gentlemen whom 
Mr. Stronacu names. Shakspeare had 
enough Latin to know the meaning of the 
very simple hackneyed quotations which are 
found in those plays that are undoubtedly 
his. Nobody ever said the contrary. Shak- 
speare apparently must have known some- 
tning of Plautus. But he might have ^ot 
his Knowledge indii-ectly, without having 
read the Latin. He might have obtained the 
plot of * The Comedy of Errors ' in more 
ways than one. Possibly ho rewrote the 
play of somebody else. Hitson has said : — 

"Shakspeare was not under the slightwt obliga- 
tion, in formini; this comedy, to Warner's trans- 
lation of the '&teiia>chmj.' He has not a name, 

Hue, or word from the old ]>lay, nor any one inci- 
dent but what must of course be common lo every 

transhition This comedy, though boasting the 

embellishments of our author's genius, was not 
oriRinally his, but proceeded from some inferior 
playwright, who was c»|)able of reading tha 
Meno-'cumi ' without the aid of a translation." 

I have noticed one difference between Bacon 
and Shakspeare. In reading Bacon's 'Essays' 
I find that he invariably has the conjunctive 
mood after '/. Shakspeare in bis chief plays 
uses the indicative or tho conjunctive mood, 
without distinction, after this conjunction: 
I must have counted at least a hundred 
instances of )/ with the indicative in his 
plays ; and I am sure that there must be 
very many more instances. It may, howevez*. 
be said tnat Bacon 8uper^^sed hia 'Essays, 
and that the author of tne plays did not do so. 

E. Yardley. 
[This discussion must now close.] 

Glass Manuf,vl'ture (O'** S. xii. 428,515). 
—The inquiry under this heading was 
whether country gentlemen were occupied 
in glass-making. In Joseph Hunter's ' South 
Yorkshire, Deanery of Doacaster,' ii. 99, it 
is stated that 

"in the time of the first Earl of StraObrd the 
manufacture of glass was introduced at Wentworth, 
and a glasahousc erected. The nieniory of it is still 
jtreaorved in the name Glasa-houae tireen, now 

In the same volume, p. 33, we read, under 
Catcliffe, in the parish ot Rotherham, that 
"a glaiss-house was established liore in 1740. by « 
Mmi>any of j>er8ons who had been P«'o'^'>"'»*',y „ , ' 
jiloyed in the nWhouse near Bolst«r6ioue. lUo" 'n 
bixh reputation." . i »„ „,i i 

From original documents I am able to ad.| 
rroinoriBi" history of the Catchffo 

wSs. In nS5r John 6ay. glass manu- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo* s. i. jjin, w, im 

facturer, took a lease of the glass-hoaiie «t 
Catcliffe for twenty -one years. In 1783 
Hannah, his widow, transferred it to their 
sons Thomas May and William May, who 
carrie<l on the business for some years. 
They certainly had it in 17B5. I iind these 
persons described sometimes as "gentlemen." 
There were also two glass-houses at Mas- 
brough, in the parish of Hotherham, which 
were worked for some time by John Fol- 
jambe, gentleman (an attorney, I believe), 
in partnership with Jacob Boomer, a grocer, 
botn of liotherham. In 1783 they leased 
them to the above-named Thomas May for 
thirteen years. Mustard-bottle«, ink-bottles, 
decanters, and Hint glasses were among the 
articles they produced. The Mays are no- 
ticed in Mr. Hunter's ' Fam. Min. Gent.,' 
Harl. Soc, iv. 1177. W. C. B. 

In St. Stephen's Church, Norwich, is a 
mural tablet to the memory of Richard 
Matthews, Sheriff of Norwich, glass-maker, 
who died 1774. On it are his arras thus : 
Per pale: 1, Gules, three catherine-wbeeU 
, jrgont, on a chief or a bull's head cabossed 
sable ; 2, Gules, a chevron between three 
escallops argent. 

John Hobson Matthews. 


M0RG.\N-.\TIC M.VRUlAriE (9"^ S. xii. 486). — 
For an answer to this question refer to 
' N. & q.; 2'"' S. vi. 237 ; 3"i S. v. 235, 328, 441, 
516 ; vi. 38, .M, 140, 197. 

EvERARD Home Colemajt, 

71t Brecknock Rob<I. 

Emmet and Dk Fontenav Letters (»"' S. 
xii. 308). — Fraxcehoa may be pleaaetl to 
know that she can learn all about Itobert 
JCmmol's letters t<j Madame la Marquise de 
Fonteiiay by reference to a huge book, 
mivfttely nrintetl, by Dr. Thomas Addis 
Km met, called 'The Emmet Family.' There 
is but une copy in England, and that is in 
the British Museum. L I. Gdinky. 

Carskn (9"^ S. xi. 488; xii. 19, 110,331. 377). 
—With regard to this subject, perhaps it may 
not be out of nlace to mention that in that 
deliglitful work 'Adventures with the Con- 
naught llan^ers, 1809-14,' by William Grat- 
t*n, late Lieutenant Connaught Rangers, 
_ edited by Charies Oman fEdward Arnold), 
' Ihe name of Car>)ons will be found ; and to 
^ Jd that Mr. (-)man jioints out in the preface, 
at p. vii :— 

"It \n flcarfy fmm thn rtnnipsti.-' annah of tlio 

'^'•^ ■ ' of 

' .lea 

' -'-■■, ■■■ ...«- .^....- ^, ....>,^v. 1 ie« 

seem to be drawn directly from the doinK*) of Oimt- 
tan'a servant, Dan Caraonii. Comparing the *r«itl 
thin^' with the work nf fiction, one ia driver) to 
conclnde that much of what wai regwded aa rollick- 
ing invention on Lover's p»rt wm only h photo- 
Kraphio reproduction of anecdotei that he had 
heard from old soldiers of the Connaught Rangera." 

Peninsular hero though he really was, yet 
Lieut. Orattan complains at p. 79 :— 
" For six days we hod not seen our ba«|age, and 

were in consequence without a change of linen 

J had no niyhtcap,^' 

Mr. W. Grattan was a kinsman of Irelasd'a 
greatest statesman— Henry Grattan. 

Henry Geralp Hope. 
119, Elma Road, CUpham, S. W. 

Pamela (9"' S. xii. 141, 3:K)).— Since writing 
my former note on the pronunciation of this 
name I have accidentally come across it in 
French, in the advice given, in ' Les Oaiett'a 
de Beranger ' (Amsterdam, 1864, p. 1<>), by the 
" abbesse ' of to-day to one of her disciples : 

Voua, Pami'la, 
C'lcheis cela. 

The accent on the second syllable of the 
name is, of course, to make the name tri- 
syllabic, and the rhyme with "cela"8liows its 
pronunciation to be a practical approxima- 
tion to that of a cretic (---); that is, to the 
pronunciation of Richardson. 

Richard Hobtox Smith. 
Atheofflum Club. 

My mother (born in 1824, when Richard- 
son's novel was still popular) was christened 
Pamela — profeasedly after the novel- I never 
heard any other pronunciation of the name 
by relatives and friends than Pamela. The 
dmiinutive of endearment was Pam, which 
would not, I suppose, have been the cft«e with 
Pamela. "The Rrv. C. S. Taylor's instance of 
Pamclla is interesting on Pope's side; but 
the spelling Piimala (which I have found in 
letters fntm my niuther'a early contempora- 
ries) makes for Richardson. 

Samuel Gregory Ould. 

In 'Selecta Poemata Anglorum,' 177d, 
p. 281, ia a poem in Latin sapphics (no name 
appended), entitled ' Ode ad Pamelam Caneret 
Ditectissimam ' : — 

L'hara, q^uu? semper studio fideli 

Me seqni gratum solita es msgistmni, 

Qiue colis multo ofiit-io, vocanli 

Pallida odesdum I 

Jon.v PicKiORD, M.A, 

Newbonrne Rectory, Wo<idbridgo. 

TIDES^V1[LL AND Tll>ESLOW (9"* B. XII. 341, 
M7).— The claim made bj' your correspondent 
as to the prefix Tid being the name of an 
individual can scarcely dh deemed satis* 




lo-" 8. L Ja>, ifi. J90I.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 63 

(actorv. His contention is that the place- 
name firJeswell should be regarded as Tnhs 
tvdl, owing to the suffix representing the 
O.N. vOllr, an enclosure of some kintf To 
this he add8, " The present pronunciation of 
Tideswell is owing to a false etj'raology 
which has been circulated in guide-books." 
The latter are not always trujjtworthy, it is 
true, but in this instance they appear to be 
correct. When investigating the origin of a 
place-name it is advisable to trace it as far 
back a.s possible ; and in the one under con- 
sideration, if the Domesday Book be con- 
sulted, we find "Tidesuuelle" recorded as a 
berewick of Hope, and almost identical in 
spelling with its present-date appellation. 

Etymology shows that Tideswell is a plain 
A.-S. place-name. The prefix Tidh rendered 
by Bosworth ('A.-S. Diet.') as "time," and 
by Skeat ('Etymol. Diet.') is explained as 
" season, time, hour, flux or reflux of the 
ee»." The suffix vdi forms a portion of 
many of the names of places in Derbyshire, 
and it is very probable tnat the term denoted 
some spring or brook, which may or may not 
be visible at the present day. Your corre- 

rndent affirms, "This word has nothing to 
BTjth a brook or spring of water, and it 
occurs in many places where there is neither 
brook nor .spring," and cites Brad well 
^"Bradewelle' in Domesday Book) as an 
illustrative example. In this he is unfor- 
tunate, as, according to Glover (' Hist, of 
Derbyshire,' ii, 137), "a salt spring exists a 
quarter of a mile from the village." Then 

Bakewell, ihe " Bndequelle " of Domesday 
Book, and sp<>cially mentioned in the 'A.-S. 

Chronicle,' has possessed a medicinal (chaly- 
beate) spring from lime imraemorial {if^i^L, 

ii. 66-7). Again, Tideswell— as shown by its 

etymology — was formerly celebrated for 

possessing what was termed " an ebbing and 

flowing well," and this for centuries was 

considered to be one of the wonders of the 

Peak district. 
It is somewliat hazardous to affirm that 

the names of any individuals are preserved 

or indicated in that of their prehistoric 

burying- place. In Bateman's 'len Years' 

Diggings' (1B61) there is a long list of 

barrows in the counties of Derby and 

Stafford, "distinguished by the word 'low' 

subjoined to the name, or otherwise indicated 

by the etymology of the prefix " (pp. 289-07). 

It is doubtful whether this list contains a 

sinfjle example of the name of a prehistoric 

individual. Any possible one would naturally 

be looked for among barrows belonging to 

the late A.-S, period, such as those explored 

by Mr. Hateiuan at Benty Grange, near 

Moneyash, and on Lapwing Hill by Cresa- 
brook {i/nd., 28, 68). But of this class the 
numbers are few in the Peak District, the 
majority belonging to the Stone Age. 
Neither Tideslow nor Coplow was examined 
by Mr. Bateman, and if there be any possi- 
bility of the latter barrow being destroyed 
for providing road material, I would suggest 
that the attention of the Derbyshire Archteo- 
logical Society bo drawn to the matter, with 
the view of the low being systematically 

■The local pronunciation " Tidsa " appears 
to be a common example of a word being 
shortened, especially when it terminateii in 
a hard consonant, ho frequently heard all 
over England, particularly in rural districts. 
A few weeks ago I heard an old woman in a 
Peak village exclaim, *' I canna (conna or 
Conner) do t," meaning " I cannot do it.' 

T. N. Bausii FIELD, M.D. 

Salterton, Devon. 

Is not low in Tideslow the same as law, 
taice, the well-known word for a hill or 
mound, ha\nng nothing to do with a burial t 

R. B— R. 

"Papkr-s" (9"' S. xii. 387 ; 10"" S. i. 18).— 
The military phrase " to send in one's papers" 
was quite common in the army when I joined 
my regiment as an ensign in 1855; but I have 
no recollection of having met with it in 
any book of the eighteenth centurv. In the 
beginning of that century a colonel who 
wished to resign his commission addressed a 
memorial to that effect to the Commander-in- 
Chief. An example of this is to be found in 
Chrichton's ' Life of Col. Blackader,' pp. 429, 
433, where the words of Blackader's petition 
to the Duke of Marlborough, asking to bo 
allowed " to retire out of the army," are 
given, and the following entry in his diary, 
on 23 March, 1712, as to the issue of negotia- 
tions with Lord Forrester for the purchase 
of the colonelcy : " We have now finished 
our bargain about my post, according to our 
previous appointment, and having made my 
demission, i now look upon myself as out of 
the army." 

In the beginning of the nineteenth century 
an officer desirous of "selling out ' wrote to 
his immediate commanding oflicer, and the 
application was accompanied by declarations 
setting forth particularsof service, guarantees 
as to money transactions involved, itc, and 
these documents came to be commonly cftliea 
" papers" " the necessary papers." A siradar 
course wag pursued in the case of an ex- 
change from one reRirnent to another. For 
example, Lieut. Tom kinson, of the 16th Lighb 





[1UU> 8. 1. Ja5. 16. IflM. 

Dragoons, being in Spain on active service, 
tlie following letter was addresaed to his 
f&tlier by General Sir Gleorge Anson (see 
•Diary of a Cavalry Officer,' p. 161) :— 

" 19 M&rch, 1812. Sir, I am hapiiv tx> ioforiu you 
that _your «on is gazetted to a Lomi>any in the 
eOlh Foot, for which he ha«i>aid l.MH- The differ- 
eoce to be paid for his exchange to L'avalry is l.ti.JO/. 

It will l)c necessary for you to lodge tho IjStiiV. 

which, added to the 2SV. now in CoUyere' hands, 
will make the recnlated difference of 1,(>30/. I have 
desired Messrs. Lollyurs to send you the necessary 
papers for the exchange, for your Bipiature on the 

parlof your son I confess myself very anxious 

to secure your aon's return to the 16ih Light 

louder the word • Honour ' in James's 
* Military Dictionary,' 1816, mention is made 
of declarations on tho sale and exchange of 
comniis.sions ; and under the word ' Docu- 
ment' a reference is given to his * Regimental 
Companion,' sixth edition, vol. iv. p. 263. 
Possibly tho phrase " to send in one's papers " 
may be foun«J there ; but I have no copy of 
the work, and I believe the sixth edition is 
now rare. W. S. 


24r>, 370, 431).— Far from straying from the 

roint or points raieecl by Mb. Cecil Clarkk, 
think that he has failed to see the point of 
my remark.!^. I have no wish to " chaperone " 
the word c/iaper'me, but I object to its being 
lal>elled as more un-Englisli than escort. The 
one word is as foreign as the other, and in 
point of length of domicile there is little to 
choose between them. If Mu. Clakke objects 
to the "French ring" about the word 
c/ui/Kroiie, I declare tliat machine has as 
much or even more of a French ring about it. 
and, to be consistent, ^Ir. Clakke sliould 
object to it on the same score and try to find 
a "more EnglLsh-soundiug substitute" for it. 
(Perhaps apjtamlusl). The ' N.E.D.' does 
not say that the verb cfutfKi'on is affected ; it 
merely records a quotation from the year 
IHIH, according to whicli somebody tlien 
thought it affected. If Mr. Clakke knew a 
little more of the history of language he 
would know that many a word which has 
been at one time dubbtni "affectefl" has 
succeefJe<J later in acquiring a very homely 
reputation, and perhaps what he himself 
to-day considers affected will in the next 
generation be in use by everybody. As soon 
as ajiy word is used by the majority, in any 
suelling and in any sense whatever, it haa 
the full rights of citizenship, however bravely 
Mr. Clarke or anylx>dy else may stick to his 
guns and try to ostracize it. Possibly there 
ano no ]A<iieK amongst the membeis of the 
Authors' Club, but (I mast beg to ask another 

question) would Mr. Clarke taboo the use 
of the word author as applied to a la<ly ] 
This was, perhaps, once tnought " affected ' 
or " inaccurate.' but it is often so used : and 
as songster has been permanently transferred 
from the feminine to the masculine gender, 
why should not chnperun have a similar fate, 
if the majority «o wills it? 

My remarks, which Mr, Clarke appa- 
rently failed to understand, were meant to 
be a protest against his unscictitiBc (I will not 
say "affectedl" but certainly "inaccurate"; 
way of looking at a linguistic question. VVhfl^^ 
wishes to pronounce judgment upon words 
must know something of their historj*. If 
Mr. Clarke can find followers enough to 
help him kill the word chufitron or rhijxTont, 
well and good — perhaps nobody will be sorry, , 
and future historical dictionaries will dulyl 
record its life and death ; but unless ho i« • 
sure of his success as cliaperon-killer, he 
had better wait to see how much kcdtK there 
is in the word, which must be decided by 
time, not hy any personal opinion of the 
present day. Beingalready alivoin 1818, itha 
passed the days of childhood, and to ray mindl 
the twu words chaperone and eicort, as used/ 
by supposed inaccurate or affected _P©o_ " 
are not exactlj' synonymous, and it eicl 
supplies a real want, oue mav perhapi. 
humbly venture to prophesy, in the light of 
past word-history, that each will attain a 
respectable and healthy old age. But it all 
depends whether the majority of us are of 
the same mind, and even then we can never 
tell what future fate may bring. We have 
many foreigners among our words as among 
our citizens. Those that behave well and 
prove their healthiness by making them- 
selves really useful we are happy to keop>i 
and naturalize— at least that has l.>een tho* 
custom hitherto. If <h(t/n:roiie proves to be 
useless or offensive to tho majority, kick it 
out, it is "only a pauper that nobody owns." 
Irill tlion let it try its luck with the other 
foreigners, but do not treat it unfairly. 


Fictitious Latin Plurals (f/'' S. xii. 345, 
'•18). — Macaulay's use of "candeiabras" as 
a plural is countenancetl by the * N.E.D ,' 
which gives Quotations of tho same form 
from tne Edinburgh Heview and Soott'a 
'Ivanhoe.' J. Dormer. 

"O COME, ALL YK fAITHKtJL " (lu"' S. i. 10). 

— John Julian, in his 'Dictionary of Ilvuitm 

locy,' states that as early us 1707 > 

(' rurtuguese Hymn') was sung at tii 

of the Portuguese Embassy, of which Vinceulii 

Novello was organist, and the tune bccamoj 


lo- 8. 1. Jan. itt, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



popular. From *The Music of the Church 
liymnary and the Psalter in Jletre,' by 
William Cowan and James Love, published 
in 1901, we learn that in a collection of hymn- 
tUDea published by V. Novello in 1843, 
entitled 'Home Music, the Congregational 
and Choristers' Psalm and Hymn Bwk,' the 
tune is headed *Air by Reading,' an ap- 
pended note stating that John Reading was 
a pupil of Dr. Blow (the master of Purcell), 
and that the tune obtained its name of 'The 
Portuguese Hymn' from the circumstance 
that the Duke of Leedw, after hearing the 
hymn performed at the Portuguese Chapel, 
introduced the raelody at the Antient Con- 
certs, giving it the title of 'The Portuguese 
Hymn.' Cowan and Love state that no 
known music of Reading resembles that of 
'Adeste Fideles,' and further, that the date 
IfiflO 18 decidedly wrong, since Reading was 
only born in 1677. According to the *Dic- 
tionarj' of National Biography' there was, 
however, a John Reading who was appointed 
organist of Winchester Cathedral in 167.'S. 
The earliest known appearance of the tune 
18, according to Cowan and Love, in 'An 
Essay on the Church Plain Chant,' published 
by J. P. Coghlan in 1782. The oldest manu- 
script in which it is to be found in a volume 
praserved at Stonyhurst College, the work 
of a priest named John Francis Warle, 
entitterJ 'Cantua Diversi pro Dominicis et 
Joetis per Annum ' ; it bears the tlate 1751. 
J. S. Shedlock. 
I' From whence" (lO^h S. i. 9).— I sympa- 
thise with your correspondent. But why 
does he atlrait that the phrase from whence 
is "grammatically inaccurate"! It is the 
old confusion between grammar and logic. 
Orammar merely goes by custom, and ia 
independent of stnct logic, a simple axiom 
of which half the world seems to be ignorant. 
From a grammatical point of view the phrase 
//x>m ir/ienct: is merely "more or les.s pleo- 
tjastio," for which see ' U.E.D.,' s.v. 'From,' 
S Ub. 

The phrase is surely old enough, since it 
curs several times in Chaucer : — 
There Ihou were wol./co lUmur-, artow w»>yved. 
' Cant. TdIe»,'L. SOS. 
To my ooutr«e/ro lke>iuf» that she wente.- 

/r/., B. l(>4:j. 
"For i)<) wight as by riglit./^-o thfanfi^foi-ih tliiit 
*mi inltkoth Korxjneits, ne shal bea clciied Rnod."— 
Chaucer, ir. of iJoethiiu, bk. iv. proso 3, 1. 13. 

It seems high time to protest against the 
rroganco andf impertinence of some of oar 
jo«]nrn roviewers, who in their own igno- 
'anco of the history of the English language 
resume to think tnat no one knows so much 

as themselves, and so proceed to lay down 
the law, as if there were no fact« to go upon. 
That journalists should, as a rule, know 
nothing of Middle English or the gram- 
matical usages of Elizabethan authoi-s is not 
surprising ; but this would not matter if 
they would only recognize the fact them- 
selves, and refrain from the arrogance of 
" correcting " others who know more of these 
things. Let us rather preserve our freedom 
of speech, and refuse to be dictated to after 
this sort. 

There is often a great outcry about the 
educational value of Creek, for which reason 
it "ought to be compulsory on all." It is 
high time to insist on the educational value 
of English ; but it will be long l»efore the 
study of it is compulsory ! 1 verily believe 
that many dare not even to suggest such a 
thing ,• yet why should we not value our 
own language as much as the Greeks valued 
theirs? Walter W. Ske.\t. 

John Wainwhight, Baron of the Ex- 
chequer IN Ireland (9"" S. xii. 505).— Baron 
Wainwright left no issue. For some account 
of the baron's life in Ireland I venture to 
refer Mr. J. B. Wainewrksht t*:* the last part 

Bubli.shed of 'A History of the County 
'ublin,' by myself, and to the Jourwd of 
the Royal Socfety of Antiquaries of Ireland 
for 1898. If further information would be 
of any use to Mj:. Walnewrioht, my manu- 
script notes are much at his service. 

F. Elrington Ball. 

Rous OR RowsE Family (9"' S. xii. 487).— 
Information as to this family will be found 
as follows : ' N. & Q..' 1" S. ix. 222 ; «"' S. xi. 
.328, 429 : Eatl Amjlian N. A (j. (N.S.), iii. 
229, 247; Seventh Rep. Hist. Com., 663; 
Rous of Badinghara, pedigree. Add. MSS. 
(Brit. Mus.) 19,147 ; arms and quarterings. 
Tanner (MSS. Bodleian), cclvii. 239 ; of Crat- 
field, Donnington, and Henham. pedigrees. 
Add. MSS. (Brit. Mus.) 19,147; with arms in 
trick {\b\i\), Rawl. B (Bodl.) 422; of Wood- 
bridge, Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' 1370; 
' Arcliffilogiaj Atticie,' by Francis Rous, 
Oxford, 1654 ; Dr. Rous'* verses on his death, 
Magd. Coll., Oxford, ccxxxix. 79 ; Joan 
llous, Baker MSS., Cambridge, xxxv. end ; 
letter discharging Adam Rous, surgeon to 
Richard II., of 20 marks for medicine for the 
king's U80, Cambridge, Dd. iii. f>3 (H.o) '' 
letter allowing him a tun of fJascony w>"^. 
iL ; letter of Lady Parnell Rouh to 5>«'/o''" 
Hobart relative to wardship ff '"rViin, J 
12 Dec, 1003. Tanner, cclxxxiu. »o«, LMa > 
of John Rous Ineurnbent of Santon, Dov^n- 
ham, 1025 to 1642,' edited by M. A, E Green 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no^- s. i. Jak. lo. im. 

iJCam. Soc), Lond., I8r>6 ; letter of Sir John 
rRou9, of Heuham, to Fmnc. Gawdy, 3 Mar., 
1627/8, Tenth Rep. Hist Cora., pt. iii. 128; 
ditto, Tj Oct., 1628, iff. 131 ; speech of Francis 
lious in Parliament concerning religion, 
2U Jan., 1G28/9 (print©<]), Tanner, Ixxii. 305, 
ccxcLx. .'>3 ; letter of John Itous, Bodley 
Librarian, to Usaher, 14 Nov., 1629, iO. Ixxi. 
21 ; letter of Charles Roua, of Henham, to 
Franc. Gawdy, 10 Jan., 1629/30, Tenth Rep. 
Hist. Com^ pt. iii. 132 ; letter of Francis 
Rous to Sir John Potts, 30 Jan., 1643/4, 
Tanner, Ixii. 530 ; his declaration concerning 
the amount of his income from public 
sources, 25 Aug., 1646, V6. lix. 499 ; letter to Sir 
Heni-y Vane touching payment of Mr. Pym'a 
debts, 16 June, 1651 (printed), /6. liv. 87;] 
letter of Thomas Rous, of Stcrnfield, to 
Franc. Gawdy, 17 Aug., 16.">4, Tenth Rep. 
Hist. Cora., pt. iii. 179 ; to Thoma.s Gawdy, 
3 April, 1668, ib. 204 ; copy of will of Franci.s 
Rous, Provost of Eton, 12 April, IfijS, Tanner, 
ccccxlvii. 1 ; difference between Thomas Rous 
and his parishioners, 1668, Tenth Rep. Hist. 
Com., pt. iii. 203 ; letter of Mary Itous, of 
Sternfield, to William Gawdy, 8 May, 1656, 
ib. 184 : ditto, 20 July, 16.')8, ib. 187 ; letter of 
Sir John Rous, second Baronet of Henham, 
to O. Le Neve, his cousin, 1699-1704, Egerton 
MSS. (Brit. Mus.) 2719, 2720 ; letter of Sir 
John to R. Wright, s.a., ib. 2720 ; letter of 
J. Rous to Marquess of Granby, announcing 
nomination for county and declaration of 
sheriff, and a<3king for concurrence, 6 Mar., 
1787, Twelfth Rep. Hist. Com., pt. v. 203. 
Further pedigrees of the Rous family will be 
found in the Brit. Mus., Add. MSS. 0524, 
Harl. MSS. 155, 1103, 1177, 1449, 1484. l.'J20, 

Worcester. Reginald Rous was the repre- 
sentative of the Dennington family in the 
fifteenth century ; and Sir Thoraa.s Rons, 
who was knighted in 1603, was his lineal 
descendant. They were anceRtors of the 
Earls of Strad broke. Full particulars of the 
descent may be found in CoUins'a ' Peerage,' 
or in the various Visitations of Suffmk. 
Francis Rous, named in 1637, was the well- 
known Speaker of the Barebones Parliament, 
He was fourth son of Sir Anthony Rous, of 
Hal ton, Cornwall, and died 7 Jan., 1650. 

W. D. Pink. 
[Canon Ki.lai;o,mbk, Bittou Vicarage. Bristol, 
otters to give Mk. Umjbkpown further information.) 

Children's Cabols and Lullabiks (g**" S. 

xii. .348, 395, 511).— Any one interested in this 

literature would do well to peruse the articles 

in 7^'' S. ii., indexed under 'Nursery Rhyraea.' 


Quotations O"" S. xii. 468).— Two of the 
quotations cited appear on the last leaf of 
tne celebrated Northumberland MS. edited 
by Mr. Spetlding in 1870. In place of the 

Laden with grief and oppression of the heart 
the Northumberland MS. has 

Revealing day through every cranie ijeei»««, 

which is a variation of ' Lucrece' (1086). 
Then follow, as already noted, 
Asmund and CdrncUn, 
and, slightly varied, 

Multia annis jam tranaaotis 
Nulla tides est in y»acti«, 
Mell in ore. verba laetis : 
Fell in corde, fraus in factis. 

Mr. Spedding said: "I think I am in a 

IfiCU, ilOO ; arms, Harl. MSS. 1449; extracts condition to assert that there is no trace of 

from fine rolls relating to family. Add. 5937 ; 
Ambrose Rouse's evidenc&s, Queen's Coll., 
Oxford, clii. 1.38 ; Francis Rouse's speeches 
in Parliament. 1628. Queen's, cxxi. 406 ; 
Christ Ch. Coll., Oxf., ccccxvii. 2.37 ; Stowe 
MSS. (Brit. Mus.) 156, f. 210''; in 1640, 
(Queen's, clxxiv. 71. A pedigree of the family 
is given by Suckling in his 'Hist, of Suffolk,' 
vol. ii. n. 366. 

The Reginald Rous secondly mentioned by 
your correspondent was the grandfather of 
the Edmund Rous he also refers to. As to 
the death of this Reginald, or Raynold, or 
Reynold Rous in 1464, it will be seen that 
Suckling gives this as the date of his wife's 
death, and Weaver, ' F. M..' p. 512, gives the 
date as 1463. W. A. Copinger. 

Kersal Coll, Manchester. 

There were several important families of this 
name, seated respectively at Dennington, 
JMjfTolk, Halton, Cornwall, and Rouse Lench, 

Bacon's penmanship in any part of the 
volume." On the other hand, a New York 
lady told me some years ago that, in reply 
to an inquiry, she had received a letter front 
the librarian of Northumberland House in 
which the opinion was expressed that the 
handwritine was Bacon's. Spcdding'sopinior 
surely should have groat weight. It is to b< ^ 
hoped that we shall learn more of the MS. 
mentioned by Mit. Bikoovne. 

Chas. a. Heritch. 
New York. 

Right Hon. Edward SotTHWEi.L (in"- S. 
i. a).--The Southwell MSS. were sold by the 
late Mr. Thorpe, of Bedford Street, in 1834-.'>, 
when many or the papers were purchajjod by 
the British Museum. Others are in tJ 
possession of the Royal Irish Aoademv. Sor 
tell into the hands of Sir Thomas Phillipp^ 
of Broadway, Worcester, whose library came 
under the hammer of Messrs. Sotheby in the 


10^ 8. 1. Jan. 16, 1904.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


^_ niueties, and was acquired by the Card iff Free 
I^B Li bran* for, I believe, 3,36<;/. ; but whether 
JK the McS. were included orotherwiHe I cannot 


'Memoirs OF A Stomai'u' (10"' S. i. 27).— 
Halkett and Laing state that Sydney Whit- 
ing was the author of this book (1853) ; also 
that he wrote 'Affection, its Flowers and 
Fruit' (1848), and 'Helioude ; or, Adventures 
in the Sun' (1855). R. A. PoTT.s. 

[Mk. RaM-m Tiioma.s refer? to Uoaae's 'Modern 
EnRliah liiography,' «.i'. WhiliDit.] 

Envelopes (9"* S. xii. 245,307, 434,400).— 

With all respect toCAPT.THORNEGEORr.E, I fear 

that his statement as to the " envelopes dated 

1856 which liad betn franked through the 

^ post by Lord Fortescue " and others needs 

^1 some modification. Private franking was 

^f aboli«hetl in 1840, when the reformed jx)stal 

system came in, though the practice of 

writing a name outside a letter— the act 

■ which constituted the frank— still survives, 
as do other habits whose original meaning is 
lost. Nowadays the outside signature de- 
notes tlie writer, not the franker of the mis- 
sive. t'APT. Thorne Geori.k's later state- 
nient that "stamped covers" were used in 
Australia to prepay postage "previous to 
Rowland Hill's scheme" must, I think, have 
been culled from one of those works of fiction 
which profess to tell the story of postal 

That letters before 1840 sometimes con- 
tained enclosures is true. To enclose was 
easy. The letters were written on large 
square sheets of paper, which were folded 
and raa<le secure by .sealing-wax or wafers. 
At every post-oftice was a ''candling room," 
in which any letter that seemed thicker than 
usual was hold up against a strong li^ht to 
ascertain of liow many separate pieces it con- 
sisted- It was to defeat temptation to dis- 
honesty caused by this scrutiny that the 
practice was adopted of cutting a bank-note 
in two before posting it, and keeping back 
the second hair till receipt of the first had 
been acknowledged. A bank-note or other 
enclosure in a letter would have counted as 
two letters, and, if both were put into one 
«inveIop<', as three. Tlius, if this missive with 
its two enclosures were sent, say from 
London to Edinburgh, the charge would 
have been 1j< id. X 3 = 4,'(. plus a halfpenny, in 
those IVoteutioiiist days, for the privilege of 
<:rosHing the Scottish b<:irder. 

Unless the envelopes mentioned by Swift 
ia 1720, by Lamb iu \bt\ and by Creevey's 
biographer prior to 1838, were employed to 
■cover "smuggled" letters or those conveyed 


b^ hand, it ie hard to understand their rauon 
dtUre. It is this ditliculty which bewildcia 
one when reading the striking and seemingly 
exact evidence adduced bv Sir Hkrbert 
Maxwell, Capt. Thorne George, and Mr. 
W. H. Peet as to the use of these covers 
before 1840. Can it be tliat the "little bags 
called envelopes," as my father described 
them, were, as Capt. Tjioune George says, 
" nothing but a revival " t Or must the 
mysterv remain as insoluble as the identity 
of the Man in the Iron Mask ? 

An interesting account may be found of 
the local penny posts inventetl by poor l3ock- 
wra (whose plan in many ways resembled my 
father's) in that standard work on prepostaf- 
reformation times- Joyce's ' History of the 
Post Office.' Eleanob C. Smyth. 


At the last reference it is stated that 
Edward IV. originated a practical post in 
1481. 1 should like to know whether this 
stAtement, which I have met with before, 
rests upon any sufficient evidence. The same 
correspondent, following a well-known work 
of reference, .says that Randolph was ap- 
pointed "Postmaster of England" in lj8h 
Randolph was appointed Ma,ster of the Posts 
in 156C, in succession to Sir John Mason, who 
was appointed in November, 1545, by letters 
patent. Mason's prwlecessor, Brian Tuke, 
was Master of the Posts in 1512, and perhaps 
earlier, and he seems to have been the first 
person who held the office in this country. 

From about the beginning of the reign of 
Henry VIII. there were posts from London 
to Dover and to Berwick, and lat^r in the 
century there was a post to Holyhead, and 
to other places. But these were tho king'u 
post for tlie conveyance of letters on his 
affairs, or of persons travelling with his 
commission, or the commission of certain 
officers of the State. When ordinary private 
letters were first sent by post is a question 
more easily asked than answered. The 
Privy (Council as late as January. l."iS3, laid 
down, inter alia, in a proclamation, " that 
no packets or letters shall be sufficient 
warrant or authority to constrain the posts 
to run with thom in post, except they be 
directed on her Majesty's affaii-s." The 
letters of private persons were, no doubt, 
sent by post, but had to take their chance of 
being forwarded. Private letters were, as a 
rule, entrustetl to the common carriers, 


The following citations would seem to 
indicate the use of tlie envelope, or its 
practical equivalent the " cover," for a peritxl 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo^ «• i. Jax. ia. im. 

of over a century prior to the postal reform 
of Sir Rowland Hill in 1840 :— 

I8'J9.— " I bave just discovered that my blotting 
)>aper blots, and blots with great offtMt, which 
must excuse the state of this epistle. I now con- 
clude it. I do not overlook what you said in your 
envelojie, but we will talk over Rrievances when we 
meet. I am truly sorry for them. Adieu." — 
' Letters of Lady Louisa Stuart,' iSecond Series, 
1>. 150 (KdinburKh. ly03). 

1S'*2. — "I did grudge the other day eighteen- 
pence for one iiage of a sheet of note i>aper enclosed 
m a cover, but Rive me the money's worth and lake 
it freely."—' Letters of Lady Louisa .Stuart,' First 
Series, pp. 2fv>-lj (Edinburgh, 1901). 

1H21.— ^' If he should have left yon, never wind a 
frank ; but if he doe« frank your letter, let it be in 
a cover. You will wonder at this, but I promised 
a collector of franks whom 1 met at Dnnc«tield to 
Rather together as many franks as 1 could for him, 
and I want Sir Wm.s to add to Ihc uunjber."— 
J hill., p. UK. 

1782.— "Mr. Napier bega his beat compts. to you 
both. I won't make you pay more for my stupid 
letter by putting it in a cover, so adieu." — ' Letters 
of I.Ady Sarah fjenuox,' ii. 17 (London, IflOl). 

1730, Dean Swift to Mrs. Howard.—'* if you were 
a lord or uominoiier, I would have sent you this iu 
an envelope."—' Letters of the Countess of SutTolk,' 
i. 4<;>3 (London. 1824). 

1726, Dean Swift to Mrs. Howard.— "This ia 
without a cover, to save money : and plain paper, 
because the gilt is so thin it will discover secrets 
betwixt \xa."—Ibid., p. '221. 

The 'N.E.D.' cites for early e.xamplea of 
envelope, 1726, Dean Swift, and 1714, Bishop 
Burnet ; and for cover, 1798, Jane Austen, 
and 1748, Samuel ilichardson. 

E. P. Merritt. 

Bo«ton, U.S. 


Xfir Avt'itenlarn and iV« Ptoplt. By J. H. lanes. 

(.Soribner's Sons.) 
This survey of New Amsterdam, now known as 
New York, ia coni]iilud from documents in Ame- 
rican archive:), most of which, so far as the general 
T>ublic is concerned, are now for the first time made 
acceanible. It has iiispired much interest iu Ame- 
rica, hut )ias as yet obt.aiDed comparatively little 
notice in this country, wherein it should count on 
a welcome no less assured. It is virtually the first 
Attem])t to deal fully with the growth of the 
Netherlands colony, the settlement of Manhattan 
island, and the fortunes of the colonists in their 
BuHerin^s from tyrannical governors and their con- 
tests with enemies, savage or civiliited, until, in 
1664, the State was grasped by Pwigland, who had 
long cast covetous eyes upon it. A new edition is 
meditated bv tlie author, and it is greatly desired 
to interest Eiij?lish research in the matter. Many 
I>oints on which further information is sought 
may be mentioned. Mr. Innes is of o])inion 
that the William I'ator^on who in IOCh aciiuired 
property in New Anmlerdtuu wum the fonnuer of 
the Bank of England. This can hardly have been 

the case if the datea in the ' D.N.B.' can be accepted, 
since, according to these, Paterson was born Id I658k 
Further information on the subject is desirable. 
The evidence of signatures favours the theory of 
Mr. lanes. Edinburgh records should be consulted. 
Fresh information is imiiarted concerning Ca]>t. 
W'illiaai Kidd, and the view is expounded that he 
was sacrificed in order to save the reputation of 
men higher in station than himself. When thii 
i>eriod is reached in calendaring the English State 
Papers, much information on tins j>oint is to be 
anticipated. Concerning .Jacob Sleendam, a Dutch 
poet in the service of the West India Comiiany, 
new information has been obtained. As no is 
virtually the first American poet, interest in 
him is certain to be before long inspired. How 
far his work.^, which we are unable to read, are 
accessible we fail to grasp. Comelis Melyn, of 
Antwerp, the leader of the opposition to the West 
India (Jompany, transferred his services to Eng- 
land. Sjieculation is rife in New York as to 
what was his .^hare in bringing about the English 
seizure of New York. Il is probable that informa- 
tion on this subject is lurking among English 
reoords. Auguatyn Heermana or Herrman, the 
surveyor of Maryland and the maker of the map 
of that province now in the British Museum, a 
man interesting iu other respects, invites atten- 
tion. Little intelli^';ent regard has hitherto bei 
]>aid to the early views of New York. Mr. Iniv 
claims to have been the first to discover that th» 
view by Justus Danckers of Now Amsterdam, nomi- 
nally in Itiol, but really representing the ].ieriod 
about 1IJ30, which serves as a frontispiece, is ia the 
original reversed. In these and manv other regards 
we challenge the judgment of English ex pert^B. We 
are glad to give Mr. Innes all the assistance in our 
power. Little, however, will, we fear, be done 
until Mr. Innes associates some English scholar in 
labours lliat should ultimately prove remuneratiyc, 
or himself visits Britain for the unr{)oae of making 
personal researches. His book appeals to all 
students of New York, and is profusely illustrated 
with niaj>s, drawings, Ac. The designs extend 
beyond Now Amsterdam to the present city, which 
the Dutch colonists of three centuries ago might 
justly have regarded as a metropolis, a term con- 
stantly abused in its application to Lomlon, which 
is no more the metropolis of York than it is of 
Edinburgh or Dublin. 

TuE few sheets of paper which contain the title- 
page, K('i/i(i firoiaua in Coiimtttriti Uurnti wriptci, 
Lalint vtihlidit \V. A. Clarkt (Oxford, B. H. Black- 
well), are iif interest to us as a reminder tliat the 
elegant gift of I^tin verse has not yet passed into 
the limbo of forgotten things. For Iiiom us 

and the instinct for language Latin cai 
inslruniont, can make privacy on a po~' . : .. ;. J. 
ness out of prolixity, liiinjfs awkward to aay toler- 
able, and compliments ejiigrammatic. The Latin 
muse is not, our own experience protests, such a «ox 
claniauiit ill iliMfto as the man in the street (that 
wonderful tiction of modern journalists to conceal 
faults of sense and ignorance) thinks, if, indeed, 
ho can l>e said ever to think at all. We have 
received, for instance, in a Latin verse or two an 
invitation from a friend to dine and play billiards:, 
as exact as English could be concerning time and 
place, graceful, yet brief as the telegram which the 
national thrift in copper generally reduces to nn- 

10«* 8. L .Tax. 16, 19M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



It 18 curious to note how great men of Iett«n 
who have any Latin at all are almost invariably ao 
fond of it that they write more of it than ihey 
know — witnesa Shakespeare, Scott, Lamb. These 
were in touch with life, no mere doD8 or ocacleriiic 
tninda, hard-working men, goo<l citizens of the 
world, and their feeTiu;; and usage ouKht to weigh 
with educators of today. 

So far we have 8}ioken of Latin as a IhinK desired 
in itself by our great writers. Classical transla- 
tion ia a more restricted field, and at its best an 
excellent mental discipline. Mr. Clarke, who has 
been assisted, his tit!e-x>aKc adds, by friends in the 
revision of his work, tells us in a letter that the 
• Elegy' haa been done into T^atiu by W. Hildyard, 
1838; J. H. Macaulay, 1841, in * Arundines Cami'; 
fjord Ravensworth ; H. Sewell, 187.'i ; H. J. Dod- 
well, l!«t ; Uev. R. I{. Konnard, 189-2 ; and Canon 
Sheringhanf. Httl. He does not, however, mention 
the version in I^tin hexameters by B. H. Kennedy 
CSabrinffi Corolla,' fourth ed., pp. IVJ-'AK). Mr. 
Clarke, it is clear, belones to the older school, 
which is not ao careful of iU Latinity as modern 
composers are. He has, t/i rtvancht, a. naturalness, 
a free flow of line, which their elaborateness is apt 
to miss. We readily acknowledge that his version 
has Riven us a pleasure which outweighs the pointa 
in which we think it aniiss, or capable of better 
effect and idiom. One line we entreat him to re- 
model which has Jflfr in it, since we are bound to 
shorten the first syllable of that useful verb. In 
the line 

For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn 
there is a subjunctive instead of the future; and 
can one forgot the " lisping " of the children on 
" their siro'a return " '* One might put 

Heu ! feaao sabolea oocumt nulla parents 
for the line 

Neo fesso suboles occurret balba parenli. 
We see that Mr. Clarke uses " nevo" for nor. which 
wo should not allow onrsel vea ; and does not " cursus 
Honoris" suggest a limited oitd technical path to 
glory in Roman life? We notice, too, a good many 
collocations of noun and adjective M-ith the same 
case ending, which we fancy one would have avoided 
— e.ff.,ia aline like 

In ailvii solitia snnt patefacta locis 
would not "•li"' sound better and be as good? In 
this same stanza " juvenum"i8 an evident misprint 
for Jui'r.nem. In some cases it would be feasible, 
we think, to represent the English more fully; but 
these are matters of taste and vocabulary on which 
it is imi>oBsible to dwell briefly. Suffice it to say 
that the present reviewer owes to Mr. Clarke a 
pi,..,....,.. »<'..Tnoon of reflection on a secluded path 
of 1 1 which he has followed with unabated 

iiii delight for many years, and which he 

hopi^ Mill never cease to be a special means of 
intercourse among the few and fit, iiowever the 

I mutable many ra^e of this and tliat as a panacea 
(or gelling on in this money-making era. 
If r', X- of the Burlhtyfoii Maf/n-.ine is issned under 
new ntana^emcnl, though time has not yet been 
found to introduce contemplated improvements. 
Ita most important itlostrations are from the Nor- 
Dianlon Collection (article .S), and include Vandyke's 
'Lady Mary, Daunhter of f.'harles I.,' which does 
duty as frontispiece; a 'Venus and Adonis' of 
Titian ; a portrait of .Sophie A mauld(.qy. Amould?) 


byOreuze, and two other works of the same painter; 
and Murillo's ' Moorish Slave.' A Chinese painting 
of the fourth century and many other contnbutiona 
of mnch interest and value appear, it seems as if 
the alterations to be anticipated consist in giving 
increased attention to modem oa well as ancient 

Ay admirable number of Scnhn^r's Magaunt 
reached us ttM late to be inserted in lost week's 
notice. Capt. Mahan liegins in it an account, to be 
continued, of 'The War of 1812.' Mr. Siiielmann 
writes on Frank Brangwyn, and Mr. l)ellenl>augh 
describes ' A New Valley of Wonders.' 


Mk. Bkrtkam Dobrli.'s list is, as usual, full of 
interest. It opens with a collection of mannscripts. 
'Die first is ' A Booke of the Accouiptea of Barton, 
made at our Ladio Daie, Anno Dmi. Itill.' Another 
MS. is 'A Relation made by an Kngliah Anibos- 
sador in France to James I.' There are also ' L^n- 
printed and Unpublished Manuscripts of Rowleie 
Plays.' These were re/erred to in the Athemntm, 
21 May, 1S92 ; also in ' N. & Q.,' 2"'' S. vii. 277. 
Among the books are a Folio Shakoapeore, excep- 
tionally fine copy of unusual size (I."},', by 9 in.), 
1.1V. ; Byron'a * Hours of idleness,' largo-iMiiwr copy 
of the genuine firet edition, uncut, '35/- (a copy of 
this sold at .Sotheby's in May lost for 4.1/.): Folk- 
lore Society's Publications, 31 vols.; Keats, first 
edition, 12mo ; and ' Dramatic Portraits in the Days 
of (iarrick' (this collection contains nine )iortrait8 
of <^)arrick). Under Dickens we find a colleclioo 
of pamphlets, evidently bound up by direction of 
the novelist. 

Mr. William Downing, of Temple Row, Bir- 
mingham, in his new list includes the rare first 
edition of ' Paradise Regoin'd,' a tine copy l>ound 
by Zaehnsdorf, .'W. ; also 'The Nuremberg Chro- 
nicle,' 1493 : ' The Orchid Album,' 1 1 vols. ; " Tudor 
Translations," 26 vol*., I8a3-I90:i. 40/. ; ' Armorial 
Families,' by Fox-Davies, showing which arms in 
tise are borne by legal authority; 'The Roman 
Wall,' by the Rev. J. Colliniswood Bruce, IS.*)! ; 
Brough's ' Life of Falstoir,' illustrated by Cruik- 
shank, 18.'38; Maxwoll's 'Irish Rebellion,' first 
edition, Cruikshank's illustrations ; Poole's ' Eng- 
lish Parnassus,' 1657; Prayer Book of King 
Kdward VII., folio, 1903; Rogers's ' Italy ' 2 vols. 
4to, 1838, bound by Hayday, HI. S^. ; and thaw's 
' Dresses of the Middle Ages,' 1843. 

Mr. Francis Edwards has a ooUeotioii of first 
editions of modem authors ; and under Africa w© 
find many interesting pamphlets and books on the 
Boer war, helpful to tne future historian. He has 
also a series of papers from the ijociety of Anki- 
nuaries. In the general portion of the catalogue is 
Sir F. B. Eden's ' History of the I^abouring Classes 
from the Conquest,' 3 vols, 4to, very scarce, 17fl7» 
ItV. ; Froissart, 6 vols., 1901-2. scarce, .V. ; Plcroo- 
Egau, 1825, 6/. 1ft*.; firbt editions of Coleridge? 
Rymer et Robertas Sanderson. Fcedera, 20 vols., 
l?27-»*, 15/. ; Punch, a complete set, 1*11 to !««, 
26/. M r. Edwards also makes a special offer of puli- 
lications of the Roval (Jeographiool hocioty. Me 
has a complete set, XL 

Messrs, Fawn, of Bristol, have many works 
relating to Bristol, including ' A Histonr of Bank- 
ing in Bristol from 1750 to 1898' AOd the Bristol 



NOTES AND QUERIES. iw' a. i. J^x. lu. vm. 

Archii!oIo(.'i' '" 'ioKJi. *IJcH»k-IVice« 

Curreni,' I i'n Hall Library," 

IftFK" i>tt|*i ; ' l\j... .■..-. I.... i^f I'ictures,' l!<40: 

l'.:iiei-»on, the " KiverBide Edition," lo/. I.m. ; and 
K..\i Undeon'i 'Dance of ]>eath,' Ackermaon. 
isl.'i-lli, are other iteraa. Under America we tind 
the fipHi edition of ' Uncle Tom> Cabin." There is 
also a small coUeclion of books on the drama. 

Mr. Charlea Hicham has a New Year's Catalogue 
of Tbeological Books in three eectioDS, one being 
devoted to Roman Catholic and Patristic litera- 
ture. There are alao a number of new books offered 
At Becoud-hond prices. These include Frothero's 
'Life of Dean Stanley'; 'An Inventory of the 
Church Plate of Leicestershire, with some Account 
of the Donors': rriiicipal Tulloch's 'Life,' by 
^lr8. (JHiihant ; \Vilkin8on'8 ' Manners and Customs 
of the Ancient Egyptians'; and Wright's ' Karly 
Bibles of America, New York, 189'2. 

Mr. Jame0 Irvine, of Fulhani, has books of 
interest under Alpine, Americji, Bibliography, 
liot&nical, Fungi, Lichens, and Military. There 
are a tot of Hohii's e:«ira volumes and books on 
lyoudon. Under Costumes ia a copy of * Vestiarium 
Scoticuni,' 11. 1». 

Mr. David Johnstone, of Edinburgh, has a good 
catalojiixie of aaiiquarian and general literature, 
including prints by Cruiksbank and some first 
editions of Scott. 

^lessrs. Moegs Brothers' list includes a rare 
collection of the works^of the Bohemian engraver 
Wonceslaus Hollar, l<JOT-77, 34/. ; Kcaue's ' 'lowers 
of Ancient Ireland'; a complete set of Lady Joc^k- 
son'e Court Menioir.*], 14 vols., Iwautifullj'' bound by 
Riviere, 3G/. ; Richard Jeireries's works, a hand- 
some set, in 'J7 vols., '^. ; Jerrold'a works, with 
four autograph notes of the author, 8 vols. Under 
^Samuel .Johnson wefind Jugges edition (l.'yiGJof the 
New 'festanient, containing six full pages of writing 
in the autograph of Dr. Johnson, the price of the 
volnnie being lOt)/. : the scarce edition of Koswell, 
1703, also Husbands's ' Miacellaoy of Pocni.^,' Liuli- 
field, 1731 (this contains the first printe<l production 
of Johnson). Ben .Jonson's works. IftWJ, tall copy, 
iapriced 19/. 10». ; Keate. Taylor & Hessey, 1821). '25/. ; 
a collection, probably the largest, of fortraits of 
Edmund Kean. 270 pieceB, iVl/. ; Hasted's 'Kent,' 
'IM. ; Kip's 'Nouvcan 'J'ht-Alre de la (Jrande Bre- 
tagne,' 4 vols, large folio, 38/, ; a set of Lacroix, 
first issue: a handsome set of I^ecky, 18 vols. ; 
•Punch's Pockel-Books,' 1844-«0; Lover's works, 
A3 vols.. lH39-?2, Iftt/. ; a set of Lytton's works, 
including Life, 105 vols., 77/. HV. ; Tennyson, 
'Poems by Two Brothers,' 1827. 30/.; Shelley's 
'tjuecn Mab,' a complete copy of the suppressed 
first edition, post 8vo, in the original boards, 
"Printed by P. B. Shelley, 23, Chapel Street! 
Orosvcnor Sq., 1813," 135/. (the lost copy sold by 
auction realued 16(V.). Under Ruskin we find 
"Poenjs, J. Rs, collected \Vi*)," 78/. (this r.opy is 
described in Mr. Wise's bibliography of Ruskin). 
The catalogue includes many curious MS^. 

Messrs. A. Maurice & Co. have a new catalogue 
of ongra\ing<« and portrai(j> at moderate pricect, 
very intercepting ; ult'O a general caialofnie of 
jj)n.i«r- 1....L- ^i|...... comprise some first editions 

oi iluniphrcy'.'j Clock' in the 

t* I»*t0-l, beina offeied at 

'^ *liy'8 worlta. including 

ilao MacaaUy in tlie 

Messrs. Sotheran hav« a k- 
c4italogue8, which we shoul'i 
to follow. The one for i.. 
reached ua, and contains a 
literature, science, and art. 

'ing their 
I or firms 

'"-^■. iias just 

variety of books in 
Among special items 

of interest are a set of the 'Annual Register,' I75S 
to lfl(>2. 31/. l(M. ; • Library of AngloCatholic Theo- 
logy,' S8 vols., 1841 -tf7, at the low price of 4/. 10<». ; 
Duval's 'Caricatures,' a very curious collection, 
1M3, 12/. 1'2». ; 'British Dramatists, standard edi- 
tions, 108 vols., 1813-75, 9!' ' illniy's 'Can- 
oatures,' including the 45iii; imes ; Charles 
Lamb's ' The Poetical Recre : l ha Champion,' 
very rare, printed at the Champiuu Press, ■271, 
Strand, 1822, 22/. 10*. ; Lodge's ' Portraits,' IK21-:«, 
.10/. ; Lysons's ' Historical Account of the Etivirous 
of London,' 179^5, 42iJ/. ; Jean Mariette's 'French 
Ornament,' 1(189-1740, 7<>/,; and Pijw Roll publica- 
tions, 1884-97. There are also a number of valuable 
books relating to Yorkshire. 

Mr. Thorp, of Reading, has many recent |>ur- 
chases : Ackermann's ' History of tne University 
of Catnbridge,' 1815, 12/. 10<. : some books on Africa ; 
Australia, a long list; also many l)ooks on local 
topography and antiquities, inoludin? a choice 
copy of Ashmole; a set of Borrow- hist 

and second editions, 13 vols.. 7^ I0<. ; .ns 

of Mis* Burney's works; Burton's ■..:._: a,, of 
Melancholy,' fourth edition ; a set of l>n.ken», tirst 
and early editions : Hogarth, Leicester Field?. 
1735-W : Home's ' Orion,' 1.S4.3 ; Bodeslrfde'H • Kent," 
thirty-six views of noblemen's seats ; hcgnin, ' L« 
Dentelle.' Paris. 1875, 12/. 10<. ; 'Mcw.otint Por- 
traits,' Henry ^^II. to end of Janiea II., by Earlom 
and Turner, 1811; Nichols's ' Lilerarv Anncdotes/ 
17 vols, 8/. Hx. ; Blomefield's 'Norfii: ': U., 
royalSvo; Woods's 'Norfolke Furies'; i (y. 

31 vols.; .Sowerby's 'Thesaurus (.< nu,' 

22/.; *A Breath from the Vehlt ' (this couLains 
'The Lost Trek' !Sir John Millais's lost pencil 
drawing); Thackeray, the Britamiia, a weekly 
k»urnal of news, politics, and literature, from 
.January, 1*10, to December, lJi49, 9 voIh. folio, 
extremely rare. The catalogue also cootaina a list 
of curious topographical views. 

^otitti io €oirrr.spcnbnit)i. 

M. H. E. W. ("Raining cats and dogs"), — Iti 
2""' S. iii. 440 "cat* and dogs" t«i «nid <o be a cor- 
ruption of '"■ ' IVencli foi "; mid in 
519 of Kara ntrarytol. . is said 
to be a "naiL.... ; — laic exprea^,. .. ,i. _ !s. xii. 
'298. See further S"-" .S. xii. ;««) for a longer veniou 
of the phrase. 

C. L. y. ("Shii>8 that pass in Iho night"),— 
I.^ngfellow. 'Talea of a \\ aysjde Inn* (part lii,, 
' The Theologian's Tale,' ' Elizalielh." canto iv,). 
This inquiry, often answered in our oojunitiH, recura 
with irritating persistencj-. 

ii. &. — Already noted. 


Editorial comtnuni<-»rion8 should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '" — Adver- 
tiseraeou and Baaiueoa Letters to " The Pab- 
liaher "—at the Oi&oe, Breuu'a Baildinga, Choucery 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to retnm 
commuaicatioDs which, (or any reason, we ilo not 
print ; ojid to this rule we can make no oxoeptioo. 

ic* 8. 1, ja^. 16. 1904.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




(Close to Piccadilly Circns.). 


PHLETS, nnd OLD BOOKS on m&oj Subjects. 



CATALOGUES poet free. 



Put 1., oonUinlng A— B. with laO Illu»ti»Hoii., price U, 

P»rt II.. C. wllh 2J0 IlluiLr»llont, price 3*. 

Partt III.— V, D-M, with 380 IlluitraUon. Id F«c»lrotlo. 
price 2». tmob. 

J. & J. LEfGHTON, 




Ancient and Modern Booksellers and 


and Engravings post free on application. 

Tlie follotrlDC jose publlihcd :— Not. 138 And HO, New 
Serin. Finely BNQRAVBD POKTRAITS, iDcluJine mauy 
VeiintlnU. BiKl LONDON KNGUAVINOS. No*. 13t(-14u. 
•nil many out'Of-lhe-wsy itemi. 


J-'rom a Library U a Singit I'aluait, 


Floe andOenufne OM Prln(» In Colour and Black, compri*- 
ing fine Bxunple* by Hoppner, Hiiralltoo, A.lken, Reynoldi, 
Morland, Petert. Opie. *c.— d jrotKl Series of the Arundel 
Socii"t5''« ClirtDraoIlllio|tr«ph»— fine Oollectlon of Book* on 
India And tlie Hk«t-Hxln-llluatrated Books— Eood Library 
SfU of SUndar<1 Authors -Picture Galleries and other lllos- 
trated Books— and a vast Assemblage of Voyages, Bio- 
graphical and Ulstoricol Works, and other iuterestiog Items. 

Gralu and pott frt* on application to 

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Items, over 2,000 io all), post tree. 


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CONTENTS. -No. 4. 

SOUSS :— Lunh, Colerii1f;e, and Mr. Ms;, 31— St. Hargart't'i 
Churehnnl. Westininsler. (i2— " Squaw " : •• M«.halm," W 
— Wealiier on 25 Jiumiu-y — 8iniab«r<n|i Hviiropboblc 
FktIcnU— Cborld I.: HUlorical Letter, 46— Mistletoe la 
Ohurcb. W. 

QUEKIBS i-Tbomai HtradllnK— Sir Henry Cbauncy, 66— 
St. Akqm, Uail'liDKUia — Picture by Frith— " Lost In ■ 
O0Dv«ot'i wlitary gltom "— Be?. C. B. Manning— Wenleoi 
AblM^y — Oarltgaa Snmame — Rev. OlMwIiab Deniuan — 
Samuel Wildcnpiii- loscripllon on Stntiie of Jamei II.— 
WiUi&m Wil lib -Forest Kiuiiilv— Frost and It* Tormt, (57 — 
Bhelley'i Mother — Britlsb Kmbasay In Pari*— Robert 
Morria-Flesh and Shamble Ueats — J. W. Dornfonl— 
Mime* or Ueranda*— PepTi'a ' Diary ' : a Bererenoe, «9. 

BBPUSS :— Madame du Detraod'a Letters. 68 — Bxooin- 
RUBlektlon of Louis XIV.— Kpitaph— Ileber's ' Palestioe,' 
•9 — Sadler '■ Wells Play — Ohiut^h wardens' Aooount* — 
Vopograpby of Ancitfiil London—" Jeer "— " Little Mary " 
— •' Welikh ratibit " — St. Bridget's Bower, 70 - Cardinals 
and Crltn»on Robes — Bar 1 1 est FUvblll— "OwMlght"— 
Castle Society ot Mnsick, 71 -St. Dlals-Blsbop Hall, of 
Bristol — Ash : Plaoe-name — BrffchtUnKtea : Its Deputy 
Mayor — Knglish Aooeotuation— Cromwell buried in Red 
Lion Squarr. i3 — Capsicum- BisU<>p White Kenuctt's 
Father— Flaying Alive, 7.3 — VlclssUu<l«4 of Language— 
" Qoil " : Its Btymnlojo', '4— Marlowe and Shakespeare- 
Candlemas Qllls— "Cfoiip de Jarnsc"— " 8lt loose to" — 
Marrtuge Beglstcrs- " Ueardlome": "He«cb "— Japanese 
Cards, 75— Lorenzii da Favia— Shalteapeare's " Virtue of 
oecetslty "— King Bdgar's Blazon— " Qoing the round" : 
" Uoundboute." T6— Sleeping King Arthur— Little Wild 
Street Cliapel-" Red nig toabull — Buchre, 77. 

HOTBS ON BOOKS :-BIanUIu9's 'History of Tbpatrical 
Art'— 'New Bngllsh Dictionary ' — Feiin'a 'Memoir of 
B. F. Stevens'— Oxford Miniature Shakespeare— Minia- 
ture Series of Musicians — Clergy Directory— ^Chart of 
Oxford Printing. 




I. The earliest of Charles Lamb's extant 
letters— it is dated 27 May, 179(J, and is 
addressed to Coleridge at Bristol— opens 
'with an allusion that has puzzled the editors. 
*' Dear Coleridge," writes Lamb, " make your- 
self perfectly ea-sy about May. I paid his 

bill when I sent your clothes Give your- 

self no further concern about it. The money 
would be Huperfluous to me if 1 had it." 
Who w&H ilay ? Canon Ainger's note ignores 
Iho question, while his index confounds the 
Iday of Letter i. with Southev's friend and 
corr&jpondeot John May, witn whom, how- 
[ever, wo know that Ijamb did not become 
acquainteci until, in the summer of 1797, the 
two mot under Southe\''s roof at Burton, 
near Christ Church, Hampshire. Mr. W. 
Carew Ha/litt, in his pleasant offhand 
fashion, tells us that the bill Lamb refers to 
was *'a tailor's account for Ifii." "It will," 
fae adds, " be mentioned again." Lamb does, 
deed, revert to the transaction more than 
nce^oulyiit need hardly bo said, to make light 
? it, and to reputliato the notion of repay- 
ent. The amount of the bill Mr. Hazlitt 
pparently arrives at through the assuni^- 
(probably correct) that it is to this 

rather than to some subsequent transaction 
that Lamb refers in the letter to Coleridge 
dated 11 October, 1802, when he writes:— 
"As to the fantastic debt of 15/., I'll think 
you were dreaming, and not trouble myself 
seriously to attend to you." Lastly, Mr. 
William Macdonald, the latest editor of the 
' Letters,' merely observes here that '♦ Mr. May 
seems to have been a tailor." Such is the 
modest total of editorial illumination vouch- 
safed to us on this obscure point. Let us 
collect the several references in the letters 
to May and his bill, and see if we cannot in 
this way obtain a clue to his identity. 

2. In Letter ii.— undated, but probably 
written on 31 May, 1796— Lamb wnte4? : "I 
have one more favour to beg of you, that you 
never mention 3Ir. May's affair in any sort, 
much less think of repaying. Are we not 
flocci nauci-what-d' ye- call-'em-ists ? "* (For 
another instance of this curious word, which 
is adapted from Shenstoneu and signifies 
" men indifferent to money, see Letter xx. 
p. 62, vol. L, ed. Ainger, 1888.) 

3. In the same letter later on Lamb writes : 
*' 1 conjure you, dream not that I will ever 
think of being repaid ; the very word is gall- 
ing to the ears," 

4. Letter ix., 3 October, 1796 : "Do not for 
ever offend me by talking of sending me cash. 
Sincerely, and on ray soul, we do not want 
it"<.iii/., p. 37). 

5. Letter xciii., 11 October, 1802: "As to 
the fantastic debt of 151., I'll think," <fee. I 
have quoted this reference in full already 
{ibid., p. 188), 

So far we seem to be as much eis ever in 
the dark concerning May. But a passage 
in Lettw xxviii. (24 June, 1797) furnishes 
a glimmer of light. Lamb writes : "I was a 
very patient hearer and docile scholar in our 
winter evening meetings at Mr. May's ; was 
I not, Col. 1 What I have owed to thee, my 
heart can ne'er forget." This passage, the 
closing sentence of which is taken from 
a sonnet by Bowles entitled 'Oxford Re- 
visited ' (line 14), reminds us at once of "the 
little smoky room at the 'Salutation and 
Cat,' where we [to wit, Lamb and Coleridge] 
have .sat together through the winter nights, 
beguiling the cares of life with Poesy" 
(Letter iii., i/nd.,\i. 1.5)— of "those old .suppers 

at our old ["Salutation"] Inn, when 

life was fresh and topics oxhaustless, and you 

[• "Flooci n»ucl nihili" is derived, of oourae, 
from the ' Eton Syntax,'] 



[10^ S. L Ja>-. 23, 19M. 

Let as see, then, whether any connexion 
can be established between the Maij of 
Letters i., ii., and xxviii., and the New- 
gate Street tavern known aa the "Salu- 
tation and Cat,"' where, in the winter nights 
of 1794-5, the two old scboolruates Lamb and 
Coleridge were wont to foregather in the 
little smoke-stained bar-parlour. Here, it 
will be remembered, after his second and 
final disappearance from Cambridge, when 
his pockets were empty and his outlook of 
the gloomiest, Coleridge sojourned during 
parts of December and January, 1794-5, 
oblivious of SoBthey, Sarah Fricker, and 
"Freedom's undivided dell"; till at length 
Southey, losing patience and hurrying up 
to town, ran down and apprehencte<l the 
truant— not, indeed at the "Salutation and 
Cat," but at another tavern hard by, tlio 
"Angel," in Butcher Hall Street The quos 
tion liere arises. Why had Coleridge shifted 
his quarters? And the answer I take to be 
this, that mine host of the "Salutation." 
having waited a week or two for the settle- 
ment of his account, at length grew crusty, 
and hinted that it was high time for the 
young gentleman in the parlour either to 
square up or to seek accommodation else- 
wTiere, Whereupon Coleridge moved over 
to the "Angel," leaving perforce his clothes 
in pawn beliitul ijim. In making this sug- 

festion I am not unmindful of the story told 
y Cottle ('Keminiscences/ 1847, p. 405 note) 
to the effect that "when Coleridge dwelt at 
the ' Cat and Salutation' in Newgate Street, 
and talked of leaving it, his conversation 
had brought so many customers to the house 
that the landlord oflere<l hxoi free rjunrters if 
he would only stay and continue to talk." 
But of such a propoHition we hear nothing 
either from Cuieridge himself (who, had it 
actually Ijeen made, would indubitably have 
confided it later on to one or other of his 
Wont Country friends— to Poole, for instance, 
or Charles tloyd, or Wordsworth) or from 
anybody else save only Joseph Cottle, whose 
unsupported authority in respect of Cole- 
ridge's "doings and done-untos" may be 
safely disregarded. Who, then, was mine 
host of the "Salutation" in the years 1794- 
1795, and how was ho named? I have not 
been able to see a ' I^)ndon Ulroctorv ' for 
1795, but in a directory fnr I HOB I find Wil- 
liam May descrilxMJ aa the landlord of the 
" Salutation Coffee • House," 17, Newgate 
Street. Again, in the 'Post Office London 
Directory' for 1819, I find the following 
entry : " W. May, King's Head Tavern, New- 
gate Street"; arid yet again, in tlie same 
authority for the year 1823, "Wra. May, 

Tavern-Keeper, 40, Newgate Street."' From 
all this the inference, 1 cannot but think, is 
highly probable that the Mny of Letter i. in 
none other than William May. landlord of 
the "Salutation and Cat"; and that, at some 
date subsequent to Coleridge's departure for 
Bristol in Southey 's custodj' {January, 1795), 
Lamb, having pronded himself with the 
wherewithal, called upon the said William 
May, discharged the reckoning against Cole- 
ridge's name, thereby releasing his clothes 
from pawn, and, lastly, forwarded the clothes 
thus redeemed by waggon to Coleridge at 
Bristol. Finally, if we connect the letter of 
11 October, 1802, with the transaction referred 
to at the opening of Letter i.j we may infer 
that the amount standing against Coleridge'^ 
name, for board and lodging at the "Saluta- 
tion " Inn during a period of (probably) four 
weeks in December, 1794, and January, 179r), 
was fifteen pounds sterling of the king'.s 
money. Thomas Hutch ikson. 



(See anU, p. 23.) 

On r> July, 1881, the General Committee 
met again, and the first business was the con- 
sideration of the report of the sub- committee 
given in full in the former article, it being 
decided to take each clause seriatim. It was 
proposed by Mr. Helder that Clause I. be 
approved, the words " with or without the 
addition of any trees or shrubs" being sub- 
stituted for "without the addition of any 
trees or shrubs." The appointment of Mr. 
Pearson and the employment of Mr. Wills 
were confirmed, the estimate of the latter 
being considered satisfactory. The plans for 
laying out the ground were accepted, and Mr. 
Lee was a.sked to send to the Chancellor the 
petition for the faculty as prepared by him. 

Up to this p>oint tliere had l>een no 
treasurer, this office being now conferre*! 
upon Mr. Helder, the rector's churchwarden. 
Next a very important proposition was made 
by Mr. O. F. Trollope, and seconded by Mr. 
J. L. Pearson, to the effect 

"that, tho Committee being strongly of opbioa 
that the Roneral effect of the Abljey and thecnurch- 
yard would be greatly improx-ed by th© removal ol 
the present heavy railini; fleparating the churchyard 
and tlie Abbey ground, the Dean and tUiapter be 
invited to take the matter into 'X)nBidoration aa 
early as possible.** 

The next meeting was held on 25 July, when 
it was reportetl that the Dean and Chapter 
had desired Mr. Pearson to submit his plana 
for their consideration, and Mr. Leo stated 

io«'S.i.Jax,23.i9W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ana i 



that the petition for a faculty had been 
lodged in the Registry, that the Chancellor 
hatT issued his fiat for the citation to issue, 
and that the necessary notice had been 
,ed to the church door. Mr. Herbert 
tone proposed, and Mr. TroUope 
ded, that 

as soon as a faculty is granted the Committee 
iithorize Mr. Pearson to place n hoarding round 
;he churchyard, and to take such atepa as may be 
icces&ar)' to tlie carrying out- of auch portiou of the 

orka as may be within the funds at the disposal of 

le Treasurer." 

There appearH to have been no further 
meeting of the Committee until 14 October. 
lo that it may be well to take some note of 
ibe proceedings relative to the issue of the 
ulty. The Chancellor of the Diocese of 
ndon (Dr. Tri.strara, Q-C) held a court 
_n Tuesday, 23 August, at the Dean and 
Chapter House, St. l^aura Churchyard, when 
the application made by Canon Farrar and 
the churchwardens for the faculty came 
before him, and it is noteworthy that there 
was no opposition to the application. The 
rector was unfortunately prevented from 
being present, therefore tlie duty of 8up|X)rt- 
ing the prayer of the petition devolvea upon 
Mr- Stewart Helder, who very ably per- 
formed it. It was clearly shown that the 
improvements wished for were much needed, 
and that only the want of funds had pre- 
vented steps neing taken at an earlier date. 
It was found that some human remains 
would be di.-iturbed, but they would be 
deposite<l in another part of the churchyard. 
Although efforts had been made to discover 
representatives of the persons whose remains 
were to be removed, none had been found, 
and information was supplied as to the means 
that were to be taken to keep a record of 
the inscriptions. Altogether it was thought 
that the improvements would be worthy of 
the '" glorious old Abbey." Mr. Pearson 
informed t])e Chancellor that it was proposed 
to place the tombstones with their face 
downwards, "ancient inscriptions being best 
preserved in that way."' The Chancellor 
said he had no hesitation in granting the 
faculty. There was one feature which was 
novel, and that was that "his authority was 
asked to allow the tombstones to be covered 
over with soil." He further said it was the 
i first time he had been asked for such an 
irder ; but after the evidence given he had no 
doubt that the inscriptions would bo best 
prcAcrved in that manner. He should there- 
fore allow the faculty to issue, but should 
inMert a provision that the earth should be 
lOv^ if it becaiuo necessary to examine 

the actual inscription on a particular tomb- 
stone, as a copy, on the tablet might not be 
adduced in a court of law. 

On 14 October the General Committee met 
again under the presidency of Canon Farrar, 
the matter under discussion being the 
estimates submitted to them, when Sir 
Rutherford Alcock made a proposition, 
finding a seconder in Mr. Helder, to the effect 

" this Committee meet again this day fortnight, lo 
have before tlieni the phin and cetiniate submitted 
to tho Metrojiolitaii Board of Works, toj^fellier with 
the terras o( the application and of the reply 
received, and that Mr. Pearson be re<]ueated to 
inform the Committee the coat for hoardinit, 
layinp out the ground, putting down cravel paths, 
putting back the AWjcy railings, ana altering llie 
present churchyard railings to the line set out oa 
the plan." 

On tho 28th of the same month the Com- 
mittee accordingly mot again to consider the 
matters alluded to at the previous meeting, 
with the "curtailed" estimates, The same 
proposer and seconder moved that the 
following estimates be accepted, viz. : — 

Earthworks and hoarding not to exceed ... £912 

Removing Abbey railings, with work, kc. ... 457 

Masons' work ... 361 

" Eureka" pavement 478 

Turf-gaards, painting railings, &c. .. ... && 

Mr. Pearson was authorized to proceed 
with the work on the foregoing estimates as 
early as possible, and the Chairman desired 
to bring these resolutions to the notice of the 
absent members of the Committee (of whom 
there were a goodly number), in«ting their 
subscriptions before making a further appeal 
to the public for the necessary funds. 

No further meeting is recorded until 
24 February, 1882, when it was proposed by 
Mr. W. H. Smith, and seconded uy !Mr. J. K. 
Aston (who hat! joined the Committee since 
its formation^, that "a record of the names 
and dates legible on the stones buried in the 
churchyard be preserved on vellum, and that 
a tablet recording the preservation of such, 
record be erected in some part of St. Mar- 
j garet's Church."' It was rurtlier proposed 
' that " tho Ecclesiastical Commissioners for 
England be applied to, as owners of property 
in the district, for a contribution towards 
the expenses." Messrs. Coutts ik Co. were 
also requested to place, as occasion might 
require, sums not exceeding in the aggregate 
l.OOO;. to the credit of the St. Margaret's 
Churchyard Improvement Fund Account. 

The General Cx)mmittoe were called together 
on 22 April, when an approximate statement 
of expenses incurred to date was submitted :, 



[W S. L Jan. 2», 1901. 


Printing, Aa ... 
Cost of uculty 






. ta 



£3,051 12 
Pi'opoaitiona were made and seconded that 
the hoarding round the churchyard be 
removed with as little delay aa possible, and 
that the churchwardens "be requested to 
arrange with the pohce, or otherwise, for the 
auitable opening and closing of the church- 
yard. It was afterwards pro]xised that anj' 
oalance which might remain should be 
applied to the commencement of new 
i-aiiinga, to be approved of by the Com- 

The last meeting of the General Committee 
ap|)ears to have been held on 27 February, 
I«83, when the hon. secretary was desired 
to convey the thanks of the Committee to 
Messrs. Lee and Bolton for their kindness in 
procuring the necessarj' faculties without 
ijxpense (for their services) to the Committee; 
and further resolutions were carried that the 
rector, treasurer, and secretary should be 
«mpowered to dispose of the surplus of the 
Churchyard Improvement Fund "in such a 
manner as roav seem to them best in order 
to complete the work." Finally, tlie cus- 
tomary votes of thanks to the chairman, 
ti-easurer, and secretary brought the meeting 
and the business of the Committee to a close, 
the object for which they had been called 
together being accomplished. 

The improvement iias been much appre- 
<jiated on every side; but in no carping spirit 
I think it may be safely added that, had 
public taste a quarter of a century ago been 
■of as high a character as it has since become^ 
Mvhat was done would have been of greater 
artistic excellence, and some llower - beds 
might have adorned the unbroken stretch of 

f;rn89, restful though the latter may be to the 
requently jaded eye of tlie Londoner. Some 
few seats, whicli were much needed, have of 
late years been placed in the enclosure, 
■thereby increasing the usefulness of tlie 
•place. Owing, most likely, to the nature of 
the ground, the pavement, in places, has 
xiven w*y< and shows many cracks and 
fissures. JBefore long a complete renovation 
will have to take place, or some of the dangers 
of a bygone day may repeat themselves. 
Some of the old trees were considered very 
fine, bu^ in order that the view of the occu- 

Eants or the stands erected at the time of 
ing Edward's Coronation might not be 
obstructed, they were very badly lopped and 
&1] but completely spoilt, and some years 
must pass before tneir old beauty will return, 

raore's the pity. It does not seem ouite 
clear who was guilty of the grievous folly of 
ordering this to be done. Such matters are 
always hard to trace to their source. 

At y- S. vi. 342, 1 alluded to some interest- 
ing interments in this churchyard, and before 
leaving the subject it may be well to speak 
of a gruesome spectacle enacted hero in the 
first quarter of the eighteenth century. On 
1 March, 172.5, a Mr. Hayes was murdered at 
his residence in the Tyburn Road (which is 
the i^resent Oxford Street) by two men, at 
the instigation, and with the assistance, 
of his wife. The body was afterwards dis- 
membered, the head being brought to West- 
minster by the murderers, and flung into the 
Thames from one of the adjacent wharves, 
close to the horse ferrj' ; but, as the tide haa 
turned, it was not carried down the river, as 
anticipated, but seen by a night watchman 
at a neighbouring lime-wharf. Ho called 
assistance, and it was drawn ashore by a 
boat-hook. By a magistrate's orders it was 
carefully washed and placed on a pole in this 
churchyard, hard by the west door of the 
church, so that it could be seen by the 
numerous imssers - by, with a view to its 
identification. It was identified, and the 
crime brought home to its perpetrators. 
The two men were conderanea to be 
hanged, and the woman to be burnt at 
the stake, as her crime was known as f^etit 
treason. One of tiie men died in Netvgato 
before the date fixed for the execution, the 
other being hanged at Marylebone Fields, on 
the spot whore the body bad been found. 
The sentence on the woman was carried out 
at Tyburn on 9 May, 172C. In the vestry of 
St. Margaret's Church is a small engraving 
showing the exposure of the head upon the 
pole. W. E. Harlaxd OxLEV. 

C2, The Alinsbouses, Rochester Row, S.W. 

"SyUAW": "Mahala."— I bracket these 
because they are synonyms. About " squaw " 
I can say nothing fresh. Every one knows 
that we borrowed it from the Algonkin 
family of languages. It occurs in the eastern 
branch of that family as Delaware •>rhqunt, 
Ma.ssachusett8 »//«<!, Narragansett f/ji' 
in the western bmnch as Arapaho i»i, i:. 
foot oke ,• in the northern as Cree iskicLir, 
Odjibwa ikkiee, Ottawa aktoe ; in the southern 
as Shawnee equiwa. ** Mahala" differs from 
it only in being a newer word. It is given 
in Bartlett's ' Dictionary of Americanisms,' 
in the 'Century,' and in tlie supplement to 

Wo''»«f.«"''% ami !« .iftjMi t,, !.,■> ,f.,.f y;\{\\ \n 
•Mil vol. XXV. 

P- ■'' :,.:, its history 

lou. s I. Jax. 23. 1904.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


is curiou-s. Originally a corraption of the 
Spanish wityV/- (woman), adopted by the 
Cuahnas and other Californian Indians, it 
WM taken back by the whites, and is now 
universal along the Pacific coast. "Hack" 
and "mahala" are the technical terms for 
the Indian man and woman, while in the 
canning trade '* mahala " denotes the female 
salmon. James Platt, Jun. 


Weatiicr on 25 January.— I have taken 
the following bit of weather - lore from 
" Natures Secreta. Or, The Admirable and 
wonderfull History Of the generation of 
Meteors, 6:c. By the industry and observa- 
tions of Thomas Willaford, Gent. London, 
Printe<] for Nath. Brook at the Angel in 
Cornhill. l(J38." It may interest some curious 
in such matters (p. 145) : — 

"Some »«ain observe the 25: d»y of January, 
celebrated for the coiiveraion of St. Paul ; if fair 
aad clear, plenty ; if cloudy or misty, mnch cattle 
will die ; if rain or snow fall that day, it prcsagea a 
dearth ; lujd if windy, wars, aa old U'ivea do droani; 
and since I can find no better authority for these, 
jior any days pnsagea, ait a thing indifferent, I will 
.vc them, and persist here no longer, but sub- 
ibe the \'er3e8 ur>on the sanjc account. 

was customary for a magiatrate to i»sue an 
order authorizing the suiiocation of a hydro- 
phobic patient considered incurable. 

John B. Wajne>vrigiit. 
[It is not unknown in these days, even, to speak 
of the expediency of smothering between two 
mattresses one sunerinR from disease apparently 


scribe the \'er3e8 iifton the sanjc account 
If Saint Paul's day lie fAir and clear, 

It does betide a happy year : 
But if it chance to snow or rain 
Then will be dear all kintl of grain : 
If clouds or mists do dark the .Skie. 
Great store of birds and beasts shall die : 
And if the winds do By aloft, 
Then wars shall vex that Kingdome oft." 

A. S. 

Pli"> S. iv. 107. 358, 491; v. 237. 298.)— The 
following paragraph appeared in the Globe of 
10 February, 1807 :— 

" There is a vulgar prejudice that n iiersou bitten 
toy n mad dog, and ]ironouoced irrecoverable, may, 
'o tlie laws of the land, bo bled to death, 
x'd. To correct this prejudice, we quote 
.1. of Sir Vicary fJibbs, on this point. 
" ' 1 am cieurly of opinion, that it is not lawful, by 
jy means, wilfully to put to ileath a i>erson who 
u been bitten by a mad dog; and those who 
fitfully comniit such an act are guilty of innrder, 
tid liable to be tried and convicted accordingly, 
'"ll probably will bo found, upon inquiry, that 
!ia bleeding was applied as a remedy to the dis- 
rdcr, and nut for the pur|)OSO of putting an end to 
He patient's life,— V. Gimw.'" 

As a matter of fact all early authoritie.<) do 

rocomn^efid copious blee^Jing for tliia disorder. 

")r. K. Janes in hia 'Medicinal Dictionary,' 

p45, narrates at some length the case of a 

»er of Monchenstein, in the canton of 

who was suffocated on 10 March, 1G87, 

)Own remedies having been tried in 

v«in. The same doctt>r also quote<< Boerhaave 

to 1739) a» asserting that in lioUand it 


Letter. — In my possession is (or was) the 
original autograph letter of Sir James Hay 
to Alexander HaV, date<l 21 Feb.. 1G4I,2, and 
13 May, 1642, of which the following is a 
copy : — 

21"' Feb [1641/2]. 
Allex' I haao resaued ^our last and yo'' warrant 
but whidder I shall get it done or not It is dout- 
full I haue writtan to him [Mr- Hayllc?] by m' 
marray [Factor at Paris] desyreing him to speik 
the king at his retume to get it done I pray send 
me answeir of my ]a.^t and u thair be any hoipis to 
get niony payd upon his roaiesties letter to the 
lorde eommsHionera it was sent to duncano keith 
to delyuer by him I wrot to you remember my 
weusthe ['.' Worcester] bissines I haue sent a peti- 
tionn I haue writtin to thqmas burrad a sonant of 
111' nowj^te to solicit the bissines I ghal intreit yon 
to rei)air to this man and Inquyrc how the bisaiDes 
gois ni' doctor masson ni' of requoisti.s hath my 
|>etiliou I haue wriliin to this man what is to be 
done to whoni I refer yon thair is lytel hoipis of 
agremont with the parlament his maieatie is taken 
up a garde for his owen persone I rest 
Your affectiouel f rend 

.James Hay. 

Commend me to m'' moysej' and proq' [--procure] 
nie word how our bissines goia I haue send a letter 
to m' Clayton ffriuehouud [?=from home]. 
send this letter to m' murray factor at pans. 
Let m' baylle kno frome me that your hand for 
the resait ot my nionye out of the exchequer shall 
he a sufiicient dischairgc be digilanl [^diligent] in 
the persuite of it for delay ar dangerous bysydes 
kno of my grit nessesties. 

Your affectionet 

Jam»> H.vy. 
York this 13 mav [I&12]. 
rindorse<l] for .Alex' Hay. 
flndorsenient (subsequently made) :] 
S' James Hayes ass* [-assignment] 1&42, 

The original, being wholly' on one sheet of 

f)aper, appears to have been written on the 
orraer, out not forwarded until the latter, 
date, when the addition was made. As re- 
ferring to Charles I. and the state of things 
existing at the commencement of the great 
Civil War, it is worthy of publication. Eng- 
lish historians inform' us that tlie king, who 
was then at York acting in defiance of the 
Parliament, thought fit, 12 May. 1642, to raise 
a guard for the defence of his person, con- 
sisting of a troop of horse under the Prince 
of Wales and one regiment of the Trained 
Bands. W. 1. R. V, 




tlO*8.I. Jan. 23. IflM. 

MusTL£TO£i>' CBtTECH.— The only vegetable 
decoration visible on 11 January in the 
tlnrteeoth-ceotury cathedral of Ch&lons-sur- 
Marne, the ancient capital of tlic Catalauni 
(wliose name may perhaps have some con- 
nexion with that ot the Catalans of South- 
Eastern Spain, and whose bishop is still called 
" EpiscopuH Cathalaunensis "), was a fine plant 
of mistletoe, on a section of the branch whicli 
had fostered it. This was laid upon the two 
nails in the feet of the large white ima«e of 
tbe crucifix attached to the east wall of the 
northern tranaept of that beautiful church. 
It is not without interest to note this offering 
of the emblem of the Druids at the feet of 
the Founder of the Church. 

E. S. DoiKJSON. 


AVk must rcnue«t correspoudeiite desiriug in- 
formation on family matters of only iirivate interest 
to attix their uanies and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

Thomas Stbadung,— So far aa I am aware 
everything that has been printed about the 
man who bore this name ia to be found iu the 
accounts of William Dampier'a unsuccessful 
expedition to the South Seas in 1703. In the 
works of William Funnell and Woodes Rogers 
"we are informed that he was first a mate and 
afterwards ma.ster of the sliip Cinque Ports 
Gallej'j that ho wag obliged to abandon this 
ship off the island of Gorgona ; and that lie 
was subsequently detained in prison for 
many years by the Spaniards in Peru, 
whence he escaped in a French ship. He 
won a little renown because it was after a 
quarrel with him that the well-known 
Alexander Selkirk, the prototype of Robin- 
son Crusoe, w&g set on shore on the unin- 
habited island of J uan Fernandez. 

From French MS. documents I have ascer- 
tained that ho wa.s taken to Europe on 
28 August, 1710, in the ship Notre Dame de 
PAssoraption, captain Alain Pon-e ; that he 
was kept in nnson, first at the castle of 
Saint-Malo, subsequently in that of Dinan, 
till 8 October, 1711, when, with seventeen 
Other Englishmen, he escaped, l>eing seen 
some time afterwards at Jersey. He is stated 
to have been twenty-nine years old at that 
time, and the son of a merchant in London 
who wa3 then still living. Can any one tell 
me further incidents of his life and the date 
of his death I E. W. D.\hu;ren, 

Director of the Royal Library. 

Sib Henuy Chauncy. — I am engaged 
upon a biography of Sir Henry Chaunc 
with especial reference to his labours as 
county historian. His great work was fir 
published in folio in the year 17iX), and was 
reprinted in two volumes octavo in 1.826. I 
liave occupied ray leisure for the past twelve 
months in collecting material for this pur- 
|K>se, and I am now desirous of ascertaining 
whether any letters or other documents in 
the handwriting of Sir Henry are in exist- 
ence in Hertfordshire or elsewhere. Anything 
that may serve to illustrate his method of 
research would be valuable. I have had the 
good fortune to examine tlie original draft 
of the preface to his ' History of Hertford- 
shire,' which differs extensively from the 
printed copy. It throws light upon the 
general system he pursued in compiling his 
description of the county, and indicates that 
he must have had a very considerable corre- 
spondence with the owners of manors, the 
clergy, and others, some of which, perchance, 
may have been preserved. A copiously anno- 
tated and corrected copy of his ' History,' in 
the possession of the late Mr. Hale Wortltam, 
is stated by Cussans (' Hundred of Odsey,' 
p. 88} to have been owned by a contemporary 
of Sir Henry's, the Rev. Thomas Tipping of 
Ardeley. 1 should be glad to know who is 
the possessor of this nistorically valuable 
copy. Another coetaneous copy owned by 
Mr- Pulter Forester, which descended to his 
son William, has been lost sight of since 1768, 
but may still be in existence. I understand 
that at a sale by Mr. Greenwood, which took 
place in 1790, certain of Sir Henry's books and 
other property were sold. There is a catalogue 
of this sale extant, and the loan of a copy 
would be greatly appreciated. Salmon seemu 
to have obtained possession of a considerable 
portion of the Chauncy paj^rs ; these after- 
ward.s fell into the hands of the Rev. Paul 
Wright, B.D., who in 1773 purpo!?ed pub- 
lishing a corrected edition of the ' History ' 
(in 177bhe8tyled himself "editorof Chauncy "), 
but I believe it never pro<»eded beyond the 
prospectus stage. It is suggested tliat Clut- 
terbuck acquired many of these papers, but 
direct evidence is wanting, and even so, I 
have no definite knowledge into whose hands 
they fell at his decease, and who now owns 

I am especiallv concerned to discover the 
circumstances relating to the painful episode 
alluded to in the fifth paragrapli of the 
preface. The individual referred to was, I 
Believe, Sir Henry's grandson, and the 
reasons for the estrangement, and consequent 
attempt of the misguided youth to wreck hin 

10*8. 1. j^K. 23. 1904.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



frandftire's work, are difficult to comprehend, 
'ho lawsuits which Sir Henry was either 
eugaeed in or threatened with (referred to in 
the draft preface) are matters upon which 
we are almost entirely uninforraecf. although 
the details of any trials, if such there were, 
luuut bo recorded. 

Other questions of interest arise, but thia 
_^5tter is already lengthy, and 1 think I have 
^ndicated the purport of my requirements. 
I shall be most grateful for anv asai^tancc, 
■which will of course receive due acknow- 
ledgment. W. B. Oerish. 
£ishop's Storlford. 

St. AtJNEft. Haddington.— I shall be glad 
to be a]lowe<l to repeat a query I asked at 
0»* S. xi. 50l>. A place named St. Agnes is 

given in Black'-i 'General Atla-s,' 1857, plate 10; 
artholomew's 'Atlas oi Scotland,' Edinburgh, 
1890, plate 21 ; and on the Ordnance Survey 
of Scotland, uheet 33. It is in Uaddineton, 
2' 33" N.j o5' 52" E. Can any one tell me 
whether it is a village containing a church of 
St, Agues, from which it gets its name, or say 
whore some account of the place may be 
.iound T F. C. W. 

PiCTDRE BV W. P. Frith. — Can any of 
^our readers tell me where the orisinal^or a 
eprodoction— of the picture by W. P. Frith, 
LA , representing Swift throwing down the 
Stter before \'anessa, can be found 2 

A. O'D. Baktholeyns. 
11, Spring Gardeoj, S.W. 


I shall be pleased to know the source of the 
following quotation, which is given in Bos- 
weli's ' Life of Johnson': — 

Loet io a coaveat's soliury gloom. 

E. 51. L. 

Rev. ClIAKLE^i Robertson Mannini;.— This 

f;entlcman, who was rector of Diss, Norfolk, 
rora 1857 till his death on 8 February, 
18yt>. had a fine collection of Norfolk 
antiquities. Can any one say what became of 
them at his decease ? Especially, where is a 
fine bronze ewer, inscribed " veuez laver," 
vrhich is figured in the Norwich volume of 
the Royal Archieological In.stituteatp. xxxv, 
and in Aiv/ueolcH/ia.U Journal, vol. xiii. p. 74 ? 
T. Cann Huuues, M.A., F.S.A. 

Wkrdens Auhey.— I wish to obtain some 

information as to the history of Wei-dens 

[Abbey, near I )iissel<lorf, especially during the 

I fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Can any 

reader kindly infurm me where I may find an 

I account of the abbey 1 Oeorue Smith. 

Cabdigah a8 a Surnamb.— Can any ooe 
tell me at about what period Cardigan made 
its appearance as a surname, and whether 
there is a pedigree of the family published T 
It is presumably derived from the town in 
Soutb-West Wales, and is therefore a place- 
name. G. H. W. 

Rev. Obadi.ui Denman. — Can any one 
say what living (in the Midlands, and most 
likely in the neighbourhood of Retford) was 
held by the liev. Obadiah Denman— probably 
about the commencement of the eighteenth 
century] Artuuk Denman, F.S.A. 

Wilderspin. — Is there a portrait of Samuel 
Wilderspin, the promoter of infant schools? 
David Salmon. 

Inscription on Statue of James II. — 
The statue of King James II. has been most 
appropriately transferred to the park front 
of the Admiralty buildings ; but why, on the 
pedestal, is he .said to be "Jacobus Rex Dei 
gratiui"? Can such a form have been at 
any time in use ? or simply, has the mason s 
mistake been allowed to continue 7 R. S. 

[A mere Kpecimen of the usual British blanderiug 
ia foreign languiiges, we should iiiiagiae.] 

WiLUAM Willie.— These are two of the 
Christian names of a youth lately deceased 
at Shipley. I Iiave, of course, read in 
' N. & O.' of children in one family witli the 
same Cnristian name, but my attention has 
never before been drawn to a person pos- 
sessing both a full name and a diminutive 
thereof. Can any reader give other instances, 
such as Charles Charlie, tkc. 2 

CiiAS. F. FottsuAW, LL.D. 

Baltimore House, Bradford. 

FoKE-sT Family.— I should be glad of any 
information regarding the family, arms, Jcc., 
of -Miles Forest, who was father of (1) Sir 
.'\nthonj' Forest, of Morborn, Hunts, knighted 
l(i04 ; (2) Elizabeth, married first Sir Arthur 
Denny, of Tralee Castle, and secondly, in 
1639, Sir Thomas Harris, of Corwortheu, 
Devon ; (3) Isabella, married George Lynne, 
of Southwick Hall, Northants. 

(Rev.) H. L. L. Denny. 

9, QueeA Street, Loudouderry. 

Fr08T and its Forms.— Is anything known 
of the reason why the moisture in the atmo- 
sphere, when conaeused on the window pane^ 
assumes the appearance of fern fronds ? I 
have never heard any explanation given of 
this fact, and have in vain searched through 
all the books of reference that I possess. 

M. L. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. iw' s. i. jan. 23. 190*. 

Shelley's Motiiee. — I am anxious to 
know the exact date of the death of Shelley's 
iQother. The peerages and lives of the poet 
are silent on tni-j point. W. Robkets. 

British EirBASSv House ix Paris.— Can 
any of your readers help me to the names of 
books, such as Lady G^an^^lle's ' Memoini,' 
which would be of use in the compilation of 
a history of the present British Embassy in 
Paris and its occupants 1 Diplomatist. 

Robert Morris. — I am making an efi'ort 
to locate the early life and history of the 
Ilobert Morris family who came to America 
about 173-1. Can you give me any light on 
t^iia subject? or can you direct me to some 
eenealogist who can look it up for meT 

R, H. Sears. 

428, Neil Street, Ck>lBnibu8, Ohio. 

Flesh aud Shamble Meats. — In an 
authentic copy of a licence to eat meat on 
fish days (wnich were formerly 153 «Iays in 
the year), dated 13 February, 1618, per- 
mission is given to eat flesh, whilst never- 
theless the eating of shamble meats is 
prohibited. In the English dictionaries to 
hand I am unable to find any reference 
to the term "shamble meats." I shall be 
grateful for early information, as I do not 
understand the difference between desh and 
shamble meats in reference to fish days. 

J. Lawrence- Hamilton, M.R.C.S. 

30, Susseic Square, Brighton. 

Jame.s WiLUAM DoESFORD, SOU of James 
Domford, of London, was admitted on the 
foundation at Westminster School in 1799, 
aged fourteen. I should bo glad to learn 
any particulars of his career. G. F. II. B. 

The Misies of Herojtdas. — Would some 
classical reader of ' X. ik Q ,' who knows the 
subject, kindly furnish the full evidence — I 
am sure it can be put into a few lines — that 
there ever was a pre-Christian poet called 
Herondas or Herodas? If the evidence is 
absolutely clear, and not due to roisrearlinj^s, 
radii ./lufitio. But if it is not absolutely 
clear, I should like to adduce some special 
reasons to show that Herodes Atticus is the 
author of the mimes found in Egypt. 

R. J. Walker. 

St. Paula School, Wcht Kousington, W. 

Pepys's 'Diary': a REFKRExnE.— I find in 
Samuel Pepys's 'Diary' the following entry 
under the date of 19 May, ICGCi :— 

" By WAggon to Lansdune, where the 30i)t'hildren 
were bom. Wo aaw tht- hill where they any the 
house stood wherein the ehililreii were born. The 
baaina wherein the male sikI female ciiildr«n were 
b&ptizef] do atonti over a large t*blo that haogs 

' le «tory of the thinR iu 

IK 'Margarita Hcrnmn 

..i.y was done abont 20O 

upon a wall, widi 
Dutch and Lati^! 
(Joniitisaa.' kc. i 
ye&ra ago. 

^Vhat are the Incidents to which Pepys 
refers? Miranda. 

[Fnll explanatioD is inven in a lonK editorial note 
alff'-'S. v»i. 280.] 

(0"' S. xii. 3C6, 4.38 ; 10"> S. i. 14.) 

The Begum of Bhopal who wa.s seen by 
Mr. George Axgus in 1862, perche<i in a 
howdah on the top of an elephant at Delhi, 
was the colebrateci Nawab Sikandar Begum> 
whose conspicuous loyalty during the con- 
vulsions of IS^u was rewarded by Govern- 
ment in various ways, amongst others by her 
appointment to a Grand Commandership of 
the Star of India on the institution of that 
Order. It was probably on the occasion of 
her investiture that she was seen by Mb. 
Axocs. I had the pleasure of making her 
acquaintance two or three years later, when 
she passetl through Aden on her way to 
Mecca on pilgrimage. She was succeeded by 
her daugnter, the Nawab Shah Jehaa 
Begunj, who emulated her mother in hflc 
devotion to the British Government, and 
wa-s also rewarded by the Grand Cotn- 
mandership of the Star of India. This 
lady I knew intimately, as I had the 
honour of serving as Political Agent at her 
Court for nearly two years in 1879-80. She 
died a few years ago, and was succeeded by 
her daughter, the Nawab Saltan Jehan 
Begum, who is tlie present ruler of BhopaL 
and with wliom I was also well acquaintetl 
in her earlj' womanhood. 

"To persons unacquainted with India one 
Begum i* probably the same as another 
Bepum, but there really does seem a small 
spice of profanity to those behind the scenes 
in confusing these loyal and noble ladies 
with the ex-dancing girl who for a time 
shared the destiny or the scoundrelly Walter 
Reinhard. Even from a social point of viev. 
the position of a jaginlar like the Begum oi 
Sirdliana is as different from that of a ruling 
chief of India as the position of Lady A, the 
wife of a long-descended marquis, is ffom 
that of Lady B, the wife of a provincial 

That the Begum Suraroo, after she became 
a Catholic, onueavoured to atone foi- the sins 
of an ornrjeuM- youth, cannot be disputed, and 
her chatitablo" benefactions, if not always 
well considered, were very numeroua ; but 


10". 8. 1. Jan. 23.1901.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


this hardly affects the point at issue. A very 
readable account of Walter Reinhard and his 
wife is given in that excellent book ' A Parti- 
cular Account of the Military Adventurere of 
Hindostan,' by Mr. Herbert Compton (Fisher 
B Uowin, 1893), Appendix, pp. 400-410. to which 
V is added a portrait of the Begum. It may be 
added that by a slip of the pen the Governor- 
Qeneral, whose letter to the Begum is quoted 
bj Mr. Hedb, is called ''Sir William Ben- 
tinck."' His name was Lord William Caven- 
dish Bentinck. Reinhard'a origin was uncer- 
tain, but he was generally supposed to have 
been a Swiss. 

Aa regards Madame du Deff&nd's letters to 
Horace Walpole, it may be as well to quote 
the passage from Mrs. Paget Toynbee's letter 
in the Atkeno'Hiii of 13 July, 1901— previously 
referred to by the Elditor — which specifically 
relates to them :— 

*' After Dyce Sombre's death in IK31 the letters 

jMiMed with the reat of the Uu Deffond papers 

into the po9.<K!a.sioD of hie widow, who afturwarda 

married the Hon. George Cecil Foreater (sub- 

'^- sequeutly third Lord Farest«r). By Lady Forester, 

^B who WAS a daughter of the second Visconnt St. Vin- 

^B cent, they were bequeathed to her nephew, Mr. 

^■^N'. R. Paricer-JerviB, of Meaford, near Stone, in 

^■Btaffordahirc, in whose possession they now are." 

■ W. F. Pridbaux. 

B^ Presuming that "Sir William Beutinck " 
" is a mistake for Lord William Bentinck, one 
can only conclude that that benevolent noble- 
man — himself one of India's greatest bene- 
factors, inasmuch as he suppre-ssed the Thugs 
^aand put an end to the cruel rite of suttee — 
H'^ould never have written to the Begum 
^■Sotnroo the complimentary letter quoted at 
the last i-eference unless he had been ignorant 
of the woman's history in its entirety. His 
lordship cannot have known that this 
estimable lady ha<i been the wife and, until 
his death in 1778, the close associate of the 
execrable German ruffian Reinhard, alias 
)mers, ^Ims Sombre, the monster who super- 
Intended, and with his own hands assisted 
In perpetrating, the appalling massacre at 
"Patna, when some 2CiO unarmed European 
)i'i«oiier3 were barbarously done to death in 
Bold blood. Nor can the Governor-General 
lave l>eon aware of the fact that his esteemed 
tly friend hod herself on one occasion, as a 
punishment for an ofTence far short of murder, 
iuse<i two of her slave girls to be flogged 
ind then buried alive immediately in front 
)f her tent, Tlie fact that the Begum was a 
niiuiii .if no ordinary parts only aggravates 
1 li'cds, and renders them the more 

^ii ■ i :ijle. liy all means let tbis unhappy 
lii li»iv<j full credit for the good works of 
Iter life. Her charities were immense, 

and she died in the odour of sanctity. But 
in estimating her character and career we 
are bound to take into consideration what 
she had been ; and I for one cannot agree 
that it is a "trifling mistake" to invest the 
wicked adventuress Somroo with the style 
and title of a great feudatorv princess who, 
by reason of the staunch loyalty of her bouse 
to the British Government, is entitled to the 
hearty esteem of every Briton. 


Mr. HEBBspeaksof "Zeibool-Nissa, " instead 
of Zebul-Nissa, the correct name of the lady 
in question. The latter words mean orna* 
ment of the female sex, just as Aurungzeb 
means ornament of the throne ; whereas 
"Zeib" has no meaning, and no such word 
or verbal factor exists in the Arabic or 
Persian languages. P.vtrick Maxwell. 


Excommunication of Louis XIV. (9"" S. 
xii. 468, .'i08). — I, too, have^ been unable to 
find any mention of Louis XIV. having been 
excommunicated, but extract the following 
from M. - N. Bouillet's ' Diet. L^niversel 
d'Histoire et de Geographie' :— 

" lAvardin (Ch. -Henri de Beaumanoir, marqais 
de), 1(M3-170I, lieutenant general au Ronvcraement 
de Bretaftn^i ^ut envoye par Louin .\lV. en anibaa- 
aade A Rome (I(iK7) au nionientou le roi avail avecle 
nape Innocent XL do vifa dcm^lda au aujet dca 
franchises et des articles gallicans de 16K2. II entra 
dans Rome aveo un© trouii* arrofe, mal(ir<5 les 
dtifensea du Saint • I'vre. L'elui • ci refuaa de lo 
recevoir et rcxcomniunia. Louis XIV. ae pr^araib 
ii venger aon aniboasadeur quand Innocent mourut." 

Edward Latham. 

See Louis Pierre Annuetil's * Histoire de 
France' (published by Furne &, Cie., Paris, 
18.^2), vol IV. pp. 224-6, Grenovicensis. 

Epitaph (9"' S. xii. 504).— In 'Curious 
Epitaphs' (1609), collected and edited with 
notes by William Andrews, this epitaph 
duly appears. John Scott is there said to 
have been "a Liverpool brewer." 

John T. Pace. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

'Epitaphs, Quaint, Curiou.s, and Elegant,' 

fublishea by fegg, locatas this epitaph at 
Tpton on-Severn, and adds that " poor John 
Scott" was a Liverpool brewer. 

RicnARD Lawson. 


Heber's «Pale8TINb' O"* S. xii. 246,614). 
— Tliere is woraothing more than a resera- 
blauce of words in the parallel that 1 pointed 
out There is a resemblance of ideas. TVv«<s. 
is not the sftmo ve%<iwXs\\w\<iia \«!X>h«kvn. >iwek 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no* s. i. Jan. 23. i9m. 

Engli8h poetry anH the verse in the Bible. 
The word fabric is in the lines of Milton, 
Cott'per. and Heber ; and the chief idea in 
them of the fabric being raised or constructed 
marvellously is not in the verse of Kings to 
which reference has been made- For in that 
verse it is only said that the materials were 
prepared before they were used, so that the 
sound of tools was not heard whilst the 
Temple was built. I admit, however, that 
Cowper, and perhaps Heber, may have had 
the verse in mind. Milton appears to be 
indebted to the line in the Iliad ' which 
describes Thetis rising like a mist from the 
sea. E. Yardley. 

Sadlee'8 Wells Plav alluded to by 
WoBDSWOUTU (lO"* S. i. 7).— I liave consulted 
the following authorities, but have not been 
able to find any reference to the play said to 
have been founded on the story of John 
Hatfield and Mary of Butterraere : — 

1. Oxberry's 'Dramatic Biog.' 

2. Bernard's ' Retrospections of the Stage.' 

3. Oilliland's ' Dramatic Synopsis.' 

4. Lowe's ' Biographical Account of Dra- 
matic Literature.' 

5. J. T. Dibdin'fl 'llerainiscences.' 

6. John Britton's ' Autobiography.' 

7. Decaatro's 'Meraoires.' 

8. Dicken-s's ' Life of Qnmaldi.' 

9. ' The I^jnelon Stage,' G. Balme C182«). 

10. * The London Theatre,' T.Dibdin (1810). 

11. Cumberland's 'Minor Theatre.' 

12. Dicks's Catalogue. 

13. Sadler's Wells playbills, in the British 

14. Doran's ' Annals of the Stage.' 
I shall be glad if one of your readers can 

supply me with further references. 

H. W. B. 
Churchwardens' Accounts (9'" S. xii. 2C9, 
394, .510).— Miss Lega-Weekb.s should also 
consult a second and later list of these printed 
accounts. It was compiled by a lady called 
Elabeth Philipps, and published in the 
Anylish JJittot'icitl Jieview, xv. 335-41 (1900). 

W. P. Courtney. 
TopooRAi'HY OF Ancient London (9«»' S. 
xii. 429).— Under the heading * Jewin Street, 
City,' Wheatley's ' London, Past and Present,' 
vol. ii. p. 308, gives a quotation from Strype, 
book iii. p. 88 :— 

" Being a pifcce, as is expressed in a record, with- 
out CnpelKatc and the suburbs of London called 
Leyrestowe, and which was the buryingplaco of 
tho Jews of London." 

"The plot of ground appropriated as the 
Jews' burial-ground is now," says Stow (1603), 
turned into fair garden plots and summer 

houses for pleasure." I cannot find any 
trace in any work of the " L&zar House. '^ 
ANDREW Oliver. 

" Jeer " (9''' S. xi. 487; xii, 357).— When we 
say sckraubcn in the sense of " to jeer at " we 
always mean "rfn«t sclirauben," whether this 
object is expressed or understood. The 
phrase has nothing to do with the face of the 
mocker, but the writhingsof his victim whose 
thumb he has clamped in the vice. It is a 
game they like much in this country at the 
beer-table, not pleasant when one poor fellow 
is made the laughing-stock of the company, 
but amusing when the attacked party is abld 
to hit back ; the "corona " then spending a 
nice time in witnessing this mutual " screw- 
ing " process. G. Kkueger. 


"Little Mary" (U^"" S. xii. fA)\).—l gather 
from the notice of the Westminster play in 
the Athenmua of 19 December, 1903, that 
the epilogue to the 'Trinummus,' which was 
"extremely happy," introduced " Parva 
Maria," " Dumpophobista," Ac. 

William Obobge Black. 

"Welsh rabbit" (9*'^ S. xii. 469). -In 
addition to the note by the Kev. A. Smythe 
Palmer at 7'^' S. x. 9, I would refer your 
correspondent to the reverend gentleman's 
'Folk-Ktyraology ' (1882) for a long article, 
and illustrations of the use of the terra. 
Annandale in his 'Imperial Dictionary' gives 
the following :— 

" ' irt/t'i Rabfjit is a genuine slang term, belong. 
itiK to a large group which deecriSe in the same 
humorous way the special di«h or product or peoa<j 
liarity of a particnlar diBtrict. For example, »~ 
Enjttx lion is a calf ; a Fitld-laii: duel- is a bake 
sheep's head ; GlaMffOifmagvili'cUeJiOT Norfolk (at 
are red herrings; /rwA apricoli or Muu^ter pli...., ^ 
are potatoffl ; Grarcwnd moeetmiat* are shrimps.' — 
Afacirnllan'i Matjazint" 

Everard Home Coleman. 

71. Brecknock Road. 

Was it not Samuel Johnson who transpoa 
"Welch- rare- bit" into " Welsh rabbit"? 

Thornb Oeoeoe. 

We call a sort of hash " falscher Haae." 

G. Krueoer. 

[Mr. Holokn M.ioMicHAEL refers also to the 
euphemistic names of dishes from localities.] 

St. Bridoet's Bower (10"' S. i. 27).— Is it 
not probable that Spenser alludes to Brent, 
and not to Kent? and that tho "Br" in his 
MS, was mistaken for " K " ? The jmrish 
church of Breane, in the hundred of Brent, 
Somerset, i« dedicated to St. Bridget, and 

ly* s. L j^v. '23, 19M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



I ID' 



vaa restored in 1884, the chancel being 
rebuilt. Tiie "bowre" alluded to might be 
the hill, or down, or elevated peninsula, 
which extends a mile into the sea, and is 
strikingly conspicuous from various parte of 
the surrounding country. It is called Brean 
Down, is the mo-st western extremity of the 
Mendip Hills, and the only ground in the 
parish of IJrean which is appreciably raised 
above the level of the sea. On the highest 
point of the hill, 321 ft. above the sea, are 
some loose stones, usually regarded a^ the 
remains of a beacon or fire-signalling station. 
Brean Down is, in fact, the longest and by 
far the most picturesque and interesting of 
the three promontories that break the coast- 
line of the Mendip (see Francis A- Knight's 
most interesting work, 'The Seaboard of 
"endip,' 1902, pp. 297-9). "Bridgets Bowre" 
not, however, marked on a map printed in 
the seventeenth year of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign (ir>75) ; but the expression is, no doubt, 
merely poetic licence, although the associa- 
tion with the spot, and that a picturesque 
promontory, of a church dedicated to St. 
Bridget would afford some grounci for 
supposing that Brean Down was intended. 
Indications of a beacon light, too, are very 
suggestive of the possibility that " Kent " iis 
a press error for ' Brent." 

J. HoLDES MacMuhael. 

Cakdinals and Crimson Roues (9"* S. xii. 
186).— Misseji Tuker and Malleson, 'Hand- 
90ok to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome,' 
I'artlV. p. 447, say:— 

"It wm enacted in a cxinatitution of Boni- 
Uce \ III. ia I'JffJ that cardinals shonld wear the 

royal purple The red rnbeg hav«s l>een worn 

•inco 1464 ; the parple is now only worn in Lent 
jand Advent, when cardinals can be dtatinKuinhed 
from bishoiw by the red skull-cap, stocking, and 
berretta which ihey reUin." 

John B. Wainewkioht. 

Mackenzie Walcott, in his 'Sacred Archaeo- 
logy,' under the heading 'Cardinal,' says :— 
"In 1291) Pope Boniface gave the cardinals a 
>ur]ile dress in imitation of the Roman Consuls." 

Andrew Ouvbb. 

Earliest Pl.^ybill (10"' S. i. 28),— The 
earliest announcement of the nature of a play- 
bill of which I have any record is in my own 
<>olloction, and is fully described in 'Rariora' 
iii. .^3). It relates to a public contest 
nnouneed to take place at the Red Bull 
rriieatre), at the upner end of St. John's 
Itreet, on " Whitson Mundav," .30 May, 10C4. 
?hi« theatre was .spoken or by Prynne in 
{1633 as one that had been " lately re-e<^lified 
id enlarged.' The next in order of date 

was printed about the year 1688, and gives 
notice of the formation of a company of what 
we should now call acrobats, including the 
celebrated Jacob Hall, but no particulars are 
supplied about the theatre or other public 
place at which the performances were to be 
given. Tho text of each of these nieces is 
surmounted by a large woodcut of tlie royal 
arms, but there is nothing else to distinguish 
either from an ordinary handbill. A more 
important sheet, distinctly entitled to the 
designation of a playbill, has also received 
notice (ut siipra, p. 120). Although a century 
later than the date mentioned by your corre- 
spondent, it might possibly serve as a model. 
It is an announcement in folio form of an 
entertainment (entitled 'The English Diver- 
sion ') which very clo-sely corresponds to that 
offered at a music-hall of the present day. It 
is headed by the royal arms with the legend 
"Semper Kadem," and concludes with the 
words " Vivat Regina," so that its date must 
be between 1702 and 1714. If I can be of any 
assistance to Mr. Sieveking in this matter, 
I shall be very happy to correspond with 
him. J. Eliot Hodckin. 

"Owl-light" (9"' S. xi. 349. 4ii, 452; xii. 
511). — Anent the origin of the French 
expression "entrc chien et loup." may I say 
that, although some authorities give the 
two explanations mentioned, only the first 
is assigned by earlier works, sucii as, for 
instance, the Abbe Tuet's ' Matinees 
Senonoises' (1789), P. -J. Le Roux's 'Diet. 
C!oraique,' »fec. (1752), and the 'Diet, de 
Trevoux' (1771)? All agree in only 
giving the first explanation, and the follow- 
ing lines seem to corroborate the idea, ^-iz. :— 
Lor«qu'il n'est jour ni nuit, quan \ le vaillant berger 
Si c'e«t un chien ou loiip, no peul au vrav juger. 

.I.-A. de Baif (l.VJ-i MSt), Li v. I. do " La Franciae.' 

G. Bautru (lo88-lG65), alluding to this pro- 
verbial phrase, used to say, ".rai rencontre' 
unefemmeentrechienneet louve." Although 
M. Quitard, in his 'Diet, ^tvmologique, &c., 
des Proverbes,' throws doubt on tne first 
explanation, to my mind— I may be wrong — 
it 18 the correct one. Edward Latham. 

Castle Society op MirsicK (9"^ S. xii. 486). 
— This was a society for the cultivation 
of harmonj', of considerable repute in the 
middle of the eighteenth century. It woa 
so designated because its "concerts of rouaio, 
vocal and instrumental." were for some time 
held at the " Castle " Tavern in Patornoster 
Row. In 1768, however, tho iierformayces 
were conducted at the HaborJH.>.hor, Ull. 
and then business meotinj«« were liehl at tho 
"Half Moon" Tavern in CheapsuJu (see 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [w-s-ljan. 23.190*. 


Bom'a ' Beaufoy Tokens,' 1855, Ko. 882}. The 
" Caatle" was burnt down in the Great Fire, 
and what became a usual feature in the more 
popular r&sorts of this kind— a Ix>Dg Room- 
was added. Here many of the most eminent 
muHiciana and vocal ista of the day performed. 
The following is from the Daily Advo-fUer of 
■22 February, 1742 :— 

" For the Benefit of Mr. Brown, at the Ca.stle 
Tavern in Paternoster Row, this Day. beine tlje 
2^ instant, will be nerformM a Concert of Vocal 
and Instrumental Nlusick, Particularly an Organ- 
Concerto hy an Eminent Master, a Concerto on the 
Bassoon by Mr. Miller, a Solo on the German Flute 
by Mr. Bulicourt, and a Solo and several Concertos 
oil the Violin by Mr, Brown. The vocal jiarts by 
Mr. Beard and Mr. Lowe. Note, Ticket* to be 
had at Mr. Browij's. in .Margaret Street, Cavendish 
Square; at the ywan Tavern, in Exchange- Alley, 
Cornhill ; and at the place of Performance."— iiee 
also ihid., 5 March, l"4"i. 

In 1770 the " Castle" had become the Oxford 
Bible Warehouse, where the productions of 
the Oxford University Press were deposited. 

IGl, Hammersmith Road. 

St. Dials O^" S. xii. 40, 014).— In the 
seventeenth-century overseers' accounts of 
Monmouth frequent mention occurs of the 
hamlet callwl bt. Dials', just south-west of 
this town. Twice the name la spelt 
"St. Dvnalls." If this n (which is clearly 
written) is not meant for a u (and I do not 
think it is), I consider this strong evidence 
that the place was originally St. Deinioel's. 
Several parishes in Wales boar the latter 
designation, un<ier its Welsh form Llan- 
fldeinioel, anrl " Dynall " would represent the 
nrotiunciation to Enplish eyes. But Teilo in 
Monmouthshire dialect is " Tillio," as in 
Llantilio Grosenny. 

John Hobson Matthems. 


JoHS Hall, Bishop of Brihtol (10"' S. i. 0). 
— I think ho must have died in 1710 a 
bachelor, a-s I cannot firifl any mention of a 
wife in the Rev. Douglas Mucleane's admirable 
and exhaustive history of Pembroke, Oxon 
(18D7), of which College the bishop was 
Master from 10G4 until his death. His heir 
was his nephew John Spilsbury, a Dissenting 
minister at Kidderminster. His portrait- 
half-length, full-face, clean shaven, in wig 
and episcopal robes — may be seen in the 
College Hall. A. R. Bavlf.y. 

Ash : Pl.ICE-NAME (9"' S. xii. 106, 211. 291, 
3T3).— May 1 ask Pkof. .Skkat to reconsider 
his decision as to the absurdity of the deriva- 
tion of As/in/n from «?«r, an ash 1 He says 
trees do not live in homes. Just so, but 

homes may live in the midst of trees. Why 
should a homestead surrounded by ashes not 
be named .Efr ham ? ^"ou have al>fo Reecham 
and Oakham, and we have Buchheim and 
Buchenheim, Eichheim, Berkheim, Elsheim 
and Elsonheini, and Tannheim. An Eschheim 
or Eschenheim, it is true, I have not been 
able to trace in our gazetteers. 

G. KRl'EGEfi. 

BiiK;nTLisfisr.A ; its Deputy Ma von (9"" S. 
xii. 506).— I find in my collection of cuttings 
illustrative of the county of Essex one or two 
referring to the quaint custom brought to 
the notice of readers of ' N. & Q.' by 
Me. Colemax. From a descriptive account 
of the ceremony which appeared in the 
Southtndon-Sea Olstrrer of 4 Dec., 1902, I 
gather that the oath administered to thone 
elected to the freedom of Brightlingsea is as 
follows : " I swear to be profitable as I ought 
to his Majesty the King, his heirs and 
successors, and the State of the liberty of the 
town of Brightlingsea." John T. Paob. 

West Hadaon, Nortliamptonshire. 

Engusu Act entuatiox (9"' S. xi. 408, ."ilS; 
xii. 94, l.'iS, 316, 47.'j).— Perhaps a slip of the 
pen or printer's error, but, certainly, Antio- 
(^uia is wrongly accented by Mr. ri-ATT. I 
livetl some years in the next .State to 
Antioquia (Republic of Colombia), and can 
assure him no one ever heard the accent 
placed anywhere but on the n, and no 
Colombian woold know what was meant by 
Antioquia. Ibaui'^. 

Cromwell buhiek in Red Liox S^juabe 
(9"' S. xii. 486).— Enough, and more than 
enough, has appeai*ed in the columns of 
'N. kfc O. ' on tne subject of the place of 
burial or Oliver Cromwell. Westminster 
Abljoy, Naseby, Narborougb, Newburgh, 
Tyburn, Huntingdon, Nortnborough, and 
Ked Lion Square, all claim to be his place 
of burial. See 1" S. v. ; 2'"' S. viii., xii. ; 
.3"' S. iii., iv. ; &'•' S. ii., for many articles ou 
the resting-place of this extmonlinary man. 
Everari) Home Colemas. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The remains of Cromwell, Ireton, and 
Bradshaw may, of course, have been ro^. 
exhumed and reinterrerl in Red Lion Square^' 
but in ' Mercurius Politicus Redivivus, a 
Collection of the most Material! Occurrences 
and Transactions in Publick AfVairs,' vol. i. 
fol. 2."j7, we are expressly told that " their 
bodies were buried in a grave made under the 
[Tyburn] gallows. The coffin that Oliver 
Cromwell was in was a very rich thing, very 


W 8. L JArc. 23. 1904.] 




full of guildefl hinges and nayles." And 
Anthony Wool in h\n ' Athenai Oxonienses,' 
1817, vol. iii. coi. 3U1, says :— 

"After the Reatoratton of Kinp Charles H. 
Ireton's body with that of Oliver Cromwell waa 
taken up [«.♦:., from their tombs in Hcory VII.'s 
Chapel in Weatrainstor Abbey], on Saturday, 
26 Jan., ItiOO. and on Monday night following were 
dr&wn in two several carU) from Westminster to 
the Red Lyon in Holbourn, whore they continued 
that evening. The next morning the carcass of 
Joh. Brndshaw, president of the high court of 
joslice (which had been ^vith groat •olemnity bnried 
in St. I'eter's Cliurcii at Westminster, •i2 Nov.. 
l6-i9), woa carried in a cart to UoIlKiurn also ; and 
the next day following that (which waa the 
30lh January, on which day Ring Cliarlea I. waa 
beheaded in ItH-S) they were drawn to Tyburn on 
three several sledges, followed by the universal 
outcry of the people. Afterwards they being pulled 
out from their cotiin^, wero hanged at the several 
angles of that triple tree, where tney hung till the 
aun waa set. After which they were taken down, 
their heads cut off (to bo set on Westminster Hall) 
and their loathsome trunks thrown into a tkfp hole 
[italics are mine] under the gallows, where they 
now remain." 

Thedfejt hole is suggestiveof an improbabiltty 
that the remains were disinterred by relative-s 
or partisans, for some time, at all cvonta, 
afterwards. J. Holdex MacMichael, 

Dr. Furnivall will find two or three 
columns devoteti to this subject in 'Old and 
New London,' iv. 546-8. I would also refer 
him to an intereKting article wiiich appeared 
in C'fi'iiufHTf'f< Journal of 23 February, 1H5«, 
lieariug the title ' A Hi»torical Mysterj'.' It 
is devoted to a consideration of the claims of 
the various places wiiere Cromwell's body is 
said to have been hurie<^l. Naseby Field, 
Red Lion Square, Westminster Abbey, Hunt- 
ingdon, and the river Thames, all pass tinder 
review, but the writer opinen : *' Where he 
v&s really buried is a question that ha.s never 
yet [»«VJ, and probably never will be satis- 
nictorily answered." John T. Page. 

West HaddoD, Northamptonshire. 

CAriSKUM (0"' S. xii. 449).-I .should have 
thought the C'tpxirum annunm came into 
Kurol>e from the P3ast via the Ijevant, some 
time boforo the Spaniards discovered it also 
urowing in the West Indies. But surely 

chilUea" and the powder produced by 
crushing the dried pods were known to Rome 
in the time of the Ciesara. The Hindoos 
knew it a« wn mum'd'je, the as 
If/nibok, and tlio Malays as chaUii. 

Thorn K Gkorce. 

Bt.sirop White Ketnneitm Father (9"' S. 
ix. .'i«1.'i, 45.'> ; X. 13). — Hosted'a 'History of 
Kent,' folio p<lition, vol. lii. p. 404. states 
that Iksil Kounett waw A.M. of the University 

of Dublin. Inquiring of the Registrar, I an> 
assured that Btt.-iil Kennett's name cannot b» 
traced in any of the lists. 

The name Basil is prol)ably derived from 
the lord of the manor of Folkestone, Basil 
Dixwell, 1622, created a baronet 1627, died 
lfi41. A Richard Kennett was mayor of 
Folkestone the year that Basil Dixwell 
succeeded to the lordship, namely, 1622, and 
again in 1627. May he not have been Bishop 
White Kennett's grandfather? 


Kandgate, Kent. 

Flaying /Uive (9«" S. xii. 429. 489 ; lO*" 
S. i. 15).— There is an interesting story about 
the skiu of a robber in " My Sayings and 
Doings, with Rerainiscence.s of my Life. An 
Autobiography of the Rev. William Quekett^ 
M.A., Rector of Warrington ' (Kegan Paul Jk 
Co., 1SS8), p. 117. Mr. Quekett was one day 
(presumably before IftM, when he was ap- 
pointed rector of Warrington) with hi9 
brother, Prof. Quekett, at the College of 
Surgeons. Whilst they were together the 
latter received a letter which contained an 
enclosure " which looked like part of the 
bottom of an old shoe, of the thickness of 
half-acrown, of a dark colour, elastic, and 
with the markings of wood upon it." Tho 
letter was from a churchwarden of the parish 
of East Thurrock, in Essex, who wanted the 
professor to tell him, if possible, whit tho 
substance was, without having any par- 
ticulars of its history. Having washed it 
and cut a thin slice, he discovered under the 
microscope that it had all the structure of 
human skin, and on more minute cxaminatioti 
that it was the " skin of a light-haired man, 
having the hair of a sandy colour." He wrote 
J t<j the churchwarden, telling him of the result 
of his examinations. The latter replied that 
he (tho professor) had "proved the truth 
of a great tradition which had existed for 
years in East Thurrock." 

'■ On tho west door of the oharch there had been 
for ages an iron plate of a font square, under 
which they said was the skin of a man who had 
come on the river and robbed the. church. The 
[)eopIe had Hayed him alive, and bolted his skin 
under an iron plate on the church door as a terror 
to all other marauders. At the restoration of the 
church, which was then going on, this door had 
been removed, and hence he had been able to send 
the specimen." 

It appears to have been assumed that tho 
marauder who had l>ten «\'9"%\JI'7ui„ 
Dane Mr. W. Quekett biwl a hit of the aKin 
Kas a specimen for the mioroHcope. and 
wrote on the slide, -This is the nku. of a 
Dane who, with .o-ny oth^r*, came up the 
river Thames and pillaged churches. Caught 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io»- s, l jas. 23, low. 

in the act at East Tliurrock, Essex, aud flayed 

The fate uf the specimen h iuterestiog. 
Mr. Quekett lost it, aud kuew nothing for 
many years of what had become of it. In 
or aoout 1884, apparently, he was reading 
aloud to some gentlemen iii the hall of the 
" Palace Hotel," liuxton, an account of a meet- 
ing of the British Association at Penzance. In 
tliis account ho came across the fact that 
at tlio meeting a microscopic object, among 
others of special interest, had been exhibited 
by a gentleman in the neighbourhood, viz., 
a "Dane'a skin," and that the specimen at 
Penzance had on it, word for word, what he 
had written on his lost trcasura. 

He exclaimed, "Why, this is my Dane's 
skin 1 I lost it twenty years ago." After 
telling those present how he had obtained 
the specimen, he said aloud, " I wonder who 
that man is." Immediately afterwards the 
porter, who had heard the conversation, said, 
•' Please, Mr. Quekett, I can tell you who 
tliat gentleman is. I was his footman and 

valet for four years ; it i.s Mr. , who lives 

at Castle, near Penzance." Mr. Quekett 

wrote at once to the gentleman, whose name 
he does not give, claiming the specimen, and 
asking him now he had come into possession 
of it. The gentleman replied that the de- 
scription of the specimen and the account of 
the inscription were perfectly correct ; that 
it had been given to him bjr a lady in 
London ; that he greatly valued it; and that 
should Mr. Quekett ever be in his part of 
the country and should wish to see it, he 
would have great pleasure in showing it to 
liim. lieati jKjsaidentes. 

Mr. Quekett died at the rectory, War- 
rington, on Good Friday, 1888. The preface 
of his autobiography is dated 12 January 
of the same year. Robekt Piekpoint. 

St. Austin's, Warrington, 

Vici.ssiTUDEs or Lanouagk(9"' S. x. tui; 
XJ. 314, 356).— The following notes from the 
Far East may be added as corroboj-aling 
Mk. H. Lawebnce FoiiD's reply at the second 

A striking instance of the languages of the 

cpnquerefl people becoming the study of 

their conquerors is furnished by Chinese. 

I As often as China had been conquered by her 

neighbours, so many times has she supplanted 

or decomixised their languages ; thus, since 

the establi ' v ' n( the present Mauchurian 

Ipovernm ). the Manchurians have 

Iteeu so «.,,.,......., lu receiving the culture of I 

the Celestials that at present their own 
' /a bcoomiag almost ex ti rpa ted . | 

A few years after Kublai Khan's unparal- 
leled failure in his attempts upon the 
Japanese in 1281, the latter first appeared as 
buccaneers on the Chinese coast 1 rom that 
time down to the seventeenth century the 
Japanese played largely in the Eastern 
world the part of the Normans. Their 
depredations formetl a constant source of 
consternation among the Chinese, Coreans, 
Indo-Chinese, and the peoples of Indonesia, 
several principalities having been subdued 
by them. Still, at present but a few words, 
if any, aud these limited to nouns only, 
linger in those nations' languages as the 
fossil fragments that mark faintly the former 

Sower once possessed by the ever-invading 
apanese, whereas the Japanese descendants 
in Indo-China and the Philippines liave 
entirely lost their own language. 

Lately the Chinese are being extensively 
taught oy the Japanese in the various lessons 
of modern civilization, in acquiring which 
the latter were sagacious enough to precede 
their old masters ; and the Chinese ought to 
acknowledge as an historical fact, sm long as 
their memory shall last, the §reat assistance 
the Japanese are now rendering them. But 
it is very doubtful whether the Japanese 
language will much circulate and fix itself 
among the Chinese, as some enthusiasts 
hope. In fact, all the words necessary to 
these instructions are to be in Chinese, either 
original or japanized ; aud in the latter case, 
owing to tiie identity of their writings, the 
Celestials, of course, would discover nothing 
Japanese, but solely their own vulgarism — 
the tedious agglutinant syntax, tne com- 
paratively scanty diction, as well as the 
simple insular traditions of the Japanese* 
being of no actual service or tempting charm 
to the Ciiinese, whose convenient mom)- 
syllabic, very copious etymology, and 
variegated and compreheni^ive nittoricAl 
legends, are being more studied and avaiteil 
of than ever by literary people in the Japan 
of to day. ^ Kumagl'^u Mlkakata. 

Mount Nachi, Kii, .Japan. 

"God": its Etymology (a"" S. xii. 400).— 
The 'N.E D.,' s.r. 'GofJ,' has the f..ii..«;n^ ; 

".Some scholars, acccptiujj the <i. rom 

the root 'gheu-. 'to i>our,' have . the 

etymulogical sense to ue 'nioltou iiiti^{e' (-^Or. 
\('Tr>i'), but the assumed development of Dicaaiiig 
Bcenis very unlikely." 

Now Hesychius expressly states as follows : 
;^vTo»', \cDo-ror, Kat to ,\*i*/*«» Koi o ^€<rT?>s 
XtOoi; i.e., "what is heaped up, a tumulus, 
a smooth stone"- nothing \^ ' ^ . ' i,t a 
"molten image." In fact, loal 

treatment of the word in tlic .\.r,. i.>. i<, not 


m- s. 1. Jan. 2s, liM.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 





exhaustive. Tho origin of Theism in ancestor- 
worship with its correlative tflinh - worship 
need not bo referred to, it being already 
frulliciently established (cf. Pho^n. " Betyl," 
name of a god, and Ueb. " Beth-el "). The 
connexion, moreover, between smooth stones 
and the tumulus is obvious when we consider 
that the mostaucieut tumuli were constructed 
of furface or river bouIderH, which tliua 
Acquired a certain degree of sanctity. 


Marlowe .and Shakespe.are (10"» S. i. 1). 
— Mb. Hekpich has done pood work in 
publishing hia collection of parallel piiraues 
and expressions from Marlowe and Shake- 
speare, and every Shakespearian student 
snould be thankful for thero. But why, 
after showing how much Shakespeare was 
inHaenced by Marlowe, does he try to spoil 
the effect of his labour by supposing tliat the 
well-known lines in ' Aa You Like It' refer 
rather to Chapman than to Marlowe, and 
were "an intentional fling "at a rival poet I 
The words in the play (First Folio), 

Dead Shepheard, now I find thy saw o( might. 
Who ever lov'd, thai lov'd not at first sight? 
certainly contain nothing in the nature of a 
flinff. On the contrary, the quotation is 
ma^ie reverently, and almost, as one might 
say, as an apostrophe to a dead friend. The 
fact that Marlowe was dead when this w'as 
■written, whereas Chapman was alive, makes 
the inference that Marlowe was intended, 
and that he was the " Dead Shepheard," 
simply irresistible and unmistakable. As far 
as I know, Shakespeare never has a fling at 
any other poet. He loft such thingi to 
meaner minds. E. F. Bates. 

C.UfDLKMAs Gills (9»»» S- xii. 430 ; lO"* S. 
i. .30). — Cliurch ales and observances form the 
subject of chap, iv. of the late Mr. W, T. 
Marchant's erudite volume 'In Praise of 
Ale." The author was a diligent student of 
'N. & Q.,' and acknowledges the assistance 
derived from its columns. It has been more 
than once referred to .since his deAth. Those 
who know this amiable and painstaking 
scholar will remember him as a mine of 
oorious lore of marriage customs, proverbs, 
ancient London, and antiquarian topics. 

Francw p. M^vbchant. 

Brixtou Uill. 

" Coup de Jarnac " (10* S. i. 6).— A q ueation 
on this was asked at the London University examination in 1880. " Un coup de 
.Tarnttc " mean»i "a treacherous blow." See 
Belcher and Dupuis's 'Manuel,' 1885 
(Uachotte). B. Whitehead, B.A. 

" Sit loose to " (10'" S, i. 5).— The following 
quotation is from Thomson's 'Alfred; a 
Masque,' 1740:— 

.\tlttoli thee firmly to the virtuotu deeds 

And offices of life ; to life itself. 

With all ita vain and transient joys, sit loose. 

This was a favourite quotation of Bums ; 
see letter to Mrs. Dunlop, (J December, 1792. 

H. E. Powell. 


Marriac.e R&iisTERS (lo"* S. i. 9).— The 
registers and records of the marriages per- 
formed at the Fleet and King's Bench Priaous. 
at May Fair, at the Mint in Southwark, ana 
elsewhere between the years 1674 and 1754, 
were transferred from the Registry of the 
Bishop of London to tho custody of tho 
Registrar-General of Births, Marriages, and 
Deaths at Somerset House, under the pro- 
visions of 3 «k 4 Vict., cap. 92, sec. 20. 
Some of the registers of May Fair are at 
St. George's, Hanover Square, and some of 
those of the Fleet (for there were many) are 
in private hands. If Major Thorne George 
requires any further information he sliould 
consult 'The Fleet Registers,' 1837, and 'The 
History of the Parish Registers in England,' 
1842, both by J. S. Burn ; also 'Parish 
Registers in England,' 1883, by R. E. C- 
Waters. The history of 'The Mint, Savoy, 
and Mav Fair Marriages' is given in Cham- 
bers's ' fiook of Day.s,' ii. 12U. 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 
71, Brecknock Road, N.W. 

"Heardlome": "Heech" (10^'' S. i. 29).— 
A heard-lome must be a herd-loom. Loom was 
used in a most varied manner for any kind 
of instrument or implement, so that fierd- 
Iffttn merely means "a contrivance for 
herding." See ' Loom ' in ' H.E.D.' 

Jlea-h I take to be a variant of hilrfi, with 
the sense of /<«rcAm.7, explained in the 'Eng. 
Dial. Diet.' (which see) as an Oxfordshire 
word meaniu;u; "a part of a field ploughed 
and sown during the year in which the rest 
of the field lies fallow." 

Walter W. Skeat, 
[Mu. Koi.UK> MacMicjuaei. gives cattle-pen as 
the meanini; of hcnnllomr, and refers to Jamiesoas 
•Diet.,' «.i\ 'Werklonie." W. C. B. suKneflta that 

lome may be /urn, a woody valley, and ijuoles from 
•E.U.D.,'*f. 'Loom and 'Lum.'] 

the' Cards (10^" S. i. 2») -^•'*'.°"ij 
work on Japan with which I am ,*^,^"'""r; 
that contains an account of Japanese gumeH 
is 'The Mikado's Kmpiro,' »)y \^^->„ "."'^ 
but the account is meagre ami contu^oU A 
set of facsimiles of the pack described by 
Mr- Platt is printed in tho Tninmctiom of 




NOTES AND QUERIES. no«^ 8. i. j^n. 23. im 

the Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xix. partiii.. 
October, 1801, to illostrate a paper by Majoi- 
General H. S. Palmer on the game of Uana 
Awase, for which the cards are made. Another 
paper on the (;auae was printed at Vokohaina 
in 1892 by Mr. C. M. Belshaw, under the title 
of ' Uana Fuda, the Japanese Flower Game 

or Eighty-Eight.' The rules of this and 

other Japaneiie card - games are also to be 
found in ' Korean Games, with Notes on the 
Corresponding Games of China and Japan/ 
by Stewart Culin (IMiiladelphia, 1895). 

F. Jessei,. 

In 'ThingH Japanese,' by Basil Hall Cham- 
berlain, 1890, p. 21, is the following : — 

"' Ever since the early daj-a of foreign intercourse 
they have likewise had certain kinds of cards, of 
which the hann-Qarula, or the ' llower-cards,' are 
Ihf moat iwpnlar kind— so jjopolar, indeed, and 
seductive ttiat tiiere in an otticial veto on playing 
the game for money. The curds are forty-eight in 
nunioer, four for each month of the year, the month? 
being distinguislied by the (lowera projH>r to them, 
and an extra vakie attached to one out of each set 
of four whicli is further distinguished by a bird or 
butterfly, and to a second which is inscribed with a 
line of i^ioolry. Three people take part in the game, 
and there is a pool. The sj-stem of counting is 
rather complicated, but the ideas involved are 

Prof. Chamberlain, at the end of his article 
on * AmuHementa,' from which the quotation 
is taken, refers to ' The Games and Sports of 
Japanese Children,' by W. E. Grifii!?, vol. ii. 
of the Asiatic Transactions. L'nder the game 
*Go' he refers to the 6'tTwirtn Astaiir lianH' 
actions. As these are (or I should suy were 
in 1890. and I pie-sume are still) the publica- 
tions of two scientific .societi&s in Toky'), I 
should think Mr, Platt will find full in- 
formation in them. H, J. GiFKOKa 

Lor.KNzo D.\ Pa VIA (9'" S, xii. 349. .39S).— 
I am much obliged to Mrs. Adv for her kind 
help, but as she has not given rae the title of 
the book I have not yet Ijeen able to discover 
tlie paasnge I am in search of. Tlie entries 
under San.-iovino fill seven printed columns 
m tlie British Museum Catalogue. 

L. L. K, 


(TO'" S. i. 8).^The drift of Mn. DodosoxV 
query is not apparent to me, but tlie 
cn<leavour to twist out of St. Gregory's 
words any connexion with the proverb is as 
needless ns it is fruitless. For the phrase 
"faccre do necessitate virtutem," letter for 
letter, was current about a century and a 
lialf before the saint was born, as I informed 
your reatiers twelve years ago (8"' S. i. 94). 
To the examples which I then a<iduced of its 
employment by St. Jerome and later writers 

I now add the following from the 'Cent 
Xouvelles Nouvellea' (No. 36, aitfi .fin.): 
" Force est quo tu faces de necessit«^ vertua.' 
The phrase appears in French and Italian 
collections of proverbs published in the six- 
teenth centur3',and must have been as familiar 
to Britons of the period as to their continental 
neighbours, F. Ad.vms. 

Chaucer may be cited as a witness to the 
truth of Mk. h. S. Dodgsox's remark that "a 
similar expression is probably to be found in 
many books written between the time of 
St. Gregory and Bacon." The saying occurs 
twice in the famou.s 'Canterbury Tales,' In 
that of the Knight we read, " Then is it wis- 
dom, as thenketh me, to makcn vertu of 
necessitt' " ; and in the Squire's talo tho 
phrase runs "Than I umde vertu of neces- 
site." Shakespeare's works abound in 
Chaucerian quotations. They were _ pro- 
)>ab] y .sayings in common use, and, to judge 
by St. Gregory's Epistle.s, were much older 
than tlie time of eitiierpoet. 

EfLBAXOE C. Smyth. 


Kino EnnAR.s Blazon (O'*" S. xii. 247).— 
What purports to be the coat of arms of King 
Edgar appears on p. 1-47 of ' Divi Britannici : 
being A Ilemark upon the Lives of all the 
Kings of this Isle from the year of the world 
28o:i unto the year of grace IGGO.'by Sir Win- 
ston Churchill, Kt. (London, 1675). It con- 
sists of a shieltl, having on it a cross and a 
bird in each angle of the crass. The cross is 
what I believe is called a "cross fleury." The 
shield has a crown above it. The bird* 
look to the left ; they have their upper 
beaks slightly liooked, and tiieir legs have 
the thighs only. I regret tliat mv ignorance 
of heraldic terms obliges rae to describe the 
arms as I have done. 

The same coat of arms is attributed to 
Edward the Elder and to Ethelred ; also, 
with the addition of a fifth bird under the 
cros.s, to Edward the Confessor. Eadred has 
the four birds, but the cross is a cross pattee. 

I suppose that many of the coats oi arras 
and devices given by Churchill are imugi- 
nary : rf/., lie give'* de^nces to Brute (grand- 
son of -Eneas), Malmude, Belin, Ludbelinj 
Cassibejin, Tubelin, a.m. 2HJj-3y21, ana 
other kings of fabulous history. 

Kt. Austin's, Warriugtou. 


(lO'*' S. i. 9).— Surely the most reasonabl 
explanation of the terra irjumihnunf for » 
prison is that round towers were very com- 
mon, anil were well adapted for prisons. The 

10". S. L Jan. 23. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Hebrew word rendered "prison" in Genesis 
xxxix. 20-23 and xl. 3, 5, is literally " round- 
house." It does not matter in the least 
whether the writer intended to imply that 
the buildinc; was circular in plan, and it is 
impossible for us to know. J. T. F. 

Winterlon, Doncaater. 

Slekpiso King Akthu b (9"* S. xii. 602). — 
Scott, in his appendix to the general preface 
to the Waverley Novels, tells mucli the 
same story. But in his story the feat is 
performed, though not auccessfuUy, and the 
words uttered are these : — 
Woe to the coward that ever bo woa born, 
Who did not draw the Bword before he blew the 

In Scott's narrative the Eildon Hills on 
the Borders are the scene of Arthur's 
enchanted slumber ; but numerous are the 
places in which he is supjjosed to lie. Avilion 
18 generally thought to be his resting place. 
In a legend mentioned by Gervase of Tubury 
it is said that King Artliur has resided in a 
delicious valley near Mount Etna ever since 
his supposed death, and that his wounds 
break out afresh every year. 

E. Yardley. 

Little Wild Street Chapel, Deury 
Laxe (9* S. xi. 246).— Accoixling to the vicar 
of St. Peter's. Upper HoUowaVj the Sterm 
Sermon which was preached m this old 
chapel for nearly two hundred years " is still 
annually nrcacned, and was nreached on 
28 November last oy the llev. H. Bright in 
the Olympic Theatre, which is now being 
aned by the St. Giles Prison Mission during 
the rebuilding of tlie chapel by the L,C.C." 
Frkokuiok T. Uibgame. 

"RKDBAa TO A bull" (9"* S. xii. 309).— 
People in this part Iwtlievo that tiie red flag 
faacinates, they do not say enrages, the kamo- 
tkika, the only antelope indigenous to Japan. 
Hunters curry it with them, and spread it 
before the animal, so as to 6x it« attention 
«nd steps that it may bo shot. 

Mount Nachi, Kii, Japan. 

r •' '^. xii. 4&4; 10«* 8. i. 13).— At 

t) ace I proposed an imaginary 

«ii^:iii iM[ mis word, founded (as it appears) 
on lilsc information. I am thoreforo glad to 
find that it was promptly knocked on tho 
head. But I have now another suggestion to 
mak& founded on the fact that the can:! 
callea the y/^y/- is often used in the game, for 
vrbicli see ' l^uchro* and Mukcc ' in ' H K D,' 
I think it likely thiv 
A joker. Hexham IX _ a 

jester, a jeerer, a mocker, a floater" ; so that 
It is a fairly old word in Duteh, 

The probability that the Du. jo- should 
have be«n rendered by E. eu- appears from 
the fact that the Du. jnfi'irmw is spelt eujt/iroe 
in English ; see ' H.E.D.' It is the result of 
our "scholarship," which teaches us Greek, 
but not Teutonic The Du. jw- is turned into 
Qk. eti; and the Du../f and kk into Gk. pfi 
and c/i. It is a triumph of ** learning " over 
practice and fact. Waltee VV. Skeat, 


A Jfitforj/ of Thcafrical Aft in Atitiettt ami Moflan 

Tiiiifi. By Karl Manlzios. Authorised Trans- 

latiou by Louise von CoaseU. Vols. L and II. 

(Duckworth ft Co.) 
CsutRED ill by au introduction by ilr. AA'LlIiaiii 
.■Vrcher. this history of theatrical art by Dr. 
Mantziua Ia odu of llie most interesting and valu- 
able contributions that have been nkado in recent 
years to our knowledge of an important and a 
Btimulating subject. Unlike almost all previous 
works, it is a history neither of the drama nor tho 
8ta(;e, but of theatnc&l representations. The Eng- 
lish work most closely reseinbliiiK it is ' The Attic 
Theatre' of Mr. A. E. MaiKh. istjue^l at the Claren- 
don Press in 1889, in which trie use of some of the 
illustrations now employed is anticiriated. .\s is 
indicated by the title, the book of >Ir. Ilaiich is 
confined to tho Athenian stage, while that of Dr. 
Mantxius extends beyond the limits hitherto recog- 
nized as theatrical. 

That the origin of all drama is religious is 
conceded. Not contented with tracing back 
to the Dionyaiac cult— to tho sacrifice of the he- 
goat {troffos) the origin of tragedy- and to the rout 
(livm<}jt) of satyrs and iihypkaUoi that of comedy— 
Dr. Mant7.iuB shows the development of tho rfra- 
matic idea in most forms of iirimitive culture. It 
is natural that he should have been to some extent 
anticii^tcvi in his task bYtierman scholars. He is 
careful, however, to acknowledge the extent as 
well as the nature of his indebtedneas. Nowhere, 
in anything approaching to tho same space, can 
we find a work giving in a form bo trnstwortliyi 
so scientific, and at the same time so popular, au 
equal amount of available and interesting informa- 
tion. We say this with a fall knowledge of the 
encyclopaxlio 'Getchichte des Dramas' of J. L. 
Klein, a work, however, as widely different in - •• ■ " 
as it is more elaborate in scheme and exc: 
Dr. MantMus, it must 1m premised, is a I 
actor ou the Co)>enba^n stage, and is one 
few men of his occui>ation who have made a I 

contribution to the history of his profeasion . 

of our best dramatists, from .KschyluA down- 
wards, have been actors. Those who. like Dr. 
Mantziua, Devrient, Colley Cibljer. and Louis 
Hiccolioni, have added to serious knowledge may 
be counted on the fingers. In tho two volume* 
before us our author deals with tho earliest limes 
and with the Middle Ages and the Renaisaance. 
A third volume— for which, it i- ' ' - ' • mI. we 
shall not have lonj; t/i wait- is i ' i li llie 

()rama of ICngland in the time of S- \*- 



tlO'k S. I. Jas. a. 19W- 

Arter a few oi>eniD|; paaaages on the relation of 
dramatic art to other arts, Dr. Mant/ius jirocoeda 
to find in the artistic iihenomeQa of primitive tribes 
the origin of theatrical reprcRentatJona, and pointa 
out analogiee between the (• reek drama, iioeticalaad 
perfect in form, and the religioixs festivals of the 
Indians of the North-Wost or the Melanesian peo- 
ples. In the proceedings of the secret societies of 
the Polynesiaus, aotably in the Areoi, he finds the 
oriRinal ty |)e of a touring con^iany of actors. Thence 
he passes to the Chinese, Jai^anese. and Indian 
theatres, pointing out in his progress that in Japan- 
ese art the ideal representation of men consists in 
** a sharply drawn exaggeration." When we come to 
the I i reek stage the most interesting ])ortion of the 
author's labours is reached, albeit it is that in 
which he encounters the keenest competition. By 
the air! of numerous illustrations, many of them of 
great beauty and value, he supplies the most com- 
j)endious and illurainatory account of his subject lo 
which the student can turn. Keceat discoveries 
concerning the acting of plays in the orchestra 
instead of on a raised stage are briefly and lucidly 
explained. I'he general conatruction of the stage is 
shown, and Buggestive conjecture is supplied as to 
the suspension of thedftiM tx jnarhiija, 1 he phallic 
nature of an exhibition is depicted in the illustra- 
tions. The situation of the 8t>ectator8 and many 
iuteresting facts cuncerning points such ba the 
renuiucratioD of the actors are brought forward. 
Neither less comprehensive nor leas trustworthy 
is the account of the liturgical drama and the 
mediiL'val stage generally. Kather elaborate de- 
scriptions of the scenic phenomena of representa- 
tions of the ecctesiastical drama are given. We 
had hiarkeci fur approving comment scores of 
jjaesa^es, but our limited space prohibits our deal- 
ing with them. NVe can but add that, so far a? it 
has gone, the work may be recommended to the 
student as the handsomest, most trustworthy, and 
moat readable to which he can turn. 

A Xi'i- Eiifflvh Dliiiorian/ o>i HiHfon>(U Prhirij^en. 

Edited by Ur. James A. H. Murray. — Outjet— 

Chi/at. (Oxford, Clarendon I'ress.) 
Tjik new year's instalment of the preat ilictiotiai-y 
consists of the letter from Oiifj't to the close. 
In order to complete the letter the part has been 
enlarged to one hundred pages, the rectification of 
the excess being charged to forthcoming issues. 
When the three volumes now in jjrogress under the 
resiHjctivc charge of Dr. Murray, Dr. 15radIoy, and 
Mr. Craigie are complete the alphabet from its 
beKitniing to the end of S will be in the hands of 
snoacribers. Already, in the species of folk-]ihrase 
it is our wont to chronicle, "the back is broken'' 
of the task undertaken. The old rate of superiority 
over previous works is, naturally, maintained, and 
11, mi illustrative ijuotiitioiis are opposed to l.-MSi 
in the 'Century Dictionary,' which furnishes the 
nearest approach to rivalry. 

Very nearly the first quarter of the instalment is 
occnpied with the completion of the tompoimtl 
words in onJ, many of which have high interest, 
while of some, as is stated, the history la now 
told for the first time. Onfi'li/(/t.r it is thus shown 
was anticipated in the lQUKiia)»e by f^i'^V/'i', of 
which it may ho in part an alt' i 

being, in the 'Howard Houm 

associated with " a riompC'.' J ,- t 

with goime stones.' OiUrii/i/ti, nieanwliile, is not 
encountered until the eighteenth century. Out- 

lanrltr, probably suggested by Dutch uitlatidfv, 
ai)|:»ears as an eouivalent to aiitti in Verstegan, 
IWJ5. Very vahmole historical information is sup- 
plied under oullair jinrl oiiilairri/. A column of 
si)ecial interest aud imyiortanco is furnished under 
the latter word. L'nder the former we recall dimly 
in a glee, we believe by liishop, the lines — 

The farmer, the farmer, may sow, 

The bold outlaw must reap. 
We are not assigning any philological importance 
to tills iiuotation, w i". i> ■- ..t|ly of the last centnrr. 
What is Kttid under ■ ouffrm-rU-i is spcciullv 

to be consulted. ' . |>enditure is of )7'.IH, 

while ov'Ift an exit iluti-s back to \'2U\ and oiit/int 
=line8 forming a contour to lfi62. Kvelyn bein£ 
rcsiionsible for ita use. OiUltnik as a verb is earliec 
than as a substantive. Uoder ohI numbrr Keats'a 
"Post kisses to outnumber" ('Ode to P»«yche')i 
should be quoted for its literary value. Out of is 
interesting in connexion with ij< fo, as well as in 
such forma as " out of date, ' "out of doors," "out 
of the way," &c. Beaumont's ' Psyche,' 1648, iSj 
responsible for oiifpfay in its customary moderal 
sense. OtUraijf has an important history. Underi 
ouhviii-': Dr. Murray naturally brands as erro»j 
neouB the phrase »f /'o»M-fi»c<. <>»//»•/ -oxtravBgant 
has the authority of Fielding. Ontrooper was at 
one time the sftecific name of the common crier of 
the City of London. O'ltopaii reaches us from_ 
South Africa in \if2A. OitiKpnttn is of the last ceO'* 
tury. The combinations of ov<r are scarcely lesSi 
numerous. In o<vW«r(i«' and oi'trtakt the sense of 
the Oftr is said lo lie difficult. Words with this 
prefix arc not, as a rule, of great antiquitv. Ovn-- 
fiotr is an illustrious exception, Xot before have 
the meaning and history of otrrilnuffli been given, 
though the word has been in the language for one 
hundred aud thirty years. Much that ia new and 
valuable will be found under overlutr. Hem espe- 
cially under the verb, sense 2. relating to the 
supremo Presbyterian court. Few parts of the 
work repay study better than the various uses 
of oire and' own. In connexion with onf nntl o'ffct] 
the reader should see also Onffflcuf, the Englisli 
etiuivalent of the Cerman EntentpieffeL Among th€_ 
various scientific and other words in ox the readorl 
will do well to note the word oxlip, of which thfti 
definition and history are alike excellent. On'V,! 
oj/ez, and oud^r merit cloee attention. Under . 
o:oktrit we would fain see, though wo could scarcely 
exjiect to find, the lines, parodying Tennyson,— 
When bright through breadth of public print6 
Flamed that great word ozokerit. 
O-.niif, IHIO, and its compounds, all, with a single 
oxcoi'tion, later, close the iinrt, except for o:i/nf, 
an illiterate sinjlling of orfjcai. 

Memoir of Ttciijmnin FravUin Stfixiit. lly <^I. 

Mauville Fenn. (Printed at the Chiswick Press 

for private distribution ) 
To many readers of * N.& Q.' the name of Benjamin 
Franklin IStevens, as also of his brother Heory, 
may be familiar. This memoir is due, a» Mr. Fet 
tosiities, to "much long and psttent autstance il 
the selection of jMipers" by the executors, CharU 
J. Whittinghani and Henry J. Brown. The result 
must be to them an ample reward, for in tiie 

{lages we have a perfect record of .a good and useful 
\in. Mr. Stevens, born on the iSHli of Febriiatyj 
1833, was the tenth of eleven children of Hour 
Stevens, of B&rnet, Vermont, who was " one 

io'«-8.i.j.vy.23.i9w.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


thMe Bttmly linrH-^v^tUi".^ '^■rnctical, self-tAUght 
menwho, III ' those wliogathered 

ruutj<1 his 'i. iiie to a L-ertain ex- 

tent the niaj;i-ior hil li-iutot ot liia township." Ho 
loved bouki), oollcctcil and read them, and became 
well known as the founder of tho Vormoitt Historical 
Society. Young Stevens, when only fourteeo, left 
home for Albany, where, in the ottices of the Secre- 
tary of State, he copied hintorical maiiuacripta for 
hia father, and in ]H5'2 obtained an official appoint- 
ment there. In the nieuntimc his brother Henry, 
who waa fourteen years his senior, had come to 
London in 184.1, anil had become a purchoMr of 
American books for the British Museum, with the 
result that it now containa a more extensive 
librai-y of Anicrioan books than any single library 
in the United States. Franklin nul]ied him in 
JiiB ptirohasex, and in 1S'>H became ids a^ent, and on 
the yth of July. l.StKJ, joined iiis brother in Kn(;land, 
where lie shared rooma with Mr. Somerby ; and 
<;eorgo I'eabody, who liked their society, dined 
with them once a week, making a point of adding 
to his contributions to the dinner a duck, which 
he would bring hinisolf ready for the housekeeper 
to prepare. Upon one occasion Peabody quietly put 
out one of the two caiidlej*, reniarkinK that one was 
enough with which to set to talk. It was during 
their conimunion that the rough plan of the famous 
Peabody Trust was put to paper. In IWiO .Stevens 
was appointed Disjiatch .\Kent of the Uniteil States 
4'rovernment at London ; and in 1S67 " the tyranny 
of business was sufficiently relaxed" to allow of 
hi.s taking his wife— he fad married Charlotte 
Whillinghani, a daughtor of Charles Whittingham 
of the Chiswick Press— to visit the home so dear to 
him at Vermont. During his absence not a week had 
been allow-ed to elapac withont a letter to his father 
or mother. Stevens would often recall <jnaint inci- 
dents in the oUl \'erniont days : among others that 
*' inlhe Scotch church at Barnet there had grown 
up a custom for the whole congregation to stand 
during the minister's prayer, and as such extempore 
appeals were long and their periods well known, 
a tucit arrangement had been arrived at by the 
hearers, who from old experience provided for a 
time of rest. No signal was given, but at one 
(tarticular point which all present recognized, it 
was felt that the moment had come to ' change to 
the other foot,' and the men of the congregation— 
hearers who had driven in from a distance in the 
country — raised ami brought down the butt ends of 
their whips upon the floor M-ith a precision and 
resonance that was electrifying." 
lu 1S71 Stevens had to take dispatches toMf.Wash- 
«rne. the United States minister in Paris, then in 
be hands of the Commune and being besieged by 
lacMahon. When near the Arc de Triompne "a 
shell came whistling towards us, and exploded in 
the air over our heads." In making reference to 
the famous Iwok collections of the Ur»ited States, 
Ixilh tiublic and private, the memoir justly states 
that noumall portion of ihe^o have reached their 
present and abiding destination tlirough tlie agency 
in Trafalgar .Scjuare. Prior to lS87 the oidy records 

of ''-■ ■•■'■' '"X of such works were the 

'^s In 1SH7, however, was 

il-knowQ and useful work of 
I ■ liuuU-I'nces Current/ and a careful 

' a of the volumes will reveal how large a 

] .,t 1 1,,, -"Hlly important works sohf by 

..t years have been purchaaed 
I un Stevens." He died on the 

othof Alarch, 1902, after a long illness borno with the 
greatest fortitude. He was a man of mo«ie<«t nature 
and simple living, and it has been well said of him : 
"Everybody knew him as a sturdy New Knglander, 
one of the most lovable men that ever grip|»ed the 
hand and said ' God spoed.' " 

At the end of the volume is the " Introduction to- 
the Catalogue Index of Mant»cripts in the Archives 
of England, France. Holland, and Siiain relating to 
America, 176.'$ to \~><i. compiled in 1 hree Divisions, 
in each of which all of the lUl.OOtt Documents 
enumerated are cited. Compiled by Benjamin 
Franklin Stevens (of Vermont)." During his last 
few months ho was engaged in planning the final 
details of this great catalogue, "and in giving in- 
htruclions as to arrangement, title-pages, bindinif, 
kc. of these beaiitiful manuscript volumes, moolly 
on nond-inade paper bearing his own watermark. 

" As to arrangement, it is in three divisions :— 

"(1) A Catalogue of the papers in the order in 
which they exist in the various archives or collec- 
tions. This forms fifty volumes. 

"('-2) A Chronological arrangement of the same, 
which by giving to each document a jtti'rii of 
contents and otnor details, is extended into one 
hundred volumes. 

"(.)) An Alphabetical index to the same by 
writers and receivers, or where no author is known, 
then by subject matter, in thirty volumes. 

" The binding, according to his express M'ish, is 
in ftill morocco, a ditTcront colour marking tl>e 
three sets. 

" It is the hope of hi.s relatives and friends at tl>e 
time this memoir is written, that this great and 
uniiiue work will eventually find its place in one of 
the National Institutions of the United -States." 

The memoir contains excellent i>orlraila of Mr. 
B. V. Stevens, his father, his mother Candace, and 
his wife Charlotte. 

Or.fofl Miniatin-e tklidon of Sl\(ikr>>ptarf. Edited, 
with a <:io8sary, by VV. J. Craig, M.A. — TA'? 
CottHilitu ; Traatdtci ; Jlixtovie*, Poevi*, and 
Sonihlt. iFrowde.) 
Ix throe ravishing little volumes, each with a 
different {.vortrait and glossary, and each on Oxford 
India paper, we have the "fJxford Miniature 
Edition of .Shakespeare.'' It is a delightful antl 
moat convenient form in M'hicb to possess the com- 
plete works of the greatest of writers. The Oxfortl 
Shakeepeare on India paper has long been with us 
a chenshed and constantly used edition. Tho 
present is even more attractive, and has the added 
value of portability. It is equally to be prized as a 
gift-book and a ^wssession. email as it is, the text 
is ]>erfoctly legible. The get-up is specially at- 

MiiiicUurr Srrin of MiiMiciariH. — Mouirt. By Ebeo* 

ezer Proul, B.A.— Wot<mw/. By Henry Tolburst. 

—BtHhorai. By J. S. Shodlock, KA.-ArDnw 

Snllirnn. By H. 8axe Wyndham. (Bell t .Sons.) 

Messrs. Bklx. k Sons have begun a "Miniature 

Series of Musicians," to rank with u similar scries 

of painters. Like the old, the new volumes are 

trusted to writers of proclaimed author! ly, and» 

like them, they are graced by portrait* and other 

illustrations. Opiwriuuities for illustration are. 

naturally, not so abundant in the cose of musicians 

as in that of painters, but rare prints and the like 

are abun<lantly reproduced, and the idea on whicli 

the publication is based and tiv« ftVss^iiiAlvfcso. ••.x«» 




[W S. I. Jav. 23. 1901. 

«qttftUy tti be commended. In the csae of Ciounod 
there »re wine inlerestin^ facsiniiles. 

Thr Clej(fu Dinctoi'!/ and Pariah Onide, IWi. 

Ik duo course this best of guides to the cterKy of 
the Katabliahed Church m&Kes its afipearance. It 
aupplieB, as before, an alpljabetical list of the 
clergy, with their iiualifications, order, apnoint- 
ineat, &c. : a list of parisheB and parochial dis- 
tricts; the diocesan and cathedral cstablLshmeats ; 
aud other kiadred matter. One or two improve- 
ments in an indispenaable volume may be dia- 
oovored by the careful reader. In a profoiiRed use 
of ti»e work we have not come upon an inaccuracy. 

\Vk are indebted to Mr. Henry Frowde, of the 
Oxford Press, for one of the hundred copies of the 
presentation edition of A Chart of OxfoM PruiJini/, 
1^JS-19U0, with notes and illustrations by Falconer 
ModaD. Mr. Madau states in the nrefucc that " an 
attempt has been made in this book to exhibit the 
fluctuations iu the output of the PriotinK Press at 
-Oxford, and to illustrate them by some annals, 
notes, and lists. A pai)er on tins sul)ject was 
read before the Oxford Arciiitectural and Histori- 
cal Society on February 7, 188X, aud a lecture from 
notes was given before the Bibliographical Society 
on October 2t), 1!*02 (see the newsRncet of the latter 
Society for November, IWG)." Mr. Frowde invited 
him to reproduce the notes and a manuscript chart 
exhibited at the lecture in the Puiotlital of 
December, 1902, aud the Council kindly allowed 
this to be done. "At Mr. Frowde's sugKCstion 
this larger chart has been prepared. The whole of 
the statistics have been com]>uted afresh for the 
purpose, and almost eveiything in the book now 
issued is new.'' 

The first book printed at Oxford is given as 
December 17, 14438, but at the foot of the beautiful 
facsimile of its first |>Age Mr. Madan |>uta a note 
of interrogation (1478?). The press appears to have 
had no coniioxion with the works of Caxton. The 
first book printed at the second jiross was on 
December 4, 1517- In lo8j, with lOlV. lent by the 
University, Joseph Barnes commenced priuting ; 
and the Oxford Press has Ijeoa in cotitinuoua 
activity ever since. In 16.10-7 the University 
handed over to the Stationers' Company all its rights 
of printing Bibles, Lily's '(Jrammar," "&c., for three 
years, in consideration of receiving 2(XV. a year. 
The hrst tyi»e-founding at Oxford waa about 1667. 
The actual founder seems to have been Peter Wal- 
pergen, a Dutchman from Batavia. It is curious 
to note that in 1673 many of the compositors wore 
Frenchmen, of whom Gallot was one; and those 
seeking to know " Who was Junius?" will tind that 
in WTii Francis Junius presented (iothic. Runic, 
"Icelandic," and Anelo-oaxon punches. In 1003 
the first snecimens of type published in England 
were issued from the Sheldoniun Press. In 1714-i.'> 
Thomas Heame, the antiquary, was elected Archi- 
typographus. In ISSO the present Clarendon 
Press was opened, and in 1S36 the first cylinder 
printing machine introduced and the first steam 
engine used. In 184'2 tho <»xford India pa]>er was 
first used for a diamond '.Mmo Ujble. In iSJfOwas 
the first steteotyping by the P^per process, electro- 
typing following in 1863 ltl8l is notable as the 
year in which the Revised New TestanienL was pub- 
lished. This was on the 17lh of May, imd on that 
day t^iwards of a million Oxford copies wore sold. 

It is related in ' Johti Francis and the Atbentoam ' 
that the publication took place in New York three 
days afterwards, and the proprietors of the Chicaijo 
Thw) had the whole telegraplicd to Chicago. Aftier 
the four (iospels had been telegraphed a copy of 
the work was received, and from this the rest was 
printed, and the entire Testament appeared in the 
(Jhirago Time^ of the 22nd of Alay. In I.SSL' the 
'New English Dictionary,' estimated to make 
13,000 pages in ten volumes, was beguu ; nn the 
H»th of May, 188j. the Revised Version of the Old 
Testament was published ; aud in 1<K)0 the seri< 
of Oxford Classical Texts was commenced. Th»' 
illustrations include, in addition to the Cliart, the' 
first Oxford Sheet Almanack. M074. facsimiles of 
first pages, and views. 

The Deletgntes of the Clarendon Press have long 

contemplated a standard edition of t)ie completttj 
works of Ben Jouson. They have secured the co*T 
o()eration of Prof. C. H. Hcrford and of Mr. Percy 
Simpson, who has been engaged for ten years or 
more on a critical examination of Jonson n text. 
The forthcoming edition will be printed uniformly 
with the editions of Kyd aud Lyly recently issueal 
from Oxford, and will probably occupy nine 8vo 
volumes. We wish the Delegates could see their 
way to issue an edition of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
the Tudor dramatists who call most conspicuously 
for republication. 

^otijcfs lot Corrtspoiibfuti. 

We must call aptcM attention to th« foUowin 
nolicct :— 

Od all communications must be written the name 
and addrea of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written ou a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer anf 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answea 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previ^n 
entries in the |iaper, contributors are requested ta] 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exaoti 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

R. P. H. (" Historical and Mnemonic Rime").— 

"The Romans in England long held sway " is given 

in full S'^ S. V. 18. It is by John Collins, and called 

The Chapter of Kings.' fcce also ' liislorical 

Rime,' y S. xi. 209. 

S. Smith (" Pathology "). —Any bookseller will 
get you a cheap medical dictionary. 
CxRVKULrH.— " Difler from " is preferable. 


. Editorial communioations should be addresaed 
to I he fcditor of 'Notes and Queries'"— Ad ver- 
tjseraenis and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
LLn" e'c'' *'^'^ ^^^^' •'*"*'"'■ Bui'^iing*. Chancery 
We beg leave to sUt« that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
pnnt ; and to this rule we oaa make no exccptioo 

10* 8. 1. Jan. 23. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


m riOTBB >.«n ULBUIiMlref t>j poit Ji lu> ttf. taratx K«alkai 
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ANCESTRY, English, Scotch, Irish, and American, 
TUACBU frnm KTATB BBOOaB*. SpwiUltn : Wert of BsKlend 
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Eieter, ani) J, Vpham Pu-k. lUMd, CbUwIek, Loadaa. W. 

L. Cl'LLBl'UN, «, riccadlUr, Loadoa. 

[ERALDIC ENGRAVING, Book-Plates, Seals, 
IHn, Mote Itptt.Ae. Sptclml uieatiaa (iTta lo aecuncr of 
YUITING CAJUD8: Kngnrcd Capper-plal* tad 10 beil qUlU} 

CULL£rruN'8. K. riKadUlr. LOBdoB. 



at !T Md 5», Weit S»rd »)rMI, M»« Vork, aail «. BBDPOUD iSTBHrr, 
LONUUM, W.C.. dMite lo ull ue atteatisa of the UEAUINO 
fUBLIO la ta> «««llcBt Uclllilas prewBKd t>7 Ih«lr Bntai'k Hovh la 
LeMoa for DlliBC, aa ttia mm liTOuribIc ccrme. order* far tkeir 

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SBW mSCOVBItlBS la tb« fORl'M aad tbe ARCB.t:0 




FlUa TBAUB aad lb* VNlO.NtST PARTY. 

pUad, aa matter oB what 8eb|«eL Ackaosledftd ibr world arar 
aath* Boctfiotrt BoakSBderericuii. Pl»ucii*ta waai*.— t 
Sraat Booktbop, 14-11, JokaBrlghtSlnet. Blrailackam. 


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rirtk. Uul). Pan I. 
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In A Toll. Toll. I. Bnd II. 8vo, Bi. Od. net oacb. 
DAILY A'£ir.y.~"Tbkt Uipy aro wr1tt<^n tiy Mr. Paal li but to My l}i*t they are brllUnnlly written. There li not m 

dull chapter In the whole- : tb« p«i;i-« Khtlir anil sparkle like • jeweller'i ihop window Mr. Paul ha* a ttory to t«lt of 

I>rD(ound and far-reacbtng Jntt-retit, and be tells It with a capaolty for manhaltlDf; faet*. a jadgmeDt of men anii thlcgr, 
>n einpha»l« upon the nuttcra of grvat Import, which make thla narrative a work of more Itiaa lrau»ltory lutereat." 


The DYNASTS: a Drama of the 

Napoleuulc Wiin. In Three Part*. Ifiael«aa A«t«, and 
One Hundred an<l Thirty Scene*. By THOMAS 
HABDY. Part FIrtt, Crown 8ro, «i. eif. net. 

The DIVINE VISION, and other 

Foemi. By A. B. Crown Svo, 3<. net. 

DAILY NEWS— "A. book of beautiful rene "The 

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gentle mnaio. It i> oae o( the lew blaeaomi iu the Iitermr7 
gardan of laat year." 




Willi Memoir and Notes, Ac. by W. M. ROSSETTI. 
Orown 8to, green doth, 7«. id. 



other Vcnw*. Lly A. B, PATEBSON. Crown 8vo, ««. 



Crown 8vo, gilt top, ft». 


SUSSEX. By E. V. Lucas. With 

Illuitratlon* by FBBDBRICK L. QHIQOa. Bxtn 
crown Bvo, with flat b«ck and gilt top. 6«. 





CIIILDRBII. Illuatratcd by the Author. Medium 8ro, 
■aleen cloth, 10*. t4. net. 

ENOLISfl MEjV op letters.— I'isiv/ Series. 

J £ REM 7 TAYLOR. By Edmund 

GOSSB, M.A. LL.D. Grown Sto. gUt top, Hi. uat. 


JVlOB If. Anainkl ^ub*cr1pUua, poat Um^ it4. 


lUoiUntcd. rrlc« li. 4i Aiinaiil 6at>Krlptlun. poi( free, lOi. 
Tt.r ■-•■ ■• r. HtCVCLB Sf Joeepb rrniwil. Ptrtaroi br 

Til i-lllP wllh u *«CBIU0A3« FAMILY. IV. 

ItX Vr. M ThMk«f«f- 

V; U." ?4"i'»II1?^'.o. *•«*" »» ■•"• call of ih« 

.i» othtr ■url«» «U ArttolM ol Oeaeral UteieM. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo*^ 8. i. Jak. 30. low. 



IB Ututtntlont in Collotype aad PhotoKnivurfl. Bdltlon Umtt«d to 330 Cople*. at. 13m. 6d. net. 

Nearly a oentury bu elap^d tlaoe Fitulkner A^t publf«bed hl« ' Hiitory o( Otielw*,' aod, kitbougb teroral booki 
hkve liuoe Uwn written, noitiing like a complere hittory nf tlie Old Church, io which the chief lat«rrtc of thli exlra- 
nrillnkry pariih wm centred, but aa Tot b«en terloudy attemptiNl. A cuefut ituily not oulv of llie motiumenta, the P&rUta 
Hrgrliters, and other local reoordt, but also of toine two hundred dooainenta, hai ennlilt^d Mr. Davie* to record a blitory o( 
lliB Churcb, and of the principal houirt in the old villasA. which goea far beyond anything (hit biii yet appeared. 

In arrarinlnc tlile ma«i of new matter in a rradabte form Mr. Davie* bai bad the cmtlauoui auiilaaoa o( Hr. 
UBKBKKT F. HOKNE. wh»alio write* a ebort preface. 

The I'/JUh'S Kiiyt:—" Will d«llf(bt the luver of comely form as muuh as It will interest the antiquary. U la a moat 

Kalnttaklii<{ ami icbolarly atiidv, and abowt how much of fntarett and value oiay be eatrik.'te<l by cimpetenl handt * It 
I a churcb iit the dcitd.' Mr. t)«vie* make* tbem lire agtin, aad recjoilruct* old Obelaea around the ubarob Borlohe<l 

itb a lerltfi of admirable taeliotypet." 



HODBKN TIMES. BY KARL MAIfTZlUJ. Introduction by WILLIAM AitCUBB. Numeroui IlluttraUon*. 
Demy Svo, lOt. net each Vol. 

Vol. I. The BARI.IBST TIMBS. 65 Itlaitrationi 

Vol. II. The MIDDLU AOBd and RBNAIS8AKCB. U lUuetrattont. 

NOTSS and Q t! k'KlSS.—" One of the mott Intereatine and valuable contribntloni that bare i>««n made Unlike 

Almoit alt previoui work* Mameroai tllu«tnvtlon«, manv of tbem o( great beauty and value... ....May be rooummeiitted 

At the bandiomest, mo*l trustworlby, and moit reftdable." 





CBNTUBY. FUBD LECTUKKd, 190.3. Large crown Bvo, buckram, gilt, top, 1 vol. Sr net. 
DUCKWORTH k CO. 8, Henrietta Street. W.C. 

[titidj/ immuiiately. 

C K: 

to NUTK8 4iii> UL'BHIIIA irM by (Min !• \Vi >.(. (or »ii Menibi ; 
orXu M. fnrTwelt* Maotba.lnel«*lti( th« rolomr Indri -^OMN C. 
FKaMCia, WiUi anW QiMnu utfie*, lit««m't BalldiS||t,Cauieary Last. 

J tST rVBUSlUU. Prtee it. pMt fiM. 


It* Hk«t«r7 ftad Itavelopmeni. 
VlihSCo'niirrd VI.U-. roni|irl.lAr 17 l««(rain» of ibe Flag. Beeend 
IdlUi a wUb »di Itii aa. Mto. «r»|ip«. IMS. 



If ot Ilooki. Ilkmplilfl*. ±c . r'UUiic to lAe Ooubit of Bomcrwt. 
WIUi fDll lB«ex. }lT EHaMVBl, OBBKN, FBA. 3 toIi 4IO, 
Wa pp. M. It. 

R.iRSICorr ft PBAHCn. Tanaton. 
RAUUIMG. Oraat UoMcU Btrut, W.a 

TENTH XUITIOM, pHc* Two ShUlkafi. 

pKLESTIAL MOTIONS: & Handy Book of 

\.J Asiromimj Tenih Edition. WIUi a flaiw. Br W. T. LYMM. 
&a. rjt.a.s 
*■ Wall kaowaa* oa* of aar beat utrodactioai toaatroBemr." 

■AKltOM LOW ft CU. Bl. Imulaa'a KeaH. retter Laae, BC. 

FtlJlllCia frtBMr of t»4 tlK^H^vm. ,Vrt>« m* Umtw.. At: . It 
prmcra^ w BUIIICIT MTIMATBa tar aU klada ol UouK, ^B'Wfi 
aa^ raiUOOIOAX riUMTlMO.— U, Uraam t SaUdiao. Cteaean 

pUa4.a» maiMroB what Sah)*«t aikBo»j<ut«a th« 'aerld orar 
ta lh« m«at .(part Haontadara •atant. ftrair tttia vaau.— HftJLKK'B 
SraatBoohahop,!*-!*. Joba Jirifhtstract. BixnuBcaaB. 

" Biainlna weM jamr Mood. B« 

From Joba (itOaant doUi bdac bl*p«4l|TM."— Su.aBrcisa. 

ANCBSTRY,BDgU»h, Sootcb, Irish, and American, 
TKACRD (rom BTATB KiKX]KD«. ipmlaUtr : WB.t ot Baataad 
and Katictaat ranlUaa— Mr. RaTNELL^CPKaU, M. UiUon RoaO, 
Bxetar, and I, Tpham rark Uaad, CaOiwtdk, Leadoa, W. 


-L L. CUU.BTDM, n, r\.txmA\\\j, Londoa. 

Die*, Now Pap«r, ftc Hiieclal tcienuaa (i.ea %» aceanay e( 
bataldic doiall 

VUnOMO CAJiDS: KairniTtd Coppar pitta aoJ W IWU oaUty 
Carta, a*. 

CILLKTOM'8. K. FtetadUlf. Loodaa. 


A (Th* LMAOBNUALI. PllBSa Ud . l^iMUharaaod rnaun, 

•0. Lmdnkall Mreat. londoa. K i 
Coatataa tvairlaii pipar, of«r «tileh cb« paa ilipt with portaet 
(r*adoin. wtxpancc tacK («. per doioB, nuel er plus. X»t> Voekat 
Bit*. At. pordoMs. rulad or plain 

aatAor* ahoiild aota that The LcaJcoliall Freia. Ltd . eaBBM ha 
rttpeoatM* for thaloaa of Bt* or otbtrwiaa. Iia^lota coplaa 
tboald bi rtcalbad. 

STICEPHAST PASTE is miles better ttiaA Gum 
tar alloblar ID Rrrsr.i loiamr Fapara, ftc, *" '''■' •»■''• "lUk 
tcroai, taatai >'r •• *««J two tcaoip. •«tc« 

tor a laBBla 


aj» • 
lirnafa Factory, ^• 
^LatloDara. BtlcAph.. 


'r UN BRIDGE WELLS.-Comfortably FlfK- 

Uulat, plaaMni. aad caBiiai Thrt« miauua' vBlk fiom B.ILU ft C. 
atauoo. Ko otbara laaaa.-K. IL, Ct, Orote HIU Moad, TaaMMca 


M* s. 1 jax. 30^ 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


LO.fOOy, SATURDAY, JAKVAUr 30, 190k. 


NOIBS : -BlbltoKrapby nf Publishing Kticl fioolueUlnf. M 
-The Trei«iri.y B»li«d, M-IrUb-prioted PUys, W-»The 
Fotiut)» ThMtre In 1<V4&— Curioui Inscription— Purlieu : 
Bon -rake : Biick-lesp, b6— Hnllcv'i Comet, 8«. 

QUBItlKS: -French Miniature I'alntcr - Crahbe Biblio- 
graphy — Robert Cattiby — Romui Lsnx — Roman and 
Cbrl«iian Cbronolojjy, M— " Firte. itA cul vide" — llowanl 
Anil Dr;<len Famillei— Bpltaph on Sir John Svymour— 
But BaMlu— William Hartley — " Down, little flutturei ! " 
-Thompton of Boui^btoii— John Lewis, Portrait Pafnt«r 
-Henrietta M. U. SmytblcA— Dutcb Fiihermen in BiHtnb 
iTatcn, 8* — Batrtmie— Addlsoti'a Daugliter— Mc«iaU " au 
aled do isangller"— " Commliiion "— " P. P., Clerk of tbc 
Parish." 8». 
.JPLJBj:— Ooml.<>r K<Tn(ly -St. Mary Axe: S». Michael 
.le yueruB, B(*-Pronun<tliillnn of K«rHljcb— Mary. Queen 
of bc-its. Bv— Tiiieswell and Tirieslnw, Ol— • 0.\ffr.l Uolver- 
•Ity Calendar '— "' Meynes " aihI " Rbioi'i •"— ■• Chaperoned 
by h>w father." yS—Wi'ikt- Country Fair— Capl. Death— 
Hol'KoMUi's Claws — "Ci'llectioner," 91 — "Ai merry at 
Orlitcs" — Grammar; Nine Purls of Speech — Veto at 

iJPapal Blectlont ~ Field-name*, West Haddon, M— The 

F"Wykehttmical Wor<l "Toys" — Sadler* Wells PUy — 
Ktchanl Hash, S14 — Pecirtib-Kous or Bowse Family — 
••C>>"«tBnlwie Pthbte" — Krror iu 'Pollphili FlypDeroto- 
macbia'— Cardlgau a* a Sarnanie— Salep or SaIo(S 97 — 
" Ln»t. In n cnnvBiit's solitary ({Uioni "—Blrcb-sap Wine. 93. 

NOTKS ON BOOKS -Sctitt'i-AdmUsions to tijr College 
of St.. John the KiangrlUl, Cambriilge'— lliitohlnson's 
'Songs of the Vine '—Stroud 'a 'Judicial Dictionary of 
Wonts and Pbr«i«i'— 'Poems of Ixird de Tabley' — ^Ber- 
nard'o ' Cathedral Cboreh of St. Patrick '— Tboyts's ■ How 
to Deolpber Old D «uinenti ' — ' RecorJ uf the I'pper 
ITorwnod AtbeniFUro.' 

Notices to Correspondents, 



*'/» llitut dayt, till onliiiari/ huloriex of kiugx 
<ind couri-iffM were tct/t exchauytil auainxt ihr. if nth 
pari of one gooil Hii^ory of Book's*:Uern."'-i2tix\'^\t, 
Review of BobwoU'b 'Johnwjn,' Frant.rn Mnun.-,m(, 
No. 'is (' Essays,' Poojilo's Edition, voL iv. p. H4). 

In the following contrlbutioti towards the 
Bibliography of Publishing and Bookselling, 
mainly referring to Great Britain and the 
Uaiteid States of America, it ha-s been my 
intention to enumerate those books, <fec., that 
deal solely or mainly with the subjects of pub- 
lishing and bookselling, and not to include 
works on literary history or memoirs. The 
three principal exceptions are also the three 
greatest works of their kln<i in the language 
— Boswell's ' Johnson,' Lockhart's ' Scott,' and 
Trevelyan's ' Macaulay.' 
■ In each of these such a considerable space 
is occupied by the transactions with, or rela- 
tions between, authors and publishers, that 
thev n>ay fairly claim a place in any list of 
booKH dealing with the history of what Tal- 
fourd calls "the Great Trade."* There is, 
however, hardly any work of literary bio- 
graphy, from Gibbon's ' Autobiography ' to 

* ' Finftl Memoriala of Charles Lamb ' (new edit., 
1850), p. 179. 

* The Life of Mra. Oliphant,' that will not 

f[ield material bearing on the subject of pub- 
ishers and publishing. 

The largest collection of books devoted to 
the subjects of book-producing and book- 
selling in all its fnany branches will be 
found in the library of the Borsenverein der 
Deut^chen Buchhiindler at Leipzig. The 
catalogue of this library is in 2 vols. (Vol. I., 
1885 ; Vol IL, 19*32), and contains several 
thousands of titl&s ot works in all languages. 
I am considerably indebted to this catalogue, 
although I had nearly finished my list before 
I had the opportunity of consulting it. 

Works on printing and the production of 
books are only noted when they contain 
matter bearing incidentally on publishing 
or Ixwkselling. Works on copyright, book- 
collecting, and the sport of bocuc-huQliDg 
are not included systematically. 

Works dealing with the freedom of thepress, 
actions for libel, or prosecutions for pub- 
lishing blasphemous or seditious books are 
not systematical Ij^ included. They form a 
very large section in the Leipzig catalogue. 

A 'Bibliography of Journalism and its 
History,' by Mr. IJ. Williams, will be found 
in Mitchell's 'Press Directory' for 1903. 

The 'D.N.B.' is cited, as it contains much 
material, with references to authorities, 
under the names of booksellers and pub- 
lishers who are not the subject of separate 
volutnes. A list of these names may perhaps 
one day be compiled. With three exceptions, 
other biographical dictionaries are not noted. 
Ackermann, Edward.— A Bookseller by Choice. 
(The Bookaeller and Newamau.) Seiitember, 
1S99, New York. 
Aldine Magazine, The. 1838. 

Wllllnin West (j.r.) coutTitiute<l a series ot artk-li-s ui\ old 
I Kx ik»<l lom. 

Allen, C. E. — Publishers' AocounU, including a 
ConaideratioD of Copyright. 8va, LuiidoH, 1897. 
Almon, John, 1737-1H05.— Metnoirsof John Almon, 
BookBeller, of Piccadilly. 8vo, Louduii, 1700 
Famous ns John '\S'ilkes's publUlier. 

Ames, Joseph, 1689-1758.— TvpKjgraphJcal Araiqui- 
tics, being an Historical Account of Printing in 
England, Memoirs of the Ancieul Printers, and 
a Rejriftter of Ro'jka printed by them from 1471 
to 1600. 4to, London, 1749. 
See Lo«rnd«». 

Atnory, Thomas. 1601 ?- 1788.— Life of John Buncle, 
Esq., 1756 6U. 
Aniori,' WB,? a U-w.kMiller In Lnndnn anil Dublin. ' John 
Bunclo'^ contains fmguicuts uf autobiogrnpby, n cliaractor 
of Bdtuiind Curl I. Ac. 

Andrews, W. L.— The Old Book-wllers of >fpw 
York (.lolm Brudburn, Joaepb tSabin, William 
GowAns). .„«... 

8c« the J'nttiuUrt' W<fMu (Now York), vol. alia. No. 10; 
vol. xlvlll. No. 20i vol. xlv'il. No. 16. 

Annuals. „ _ ....», i ,. 

8m> -The Annuals of Former Day* III tbc ItovkHtlir, 
20 Novcmlicr aikd IH IXvcinlH-*-, IftoS, 




[lO" S. I. Jan. 30, 1904. 

Appleton's Cyclopiedia of American Biography. 
6 vols.. Now York, 1887-9. 

Arber, Edwani. — List of London Publiahera, 1533- 
1G40. 8vo, London, 1889. 
Anfl »co ' C»t»lojfuc-4 ' ami ' SI »tioner»' Company.' 

Arohieologia, vol. xxix. p. 101.— Copies of OriRiual 
Pa|:cra illustrative of tho Manai^ement of Lit«ra- 
ture by l'rint«rs anil Stationers in the Middle 
of tho" Reign of Queen Elizabeth. CVunmuni. 
cated by (Sir) Hoory Ellis. 4to, London, ISai. 

Athpnseuir), The, publishe<l weekly, 1829 — 
S<w tlin.iiiK!i':"-it fcr oMtaar>' notices, ie. 

Author, The, published monthly, 1890— 

Authors and Publishers a Degcription of Pub- 
lishing Methods and Arrangonienta. Fourth 
Edition. New York, 1855. 

Bagster.— A Century of Publiahing: a Chat with 
Mr. Robert Bagster. With lUustrationa and 
3 Portraits.— St. James's Budget, 27 April, 1891. 
Bagster, The, Publishing House : Centenary 
of the Ba^ator Publishing Mouse, established 
19 April, 1794. Crown 8vo, London, ISM. 

Ballantync, House of. 

Sco LocUhart'.s ■ .Scott," pmiJtur. 

A Refutation of the Miastatcmenta and 
Calumnies contained in Mr. Lockharl's Life of 
8ir Walter Scott respecting the Messrs. (James 
and John) Balliintyno. By the Trustees and 
Son of the late James Ballantyne. 8vo, Loudon, 

The Ballantyne Humbug Handled. By John 
Gibson Locklmrt. 8vo, Edinburgh, 1S,39. 

Reply to Mr. Lockhart's Pamphlet entitled 
'The Ballantyne Humbug Handled.' By the 
Authors of 'A Refutation of the Misstatementa 
and Calumnies,' &c 8vo. London, 1838. 
"Mr. J. H. KutherfoH, iKXikftcllcr of Kolso, who rtlwt In 
No%'cinbor, ISKW, axrol ciglity-four. mudo a upofl*] stuijy 
Of the Loektiart-BuUnntvm^ pontrovt-rBV. I have often 
wishorl tliat lit" linri iiuMUli^il his i^oneluiions." — ' Rnuibling 
Boranrks,' hy W. Robertson Nicoll, i?riU»A WtMy, ft Nov., 
And BOO t.n. Foannan (W.). 

History of the Ballantyne Press. 4to, Edia- 
burgh, 1871. 
Beotley, House of.— Some Leaves from the Past. 
Swept together by R. B. With 11 Portraits 
and other Illustrations. 8vo> privately printed, 
With references to oriRiiiBl authoritlPii. 

Richard Bentley and Son. By Ernest Ches- 
neau. Reprinted from 'LuLivre'of October, 
1885. With some additional Notes. With 3 
Illustrations. Privately ikrinted. royal 8vo. 

Richard Bcutley. 179* 1871.— The BooksoUer 
(p. 811). Ib7l. 
Bent's Literary Advertiser. 1802-60. 
Sc« lliroii(fhout for obituary notici-f, 4c. 

Berjeau. Jean Philil>ert.— The Book-worm : a Lite- 
rary anfl llibliosraphical Review. 5 vols 
London. ]8(J«-71. * 

Besaut, Sir Waller —The Pen and the Book. 8vo 
London. 181K). ' 

Literary Hsndmaid of tho Church (ilie 
S.P.C.K.). Crown 8vo, London, 1890. 
And aeo Iho volumes ol tdo .'Jti<A.:ir, 18(0— 

Bibliogrnpher. The, a Journal of Book-Ioro. Edited 
by Ilonry B. \V hcatley, 5 vobi., London, 

8cc luiituMtUroughoiit. 

Bingley, William, 1738-1799. 
Bingley, Bookseller. 

Bibliographica. 3 vols. 4to, London, l.y95-7. 

An Elizabethan Bookseller (Ldwanj Blount, 
15W-?). By Sidney Ue. Vol. i, p. 474. 

Two References to the English Book-lrado, 
cirra 1.525. Vol. i. p. 'iffl 

Tho Booksellers at tho Sign of the Trinity. 
By E. Gordon Duff. Vol. i. p. 93, p. 175. 

English Book-salos, 1670-llJSO. By A- W. 
Pollard. Vol. i. p. 373. 

The Long Shop in the Poaltry, By H. J. 
Plomer. vol. ii. p, (Jl. 

The Early lulian Book-trade. By K. 
Gamett. Vol. iii. p. 29. 

Bibliophobia : Remarks on the Present Languid 
and Depressed State of Literature aitd the 
Book-trade. In a letter addressed to the author 
of the ' Bibliumauia.' By Mercurios Rusticus. 
With Notes by Cato Parvus. London, 1S3'.'. 

(Uigg, James.)— The Bookselling System, a letter to 
Lord Campbell respecting the late inquiry into 
the regulations of the Booksellers' Association 
in reference to the causes which led to ita 

dissolution and the conset^uences to author* 

likely to result from unrestnoted competition 
in the sale of new works. By a Retired Book- 
seller. Westminster, ISo'i 

-A Sketch of W. 
With Portrait and a Pro- 
spectus of his Proposed Renrint of Nos. l-4ft 
of the 'North Briton.' London. 1793. 

The New Plain Dealer; or, \Vill Freeman's 
Budget, 1791-94. 
Contain!) autoliioKinphicAl (1ctNll«> 

Black. Adam, 1784-1874.— Memoirs of Adam Black. 
Edited by Alexander Nieolson, LL.D. With 
Portrait. Second Edition. Crown Svo, Edin- 
burgh, 1885. 

Blackie, W. G.— Origin and Progress of the Firm of 
Blaokie & Son, I8tl9 1874. Svo, London, 1S97. 

Blackwood, House of.— Annals of a Publishinjf 
House : William Blackwood and his Sous, 
their Magazine and Friends, By Mrs. Olijihant. 
With 4 Poitraila. Vols. I. and IL 8vo, Edin- 
. 1897. 

Vol. III. John Blackwoo<L By his Daughter, 
Mrs. Gerald Porter. With 2 Portraits. Svo, 
Edinburgh, 1S9S. 

The Bookseller, 2G June, 27 August^ 26 Sep* 
tembcr, 18G0. 

The Critic. 7 July, I860, an 1 ' ressivo 

weeks— a series of articles by 1 -l-. 

Tho Bookman, special artich riraits, 

Ac. November, 1901. 

Blackwood's Magazine. — A Letter to Mr. 
John Murray, occasioned by his having under- 
taken the publication in London of 'Black- 
wood 9 Magazine.' 1818. 

Correspondence on the Subject of 
wo<id'« Magazine.' ? 1818. 
Bohn, Henry George, 1796-1881.- T 
1884 : Athcnaum, 30 AwgiiBt, i 
S'-'ftcmbcr, 1SS4 ; Bibliographi i 

^^^ ** April, l»a: «u(1 Lawl«r'» •Bo<ik 

Book The, of EoKliHh Tmdea : the Bookbinder. 
L?i"^''A''""'. ^^e Printer, 4c. New Edition, 
W2A Q^^^'-'o"' ^or Stttdouta. 12mo, London^ 




io«s.LJA5f.3o.i9w.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Bookkeeping. A Manaal of, for Booksellers, Pub- 
liehers, and Stationers, on the priuciule of 
Single, converted periodically into Double 
Entry. By a Bookseller. 8vo, London, ISoO. 

Book-lore ; a MngaxiDc devoted to Old-Tjine Litera- 
ture. 4 vole., London, 1884-6. 
Be* Imlf^es Jhromjlunit. 

'Bookman,' The, Directory of Rookaeliora, Pub- 
lishers, and Authors. 4to, London, 1893. 

Book-Prices Current. Being a Record of the Prices 
at which Books have been sold at Auction, the 
Titles and Descriptions in Full, the Names of 
the Purcha.«era, kc. Vols. L to XVIL 8vo, 
London, 1887-190.3. 

Index to the First Ten Volames of Book- 
Prices Current (1887-1896). Constituting a 
Reference List of Subjects and, incidentally, a 
Key to Auonyn)ou3 and Pseudonymous Litera- 
ture. Svo, London, 1897. 

Bksoller, The, 1S5S- , „ .„ , , 

'if. Mr. Wiltaker, 
'•■iihivo eolItictUm of 

Ufa. Ac, relalluft to 

ilio irii'!'.- "l 111' Mviiiii ciitii, t'ij;iiicriilh, aiid uini'tcoiitli 


Booksellers' Association. 1SS2. 

See l^htiihert' Circular, 15 April and 1 Juno, lSo2 ; also 
Ji.ii. 3. W. Piirker au<l Jolui Cbapinjui, 
BookBelling.— The (Jovemnient Bookselling Ques- 
tion. Memorial to the Chancellor of the 

Exchcouer on with Corresjioudence and 

Remarks. Svo, London, 1853. 

On the Pablication of School - books by 
Government at the Public Expense : a Corre- 
spondence with Lord John Russell. Svo, 
London, ISoI. 
Bookselling Question, The [i.e.. Underselling] : 

Additional Letters. Svo, London, 1852, 
Book-trade Association (Baltimore, U.S). Con- 
stitution and By-Laws. lUmo, Baltimore, U.S. 


Boston.— Early Boston (U.S.) Bookaellera, l(M2-171l 
(ClubofOddVolumea). Svo, Boston (U.S.). 1U'.)0. 
Boawell, James, 1740-95.— The Life of Samuel John- 
son, LL.D. 
Seo IhruURbout. 

Bonchot, Henry.— The Book: its Printers, Illus- 
trators, and Binders, from Uoienberg to the 
Present Time. With a Treatise on the Art of 
collecting and describing Early Printed Bfxjke, 
and a T^Atin- English and Rngliah-Latin Topo 

Brotherhead, W.— Forty Years among the Book> 
sellers of Philadelphia, Svo, Philadelphia, 1,S91. 

Brown, Horatio R. F., I8.^1903.-The Venetian 
Printing Press ; an Historical Study. 4to, 
London, 1891. 
CodIaIds covcrU chapters on the iKwk-tnulc of Venice, tlto 

Ums o( cnpyrlgUi, Ac., during the ilxtcoutli nuct scvt'iilccndi 


Wm. H. Peet. 
{To be continued.) 


origin of this ballad h&a recently 

numerous Borders, Initials, Head and Tail 
Pieces, and a Frontispiece. Royal Svo, London, 

Bowos, Rol)ert— Biographical Notes on the Printers Cunibridiie. A lieprint from the Cam- 
bridge Anli(iu(\rian .Society's Communicatiou?, 
Vol. V. No. 4. (Privatelyprinted.) Cambridge, 

Britton.Joli '"' ' '7.— The Rights of Literature; 
or. an I » the Poli<^y and Juatico of 

the Clin iiiii Public Librttrios on all the 

PnblishcMMiii Authors of the United Kingdom, 
for Eleven Copies, nn the Best Paj)cr, of every 
V " ' • ^ London. 1814. 

: •! Uj t)ii« nsluction of Uic 
u (' DJi.n.'). 

formefl a subject of discussion in the Time«. 
The point at issue wag whether the ballad 
was altogether Hawker'B, or whether he 
worked on sotne traditional verses. Several 
years ago I gave a summary in columns 
of the question as it stootl at the date of 
writing (7"" S. X. 264), but as the corre- 
spondents of the Time* had evidently not 
consulted * N". «fe Q.,' and some information of 
considerable value has since been brought to 
notice, I will, at the risk of repetition, ask 
the Editor's permission to place on record 
the indisputable facts of the case, so far as 
the\' are known at present. 

The poem made its first appearance in the 
Hot/a I Devonjiort Tdegixtph and Pbjmouth 
Cfironicle for 2 September, 1826. and was 
beaded, "Ballad written at the time one of 
the Trelawny family was committed to the 
Tower, in the time of James IL The circum- 
stances described in it are historically true." 
Althoughthe ballad was printed anonymouslj", 
the name of the writer was ascertaiue<] by 
the distinguished Cornish antiquary Mr. 
Davies Gilbert, P.R.S-, and being greatly 
struck with the verses, ho printed off some 
fifty copies, in broadside form, at his private 

Sress at Eastbourne. Very few of these 
roadsides seem tc) have survived, but from 
one in my possession I transcribe the follow- 
ing heading, with all its eccentricities of 
punctuation, Jtc. : — 

"Ajtd Shall Trelawnt Dik! 
"The Strong Sensation excited throughout Eng> 
land, by that decisive act of Bigotry Tyranny and 
Impruaence on the part of King James the second, 
by which he committed the Seven Bishops to tho 
Tower was in no district more manifestly displayed 
than in Cornwall; notwithstanding the part taken 
by that county in the iireccding Civil War. This was 
probably, in a great degree occnsioncd by sympathy 
with a most respected Cornish GentlcroBn. then 
Bishop of Bristol; as apriears from the following 

s. — •■■ md irodernixea and improved by Rohorti 

S . ] Hawker Esq. of n'hilstone. This 

S I to have resounded in every House, in 

every Hv^h Way, and in every Street." 

Mr. Gilbert also communicated the ballad 
to the Gmtleiitana Miig<^i:inf for November. 
1827, vol, xcvii. p. 409, where it waa ^^^fe^^.'sJwiRk. 


nO*S. LJa.s.30, 1901.' 



anonymously and attracted the notice of Sir 
Walter Scott. In 1838 Mr. Gilbert reprinted 
it in his 'Parochial History of Cornwall,' 
from which an extract containing the verses 
VM given in Chambers's 'Book of Days,' 
18G4, vol. i. p. 747. 

In 1832 Mr. Hawker, who had been ordained 
in 1829, published a small volume of poems 
called ' Records of the Western Shore,' in 
which he inserted the ballad under the title 
of ' The Song of the Western Men,' and pub- 
licly avowed himself to be the author. Mr. 
Hawker'8 explanation was as follows: — 

" Wiih the exception of the chorus contained in 
the last two line*, this sonp waa written by me in 

the year 1825 1 |iubli«h it here merely to state 

that it WM an early composition of my own. The 
two lines above mentioned formed, I believe, the 
burtlien of the old 6oag, and are all that I can 

The song was subsequently published in 
^Eccleaia,' and other collections of Mr. 
Hawker's poems. In 'Cornish Ballads,' 1869, 
the explanation was considerably amplified, 
•and ran aa follows : — 

" Note.— With the exception of the choral lines : 
And ahall Trelawny die? 
Iferc 'b twenty thousand Cornishmen 
Will know Ihe reason why ! 
which have been, ever since the imprisonment by 
James the Second of the seven Bibhops (one of them 
Sir Jonathan Trelawny), anoiiular proverb through- 
out Cornwall, the whole of tnis son^ was composed 
by me in the year 182:1. I wrote it under a atas- 
homed oak in bir Bevile's walk in Stowo Wood. 
It was sent by mo anonymously to a Plymouth 
paper, and there i t attracted tlic notice of Mr. Davies 
Gilbert, who reprinted it at his private press at 
Eaat Bourne, under the avowed impression that 
it was the original ballad. It had the good fortune 
to win the eulogy of Sir Waller Scott, who also 
deemed it to be the ancient souk- It was praised 
under the same perBuasion by Lord Macaulay and by 
Mr. Dickens, wno inserted it at firetas of genuine 
antiiiuily in his Ilotisehold Wonh, but who after- 
Waraa acknowledgied its actual paternity in the 
same publication." 

It will be seen that Mr. Hawker's memory 
£ailed hitn in one or two unimportant par- 
ticulars, but the main fact, namely, that 
the ballad was his own composition, with 
the exception of the refrain, was, one 
would have thought, established beyond 
further dispute. There were, however, 
"doubting Thomases" who still called for 
the production of the ancient refrain. But 
the lionesty and veracity of Hawker were 
conclusively proved by jVir. John Latimer,* 
who, in a tetter to tlie Aihenctwii of 21 Novem- 
ber, 1891, quoted a contribution to the Jirittol 

* Sinee thia uoto was written literature has hod 
to lament the loss of Mr. Latimer, who died un 
4 January. 

Journal ol 21 July, 1772, entitled "Extract 
of a Letter from a Gentleman at Savanna la 
Mar to his friend at Kingston, Monday, 
April 27," describing the reception of the 
Governor, Sir William Trelawny, when on 
tour through Jamaica. The relevant passage 
is as follows ; — 

"About a century and a half a£o, uiion some 
particular State commotions, one of Sir William's 
ancestors was, on wrong suspicious of the liovem- 
ment, sent to the Tower ol I.rf>ndon, and it was 
declared in Ckirnwall that be was to autTer death. 
The great attachment of the peofilo in general of 
that county was then, as now, »o affcctionntely 
strong to the ancient family of Trcl:i '.> 

[near Weat Looe] that the trnpuiaiion c! 
got the following lines puulisLed in &«■■ , ^..s 
at London: viz. : — 

And must Trelawny die? 

And shall Trelawny die? 

We've thirty thoasand Cornish Boys 

Will know the reason why ! 

West Looe, &c. 
This and some other circumstances so intimidated 
at that time some of the greatest personag<>8 then 
at the helm of our national affairs that SirAVilliam 
Trelawny's ancestor was soon set at liberty, and aooa 
after arrived at Trelawnv Castle amidst the joyooal 
aoclamatiuna of thousanda." 

Mr. Latimer gave good reasons for think-| 
ing that the lines referred to John Trelawny, 
who was ordered by the House of Commons 
to be imprisoned in the Tower on 13 May, 
1627, and was released about six weeks later. 
Granting this to be the case, we may siipi 
the lines lingered in the memorr of the 
peasantry, and were revived when tfie Bishop 
of Bristol was sent to the Tower sixty years 
afterwards. John Trelawny, who was created 
a baronet in 1U28, was the grandfather of tlie 
bishop, Sir Jonathan Trelawny, who iti his 
turn was the great-uncle of Sir \Viiliam 
Trelawny. the Governor of Jamaica. The 
lines probably survived as a family tradi- 
tion, and in this manner came to the ears 
of the writer in the BrUtol Jourtial. The 
main point, of course, is that the existence 
of a traditional refrain, which was still 
popular in 1772, is fully established, and 
that no reason whatever remains for casting 
any doubt upon the truth of the statements 
prefixed by Hawker to the current versions 
of the ballad. W. F. Pbidk-^ux. 

Irish-pbinted Plays.— In the Joly collec- 
tion in the National Library here I fiml a 
copy of a ballad opera called ' Calista,' by 
"Mr. Gay," printea in Dublin in 1731, as 
intended for the theatres in London, but 
seemingly not acted. According to tho 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' Gay, 
towards the close of 1731, had "a sort of 



scheme to raise his finances by doing some- 
thing for the stage," a possible allusion to 
'Calista'; but as nothing is known reganJ- 
ing the piece tlie ascription is probably 
erroneous. The Dublin booksellers of the 
first half of the eighteenth century frequently 
resorted to mean de\nces to further sales, and 
occasionally tacked on the name of a popular 
author to a play about whose ownership 
there was any doubt. 

In the library of Trinity College I find a 
Dublin cop3' (printed in 1734) of James 
Miller's comedy ' The Mother-in-Law ; or, tlie 
Doctor the Diaea-se,* which is ascribed on 
the title-page to "H. Fielding, Gent." 

In Trinity College there Is also a copy of 
an anon^'mous comedy in two acts, printed 
in Dubhn for Thomas Wilkinson, as acted 
at Smock Alley, without date, called 'The 
She Gallant ; or. Square Toes Outwitted.' 
The ca-st says "Delamour by the author," 
showing that the play was written bj' an 
actor. The ' New Theatrical Dictionary ' 
(London, 17!)2) given the Dublin printed date 
as 1767. In the Trinity College Catalogue 
'The She Gallant' is entered as the work of 
O'Keeffe, and it is probably identical with 
the play spoken of in the record of O'Keeffe 
in the 'Diet. Xafc. Biog.' as the five-act (?) 
comedy of ' The Gallant' But if, according 
to the account, the play was produced in 
Dublin when the author was fifteen, the 
year of performance would bo 1762. 

As I cannot find that Garrick's entertain- 
ment of 'The Jubilee,' originally performed 
at Drury Lane in 176D, was ever printed in 
England, it may possibly be worthy of note 
that under the title 'The Jubilee in Honour 
of Shakespeare' the piece was acted at 
Waterford m 1773, and printed there in that 
year. A copy of this is m the Joly collection 
m tlio National Library. At Waterford the 
Dart of the Irishman, originally played by 
Moody, was taken by Brownlow Forde, an 
ex-clergyman, and a scion of the Fordes of 
county Down. W. J. La whence. 


Thb Fortune Theatre in 1049. — In 
vol. A 21 of the Informations to the Com- 
mittee for the Advance of Money, on p. 281, 
is the information of Theodore Allen, " that 
Thomas Allein and Raph Allein, Master and 
Warden uf Godsguift Colledge in Dulwich, 
in (Uo County of Surrey, are Delinqufwts," 
and that they did certain improjjer things ; 

"4. thftt wherts'Ae Fortune Playhouse, being a 
.ciemeane of the gaid Colledne, Sc lu lease to one 
1 Lille for the }>iiyu\ettl of litV ixrr annum to tho said 
ICoUedge, he, the taid Mr. Uale, deaired (in regard 

(he St«te hath prohibited stage playing) that he 
might conuert the eaiil jilayhouBo to some other 
V30, whereby he might raise iha Rent dne for (ho 
same ' but thoy refused to suffer him so to doe, but 
will naue Iheir Rent ixiid atill in the nature of 
a Playhowse; w/uVh strange aversions to Ordi- 
nances* of Parlianofnt, ic equity, hathf caused 
tedious ic costly suites, to tho mucht smpovoriahiriK 
of (ho said Colledg, & (wtthout some present 
remedy) to itts vtter vndoing." 


CtTRiou8 Inscription.— My venerable father 
has recently called my attention to a Hat 
stone lying close to Bowdou Parish (Jhurch in 
Cheshire, which is curious because it contains 
an inscription in which the carver has con- 
stantly mistaken A for k and e for a. This 
is the more remarkable as the error is only 
to be found in the part of the inscription 
that relates to one of the people interred 
beneath the atone : in the case of the other 
two names the spelling is correct. The part 
of the inscription referred to is as follows : — 

FAB ANNO 1703. 

No mention is made of this inscription in 
Ormerod's great work on Cheshire. 

T. P. Armstrong. 

Purlieu : 
1882 (G"* S. 

whether the manorial custom which allowed 
the lord certain rights for a prescribed dis- 
tance beyond his boundary was still generally 
recognized. As no reply appeared, the fol- 
lowing particulars may find a place. 

In the parish of Duftield, Derbyshire, is 
an estate called Shottle Park, which was 
formerly part of the great forest or chase 
called Duftield Frith. It was disparked^ 
however, and convertetl into farms before 
IWO. Adjoining to Shottle Park is an estate 
called Wallstone (within the manor of Aldor- 
wasley and Ashleyhay), which had belonged 
to a family named Cockeraro from the time 
of Charles I. In some of the fields which 
adjoin the fence — Watt Carr, Bakehouse 
Close, and the Three-Nooked Close— stood 
many very large and ancient timber tree*. 
The Duke of Devonshire claimed that he waa 
entitled to a purlieu or border of seven yanla 

Bow - BAKE : Buck - leap. — In 
v. 200) an inquiry was made 

• Printed "proceedings, contrary to the" in the 
Rolls Calendar, i>t, ii. P- 1H3- 
+ Printed " have." 
t Lett ou\. Vu XiWft v^KiA. 

from the park-pale, and in May, 1791, bis 
aguQta entered into Mr. Wm. Cockeram'e 
land and marked eight troea, within that 
space, for falling. Thereupon Cockerano 
employed six men to cut down and remove 
the trees. The Duke then entered an action 
for trespass, which was tried at the Derby- 
shire summer assizer in August, 1792. I have 
seen the brief for the defendants, but not the 
report of the trial. There is a note, how- 
ever, bv one of the legal gentlemen that 5Ir. 
Wm. Cockeram lost his case through his own 
ftdroisnioMs on the trial. 

In Thomas Gill's ' Vallis Eboracensis,' 1852, 
p. 358, we read, under the head of 'Scssay': — 

" Formerly, some five or six hundred acres of tho 
r&rish, lying towards Bratfertuii, conalitut«d an 
ancient park : but, about 120 years ago, the deer 
were reniovea to Oowick, and the park converted 
into farms. The i>ark-f&rni, however, rctaini^ to 
this day one niemento of the purposes to which it 
was originally devotwl, in the continuance of jta 
encircling belt, the bow-rake. This bow-rake, or 
bow-range, sceina to have conferred on the owner 
of the park, by an old feudal law, a right of soil, to 
the extent of a bow-shot, beyond the limits of his 
own manor." 

In 18G6, when there wos^a commission for 
the enclosure of Selatone Common (co. Notts). 
the agents of the Duke of Portland, lord of 
the manor of Kirk by, proposed to claim a 
similar "buck-leap" in respect of the park, 
but I do not know the result. 

It seems most unreasonable that a privi- 
lege which only existed for the sake of game 
should extend to the cutting down of trees 
where there is not, and has not been for 
centuries, any game. See tho article 'Pur- 
lieu' in the Law Dictionaries of Cowel and 

I cannot find "bow-rako" and "buck-leap" 
in the 'N.E.D.' There are a few notes on 
this privileKP, under the head ' Deer-leaT>,' in 
£»'» S. ill 47, 99, 137, 195 ; S"^" S. xiL 186. 

W. C. B. 

Hallev'8 Comkt.— a picture of a jyortion 
of the Bayeux Tajjestry showing the comet 
of Halloy in 1066 is given in * A Handbook of 
Descriptive and Practical Astronomy,' by 
George F. Chambers, i. 438 (Oxford, 188U). 

''La reine Victoria {w>rt«? dang pa cfiir'mnp an 

fifi: '•-■ •• ' ■ , ,, 

la I 

eODilViw, i.^yu). ' ■ " 

Jn 9'^'' S. xii. 125 I rcpoulfd an annouuce- 
ment that the Rusaii imical .Society 

bad undertaken a ca i " witli a view 

to prtKlicting the exact date of tho next 
'^jrn of Ualloy's coraet. A private advice 
'vitaeyoeotljr reacbiog mo roicea the opltiiou 

that " tnalheureusemeut la t&che ontreprise 
ne puisse pas 6tre accomplie" by that iiody. 

Will your astronomical readers kindly 
make additions to the list of authorities 
following, bearing upon the 1910 return 
Halley'a comet 1 

ComjtIfJi ftmdwi HifuloTnatlairtA <lt.* 
rAecuMtuH: dm Sciences, pp. 7(W. 7W, . 


2%^ature, x\. 286-7, 11 Febniarv. 1875. 

Tht Journal of the Britiah A*tr\»i(mtic(U Amocia" 
Hon, xii. IM. 175, 288 (London, IWl). 

Eugene F. McPikb. 

ChioaKOi U& 

We must request correspondents desiring in- 
fornaation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that tho answers may be addreased to them 

FiiENcn Miniature Paixteb. — Will aoj 
reader kindly tell me if there was a FroncB 
miniature painter at tho end of the eighteen th. , 
century whose Christian name or surname 
commenced with Vig ? 

Evelyn Welukotos. 

WooBtoD, Micheldever. 

CiiABBE BiBLiOGRAi'HY.— If any reader CAU 
help me to a collation of the first edition of 
Crabbe's 'The Candidate,' 1780, or aid mo in 
the search for the juvenile |x>ems mentioned 
at the foot of p. 22, vol. i. of the * Life and 
Poems,' 1834, 1 should be very glad if he 
would write to me at the University Press, 
Cambridge, A- It. VV.vllek. 

Robert Catesbv.— Uad Robert Catesby 
(of Gunpowder Plot fame) any descendants t 
Was all his proi>erty, including that of hifl 
family, confiscated by order of the Crown? 
Of what did the property consist ? How i an 
I best find out the above? I shall be glni 
if correspondents will send their replies to 
mo addressed care of l»eardraore«t Co., fi8 and 
81, Cleveland Street, Fitzroy Square, W. 

James Catesby. 

Roman Lanx.— Where is the Roman lanx 
found in 1864 at Welney, in Norfolk, and 
exhibited by Mr. Albert Goodman to the 
Society of Antiquaries on 13 .Tanuarv, lfi70 1 
T. Cxas HuooEs, M.A., F.S.A- 


Roman and CfiRiRTi.\j< Cubonolouy— In 
chap. ix. of the third lx>ok of bis e««ay« 
Monlaiguo gave a copy of the docutoeot 
making him a Roman citizen, and it bfiara 
the following date ; " Anno Ab urbe cundita 

w a. L Jan. 30. iflOi.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


^^331, post Chriatuiu natuin 1581," This 
^Buakes the first year of our era to correspond 
^^^ith tho 750th of the Roman ; but accordiug 
^Bto what appears to be the received view, 
^KA.D. l=A.u.c. 764. How is the discrepancy 
^Bccounted for 1 C J. I. 

f^f [Discussed at great length O*** S. ix., x., xi.. xii., 
' vuder birth of Josus Christ.] 

"FiDK, PED cm VIDE."— In tho early part 
of the seventeenth century this was one of 
the favourite mottoes engraved upon swords 
and rapiers. It occurs, for instance, upon 
four specimens in the Wallace collection, 
Nos. ICO, 344, 500, and 1,046 in tho 'Cata- 
logue* by Mr. G. F. Laking, F.S.A., 1901. I 
have seen a deed, dated in 1055, bearing the 
heraldic seal of Thomas lieaumont, of Whitley 
JIall, CO. York, who afterwards became Sir 
Thomas Beaumont. Under the shield appears 
this same motto, fide sed cvi vide. Did tho 
fieaumont family adopt it ? and if so, when t 

W. C. B. 

HowABD jlSD Dryden Familles.— Cliaries 
Drj'dcn, son of the poet John Drydon by 
his wife Lady Elizabeth (Howard), daughter 
of Henry, Earl of Berkshire, was Chamber- 
lain of the Household in 1694 to Pope Inno- 
cent XII. Ho is said to have taken with 
him to Rome a history of the families of 
Howard and Dryden, written in Latin by 
hia father. Glorious John, which van lodged 
at the Vatican. Is there any record of tiiis 

• document, and is it still in existence? In 
1790 Lady Dryden. the great-great-niece of 
the poet, wrote, " If Rome were not now 
in tho hands of French robbers, who, it is 
feared, have destroyed or carried away all 
the manuscripts in tlio Vatican, I should 
have endeavoured to procure thence a copy 
of this paper." P. D. M. 

»Epitaj'h on Sir Jorx SKVMona.— There is 
A monument in Bitton Church to Sir John 
Seymour, 1GG3. The inscription, being only 

»t)ainted, is almost obliterated. It is priutcd 
ty Rudder, not very correctly. After four- 
teen lines of Latin poetry it concludes thus : 
•• Age peripatetito Dum intuearia cinerea 

defuncti mort.....,en Sacel brevi fortaasis 

tuss." I should feel much obliged to any 
}ue who can suggest the missing words. 

Heney N. Ellacombs. 

R.vTA R.xsALU.— A recent writer in the 
itanJ'tnl, referring to the adventures of 
the Pan jab hero Raja RastLlu, remarks that 
the *' tale of Rasalu is believtvj to have been 
)rought to England by pilgrims returning 
[rom tho Holy Land, and [that] it was the 
ihject of a popular chapbook well thumbed 

by rustics in tlie reign of Queen Anne." Can 
any one say what njedi;eval version of this 
legend and what chayjbook this writer refers 
to? Charles Swynnerton. 

William Hautlev. — Can any of your 
readers inform me whether the William 
Hartley of Hartley, Oreens i Co., known as 
the Leeds Pottery Company, is the same 
William Hartley who was High Sheriff of 
York in 1810, or whether they were related 
to one another 1 A. H. Arkle. 

"Down, uttle rLUTTERER ! "— Can any 
reader inform me in what work (I think of 
Dickens) any character, speaking of his heart, 
says, "Down, little flutterer!" or words to 
that effect ? or is the saying merely a music- 
hall catch phrase ? C. A. Newman. 

Thompson of Boughton, co. Kent. — I 
shall feel greatly obliged for any information 
relating to the family of Thompson, resident 
at Boughton, in Kent, early in the eighteenth 
century. Thev bore for arms Per pale or and 
argent, an eagle displayed gules. 

Florence N. ('ockbukst. 

John Lewis, Portrait Painter and 
Scenic Artist. — No account of this man i.s 
to be found in any of the dictionaries of art 
or of general biography. About the middle 
of the eighteenth century he was for a time 
scenic artist at Smock Alley Theatre in 
Dublin, and, according to Alicia Lefanu, 
decorated the coved ceiling of the salon in 
Sheridan's country seat at Quiica, co. C^avan, 
with classical figures. This must have been 
done after Sheridan's marriage in 1747. 
Millor scraped two portraits in mezzotint 
after Lewis : one in 17.'>4 of John Sowdon, 
the Smock Alley player, and another in 1756 
of Henrj' Brooke, the dramatist. Are the 
original paintings extant? When did Lewis 
first go to Ireland, and where was he pre- 
vio^slJ^•? W. J, Lawrencb. 

lo, KilJare Street, Dublin. 

Henrietta Maria Gordon Smvthies. — 
Where can I find an account of this lady, 
wiio produced over a score of novels between 
1835 and 1880] AUibone says she was the 
daughter of Edward Lesmoin (Lesmoir ?) 
Gordon, and wife of the Rev. William Yorick 
Smythie«. J. M. B. 

[She died 15 Aufciut, 1883.] 

Dutch Fishermen in British Waters.— 
Lorenzo Sabine, in his 1853 classical mono- 
graph on 'The Principal Fisiiones of the 
American Sea«,' states that James I. oom- 
nelle<l the Dutch to pay an annual tributo 
I tor permission or liberty to fish for herrings 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio"« s. i. Jak. ao. i9w. 

on hia coasts. I shall be grateful for in- 
formation OS to the amount thus obtained, and 
also for further references as to the history 
of the Dutch fisheries generally, as I ara 
collecting materials for a work on this sub- 
ject. In my notes I find that in IfilO, as 
upwards of 60,000 Dutchmen depended on 
the herring fisheries along the coasts of 
Great Britain, James I. appears then to have 
restored fishing privileges to the Dutcli. If 
this be true, what amount, if any, was 
exacted from the Dutch ? 

According to a Dutch account, in 1636 
Charles I. compelled the Dutch fishermen to 

6 ay 20,000 florins as licence money to fish in 
iritish waters. On the other hand, Charles L 
is stated by Sabine to have increased his 
military navy solely to drive the Dutch 
fishermen from Britain's "four-narrow-soAs" 
— as our coastal waters were then termed — 
and to have compelled the Dutch to pay 
150,000 "dollars." How much did these 
sums repre.sent in our present Enj^lish 
money 1 As Lorenzo Sabine's work is a 
series of historical reports printed for the 
United States Treasury of the j>eriod (18.53), 
I am anxious to learn if this interesting in- 
structive book is historically trustworthy. 
Generally, these rich and rare data are much 
esteemed in official United States circles. 
However, I have detected several slight 
errors, which may be only printers' mistakes 
overlooked in tfie correction of proofs before 

J. LawbenceHamilton, M.R.C.S. 

90, Sussex Square, Brightou. 

Batrome.— In the South Tawton Church- 
wardens' Accounts for 15SC 7 is the item, 
"P'd John Batrome for the pulpitt xvi«." ; 
and again, " Fd Willy Bourne for Batrome's 
breakfast and his mens wlien he came to view 
the place for the pulpett, ij«." There is, I am 
told, a local tradition that this pulpit, which 
is still »M situ, and the panels of which are in- 
laid in wood of ornamental grain with figures 
of the four Evangelists, was the work of some 
destitute foreigners who had been ship- 
wrecked on the shores of Devon. The date 
forbids the suggestion that they were sur- 
vivors of the Armada, though there may be 
some confusion of reminiscence. Can any of 
your readers tell me of what nationality is 
the name Batrome. and whether it is known 
in connexion with any other examples of 
carved or inlaid woodwork in England or 
abroad ? Etuel Lera-Weekeh. 

Audison's Daoohter. — In the memoirs 
that 1 have read of Addison, beyond the 
bare mention that he left a daughter by the 

Countess Dowager of Warwick, nothing is 
said of her, which I thought strange for a 
lady born in so high a position : but I find 
this in the obituary of the Monthly ifagazine, 
March, 1797 :— 

"At her house at Bilton, near Rngbf , Miss Char- 
lotte Addison, only daughter of the celebrated 
Mr. Addison by IheCountesJj Dowager of Warwick. 
She had in her poflseaaloii several riortrait& of her 
father sod hia friends, and his library and manu- 

And in the next number : — 

" The late Miss Addison, whose death we noticed 
in our last, inherited her father's roemorv, but none 
of the discriminating powers of his intellect. With 
forest rotenlivo faculties of memory, she was in 
other res]>ect8 a perfect imbecile ; she could repeat 
the whole of her father's works, bitt was ineapable 
of speaking or writing an intelliKiblc sentence. ' 

Is this true? and are there now any repre- 
sentatives of the Addison family ] 

G. T. Shebboen. 

Medals "ait pied de hanglieh."— These 
curiosities have been lately mentioned in 
L'lnterm^duiire. They are, if I may so put 
it, ham-shaped medals, and the projecting 
limb is saici to represent the foot of a wild 
boar. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa 
are on the obverse, while the reverse is 
occupied by a palm-tree and a crocodile. 
But twelve genuine examples are known, and 
the British Museum is the fortunate possesaor 
of one of them. M. Goudard of Ntmes has 
written of these medals, but his pamphlets 
are now out of print-, and as the source of 
information in L IntcrmMiaire would seem to 
be staunched, I hope the correspondents of 
' N. »k Q.' will, of their charity, communicate 
any knowledge they may possess concerning 
the history and object of these strange pro- 
ductions. I believe there is a folk -tale at 
Nimes to account for the crocodile and the 

Ealratreo. Can anybody repeat it for our 
eueflt? St. 8 with in. 

" Commission."— Is there any precedent 
for a member of Parliament convening a 
" commission " to take evidence upon a public 
question? I have always understood that 
tlie word " commission " was only used when 
appointment was made by the Crown. 
Perhaps some reader of 'N. A Q.' may be 
able to inform me if it has been used previous 
to the congress of gentlemen now convened 
by Mr. Chamberlain. N. S. S. 

"P. P., Clerk of the Parish."— What is 
alluded to in 'Sartor llesartus' by "P. P., 
Clerk of the Parish " (chap. ii. bk. i.) ? Thf^ro 
18 the same allusion, I fancy, in 'Mid.iic- 
•"arch.- c A. Nbavma.\. 

io« H. I. jax 30. I9W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




^^" (lO'" S. i. 47.) 

^H I AM in possession of two MS, volumes 

^^ relating to tiiis family. They aro entitled 

" A Sketch of the Life and a Selection from 

the Poetry of Thomas Comber, LL.D., Rector 

of Buckworth and Morbourne, in the County 

^^of Huntingdon, collected by hia Son Thomas 

^k Comber. A.B., late Vicar of Creech St. Michael, 

^Bin the County of Somerset, and now Rector 

^■of Oswaldkirk, in the North Riding of the 

tK County of York." The sketch is very com- 

ploto, and practically gives a history of the 

family for tnree or four generations. 

Thomas Comber, the object of the sketch, 
was the son of Thoraeia Comber, D.D., .some- 
time Dean of Durham, by Alice his wife, 
pWest daughter of Robert Thornton, of East 
Newton, and was born 16 June, 1722; educated 
at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he was 
entered 31 July, 1741 ; and died 9 April, 
1778. In 1747 be published hia work entitled 
'An Attempt to .shew the Evidence of 
Christianity equal to a Strict Metaphysical 
Demonstration,' a third edition or which 
appeared tho following vear • in which year 
also appeared his work entitled 'The Heathen 
Rejection of Christianity in the First Ages 
Considered ' (London, 8vo). Six other works 
of this Thomas Comber are enumerated by 
Watt. The author had a critical knowledge 
of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, 
and Italian, and his unpublished works, 
which are numerous, bespeak a man of learn- 
ing and judgment. He was intimate with and 
corresponded much with both the celebrated 
Bishop Warburton and the historian Dr. 
Robertson. I see no account of this Dr. Cam- 
ber in the 'D.N.B.' Possibly the volumes 
mentioned above are inquired for in 
|687 (7'" S. iii. 515), but, though I cannot 
^member when they were acquired, I 
fcther think it muat have been before that 

It may bo mentioned that in 1799 Thomas 

jmber, the son of the above-named Thomas 

jraber, and great-grandson of the Dean of 

rarham, published the 'Memories of the 

jife and Writings of Thoma-s Cumber, D.D., 

>metimo Doan of Durham, in which is 

itroduced a Candid View of the Several 

Works of Dr. Comber, as well printed as 

MS. : also a Fair Account of his Literary 

(.' >tn;npondence' (T/jndon, 8vo). This may 

jW contain some account of the family 


1 (yell, Manoheiton 


(9"' S. 

Mary Axe : St. Michael le Quernb 
X. 425 ; xi. 110, 2.31 : xii. 170, 253, 351, 
With regard to the question upon 

which I find myself at variance with Col. 
Prideaux, the position, I think, is this— 
that, as he does not deny my hypotheses ioto 
cixlo, he may be .said to admit tacitly their 
potentiality ,- while my standpoint is that of 
probability based upon certain circumstantial 
evidence, which cannot be ignored, and 
which I have set forth at 9"" S. xii. 170. 
Col. Peideaux savs, however, that I have 
up to the present '^failed to prove that any 
London church has derived its deftignation 
from a house-sign." As regard.s reducing the 
matter to demonstration, that is so, I admit ; 
but, on the other hand, ray notes were so far 
from " not advancing facta in support of the 
probability," that they really were full of 
such facts— facts which, in so far as they 
afford presitrnptive proof, must be reckoned 

But I will now endeavour to show that the 
church uf St. Mary Axe did, after all, derive 
its designation from an inn with the sign 
of an axe, and not, as COL, Pkideaux has 
ingeniously suggested, from a small stream 
known by that name. And if I can do so 
it is not. I think, overleaping tho bounds 
of probability to suppose that the other 
churches to which I have alluded were 
similarly distinguished. If Col. Prideaitx 
could refer one to a document relating to 
St. Michael le Querne— an early document 
preferably— in which that church is styled 
"St. Michael-in-the-Corn-nwr^e<," one would 
of course have to relinquish the belief that 
" Quern " can have but one meaning— that of 
a hand-mill — and that it can no more be 
deemed equivalent to "corn-market" (nialgr^ 
Stow^ than "St. Nicholas-in-the- Flesh" could 
pass tor "St.Nicholaa-in-the-Flesh-Shambles," 
And also one would have to abandon the 
belief that " Querne " alludes to the sign of 
either a miller or a baker to which tho whole 
of the immediate neighbourhood resorted 
with grist, as was customary when querns 
were by no means common. 

It may also be noted, perhaps, that many 
well-known landmarks— like the Maypole: 
the " Man on Horseback," as the statue of 
Charles L at Charing Cross was called ; 
Cheapside Cross, Ac- served the purposes 
of a signboard. Hence we have St. Andrew 
Undershaf t, from the shaft or maypole under 
whose shadow the church stowl. But as to 
St. Mary Axe. in Ogilby's great map, tho 
index to which in the British Museum ia 
the onlv copy e.xtant, Axo Vard is distinctly 
marked in the parish of St, M^fj ksJeJV^-W^- 

00^ S. L Ja,v. 30, 190*. 



Now tho existence of an "Axe Yard" cer- 
tainly indicates a yard to which had formerly 
been attached an inn with the sign of an 
axe. Tho incongruity could never have 
occurred to Cunningham of associating what 
•was presumably the symbol of one saint— to 
wit, ot. Ursula— with the name of another ; 
more appropriate, rather, would be some 
emblem of St. Helen, to the prioress and 
convent of whom, in Bishopsgate, the church 
of St. Mary Axo belonged until the priory's 
dis-solution. There waa also an Ax Alley 
in Leadeuhall Street in 1732 (see a scarce 
volume, 'New Remarks of Loudon, collected 
by the Company of Parish Clerks,' of that 
year. p. 77) ; and liughson in his ' History of 
London' (vol. ii. p. 1(J3) says tliat "St. Mary 
Axe was so called from its situation opposite 
tho Axe lun." Whether tho site of St. Mary 
Axe Church can be identified by comparing 
it with that of Axe Yai"d in Osilby's map 
I cannot at present say, but St. Mary's, 
says Huehson, "stood on tho West side of 
St. Mary s Street, now St. Mary Axe." 

There is also a description, in Taylor's 
* Carriers' Cosmogranhie,' 1()37, of the "Axe," 
in St. Mary Axe. Tins description, however, 
I do not quite understand, and perhaps Col 
P&IDEAUX could kindly explain the difFiculty, 
for the Water-poet has two allusions to the 
inn as follows : — 

"The Citrrieng of Coventry doe lodfre at the aigno 
of the Axe in St- Mary Axe, in Aidermanburi/ " 
Citalics mine). 

Again : — 

" The Carriers of Derby and other narte of Derby- 
shire doe lodge at the Axo in St. Mary Axe, uetrt 

^ I confess I do not understand this descrip- 
tion by Taylor ; for, as City distances go, 
Aldermanbury is far distant from .St. Mary 
Axe, The "Axe" Inn in Aldcrnuit(/)iin/ is 
given in both Ogilby's and Itocque's maps, 
the latter dated 174ti 

Finally, in the Exhibition Catalogue de- 
scribing tho Gardner coUectiuu of views, 
£rintN, itc, rolating to tlio topography of 
ondon. Westminster, and Southwark, which 
were oxliibit«d at the Guildhall in, 1 think, 
1B72. are items rolating to two exterior views 
by lUchardson, in water colour, of the "Golden 
Axe'' in St. Mary Axe, as it apjjeared in 1855. 

The question, of course, is then, Did the 
churcli derive its designation from tho inn, 
or did the inn acquire its sign from its 

froximity to the church I Tho probabilities, 
will be so bold as to aver, are all in favour 
of hypothesis the first. 

161, Hammemmith Road. 

Raleigh : its Peoxduciatios (&"• S. xii. 
366, 497) —It may servo to throw somo light 
upon this point to know that in the entries 
oi admissions into this Inn, where the name 
appears under date 27 February, 1574/6, it is 
written "Walter Rawley " ; and as there is 
abundant o\'idence to show that these entries 
were in most cases, if not all, taken down 
from word of mouth, and written by the 
entering scribe phonetically, it may, I think, 
be taken as certain that that spelling 
represents the name as the owner pronounced 
it, and there seems no good reason for 
supposing that the sounds uf those syllables 
were not the same then as now. Just below 
Sir Walter's entry in the register comes the 
name of one Thomas Cockes, who is described 
as of "Beamondes," Herts (meaning "Beau- 
monts" in that county), a clear indication 
that tho clerk was writing from sound, a3 
above stated. John HrxcHiJfsoN. 

Middle Ten\p1e Library. 

'The Diary of .John Manningharo,* 1602-3, 

rjublished by the Camden Society in 1858, 
las on p. 109 the following entry, which I 
think ought to be hold conclusive as to the 
contemporary pronunciation : — 

" 30 Dec. 1602. Sir Wa. Rawley made this rime 
upon the name of a gallant, one ^lr. Noel : 
The word of doniall. and the letter of fiftv. 
Makes the geut. name that will never uc thrifty. 

(.Voe. L.) 
and Noel's answere. 

The foe to the Btommacke.and tho word of diBgraoe, 
Shewes the ((eat. name with the bold face. 
{Rate. Ly.y 

Ontario Legislative Library. 

Mary, Qiteen of Scots (D"^ S. xii. 148, 190, 
238 ; 10^" S. i. 36).— Perhaps it may not bo 
uninteresting to mention that "tho queen's 
letter to the Scottish Estates announcing her 
marriage with the Dolphin, June 26, 1658,"' 
commouces, " Marie, be the grace of God 
Queno of iScottis and Dolphines of Viennois, 
to the nobillitie and rest of the eslaites of 
our rcAlme"; and the queen's proclamation 
of 5 May, 1568. with "Mary, be the Grace of 
God Quene of ,Scotti«." Vi'U pp. 493, 512 
of 'Mary, Queen of Scots.' by David Hay 
i'ieming (Hodder *fe Stoughton, 1897). 

In tho ' Family Records of the Braces and 
Lumvns.'by M. E. Cumraing Bruce (Black- 
w.x)d &. .Sons, 1870). it is recorded at 
p. 5b6 : — 

" Nine commissioneni wore sent from Scotland 

: toj>*»«ii>toll.erwlmoof France ai rei.rGVent- 

ing the three I.:^tates. and theru to conlr anf th« 
n.arn««e o the n,o«t excellent Prineew Mario 
Queen of Scotlarui, our •overei«a. ';Th FriS 




io"'S.tJA».30.i9w.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Dolphin and eldest sod nud ai>i>arent heir to 
Henry, King of France." 

"On the twentieth day of April, 1558, the 
Jinn^aitlta of the young Prince Francis and M&rie, 
Queen-Heritrix ot Scotland, took place." 

With I'egard to Mr. Pkachkys qaestion, 
I may inform him that only the spelling 
"Stevrarti" and not "Stuart, is mentionea 
in M. E. Camming Bruce's learned work. 
Henky Gerald Kopk. 

119, Elms Road, Claphani, S.W. 

TiDESWELL AND TiDESLOW (9*'' S. xii. 341, 

617 ; 10*^ S. i. 62),— Is it not a mistake to 
attempt to explain these names without 
having any re^tu'd to Anglo-Sa.xon grammar 1 

The A.-S. for "intermittent well " might 
have been rid-well, i.e., tide-well ; but it could 
not possibly have been tuUs-well ! We never 
say Udct tcaiter, but only tide waiter. Oon- 
sequeutly, Ttd<s is the genitive case of a 
roan's name. We are told that it is the 
genitive " of Tid, or whatever the right form 
of the personal name may iiave been. ' Well, 
the right form was Tidi in early speUing. 
and 2'tlif in later spelling. The gen. of Tidi 
or Tide was Tide«, iust as the gen, of Ini or 
/«« (in Latin spelling /?<a) was Jnes. For 
the gen. form Ines, see ' A.-S. Chron.,' an. 718. 
Mr, Searlo's ' Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum ' 
gives two examples of Tidi, Besides this, 
Tld- was very common as a first element in 
names, a.s in Tid-beald, Tid-beorht, Tid-burh, 
Tid-cume, Tid-fritb, ttc. And Tida (occurring 
8i.x times) was the form of a pet-name ; only 
the gen. case was Tidan. It is surely obvious 
that Tide-s- welle can only mean *' Tidi's well " ; 
and Tides-low. A.-S. Tides hldio, can only 
mean "Tidi's burial-mound." It is worth 
■while to add that A.-S. tld, time, is feminine, 
with the genitive tide ! 

At the last reference we are told that low 
is " the well-known word for a hill or mound, 
having nothing to do with a burial." ITA// 
has it "nothing to do with" it] If your 
correspondent will only take the troublo to 
look it out in an A.-S. dictionary or in 
•H.RD,' ho will find that low is applied 
both tu a natural hill and to an artificial 
tumulus. Why are these hardy statements 
madol Low, &s a funeral mound, occurs in 
* Beowulf.' The name Tidi occurs in the ' Liber 
Vitaj ' of Durham, and again in Beda, but not 
later. So the mound may be a.s old as the 
eighth century, or even earlier. The O.N. 
imI?- is not represented in English by -well, 
but by -wall. Walter W. Skeat. 

There is one difliculty alxiut Db, Bruso- 
field's ituggestion that Tideswell mean,s the 
Well of the Tide, namely, that it does not 
account for the s. Hia etymology might have 

passed if the name had come down to us in 
the form Tidetvell. Dr. Brushfleld forget 
tliat the old English word for tide wa 
feminine. Comestor OxoNiBNaia. 

It is certain that Tideswell has nothing to 
do with "an ebbing and flowing well," and 
the sooner Du. Brush field abandons this 
popular fancy the better. If the word meant 
what he says it means, it would have been 
written Tidmttlle, not Tidesuutlle, in Domes- 
day Book, and Tidowell at the present time. 
The prefix both in Tideswell and Tideslow in 
the genitive case of a personal name. 

Finding himself in a difliculty about Tides- 
low, whicli, as he sees, has no connexion with 
"an ebbing and flowing well," Dr. Brush- 
field invusea a list of tombs in Bateman's 
'Ten Years' Diggings.' "It is doubtful," he 
saya, '* wliether this list contains a single 
example of the name of a prehistoric indi- 
vidual." The list, however, includes, among 
otliers, the following laws .— 

Bottes-low Ravons-low 

BroWDB-lovv Rains-low 

Culvoida-low 8waiiis-low 

U&rslow Swans-low 

Hawkes-low Taylors-low 

Hems-low Thirkell-low 

Kens-low Tids-low 

Ladniau8-low TolmauB-low 

LarUs-low Wars-low 

Para-low » arna-low. 

It is possible that every one of the twenty 
tomb-names which I have cited from the list 
in question contains a personal name ; it ia 
certain that some of them do so. For instance, 
Totmans - low contains the A.S. personal 
name Tatmonn or Tatmon, which occurs 
three times in the Durham ' Liber ViUe." 
Laidmana-low also contains a personal name, 
and it is just possible that it is identical in 
meaning with A.-S. ladiwum, guide, leader. 
The modern form, however, of that word 
should be lodevuin. Nevertheless, we have 
Stan-low, for Stone low, in the district. The 
prefix in Hawkes-low is the personal name 
which is familiar to us in Old Norse as 
llauk-r ; and Ravens-low contains the A.-S. 
name Rafan, O.N. Hrafn, which also occurs 
in the 'Liber Vitie.' Swains-low, and pos- 
sibly also Swans-low, is the tomb of Swegn, 
O.N. Sveinn— a very frequent name of a 
man. In Culvenls-low it is probable that 
we have to do with a name which endert m 
-heard, as did many A.-S. po"""^, ?'''^^][ 
In ThirkeMow w. '-y lu.vo he - l^te^o" 

^,"?^t"^.r i!iS Y^S',.^"f it may 

found Tid in the 'Liber 
occur elsewhere. Tid» ai'^J 



are tWrind also the following names ia 
w^ich Tid- occurs as a compound : Tvk^^'cs^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio» s. i. .us. so. i9ol 

Tidhild, Tidbursr, Tidreda, Tidhere, Tiduald. 
Tidbald, Tiduulf, Tidberct, Tidhelm. 

Many other EngHsh hion have preserved 
the names of persons buried in them, a«, for 
instance, Hounalow. At the second reference 
W. C. R pointed to Tinsley, near Sheffield, 
which, he aavs, was Tanalaw in 1633. I find 
that it was Tynnesiow in 1451. I believe it 
is in Domesday Book, but I have not been 
able to refer. The Bosworth-Toller ' A.-S. Dic- 
tionary' mentions local names compounded 
with fdccH', hlau\ as "Cwicchelmes hlaew " 
("Cwicchelm's low"). In Thorpe's ' Diplo- 
raatarium' we have Oswaldeslaw, Oswald's 
tomb, and Wulforeslaw, Wulfhere's tomb. 
These two last-named loies seem to have 
been used as moot-hills. There is a barrow 
at Bolsterstone, near Sheffield, called Walders- 
low, meaning Waldhere's tomb. Wo know 
much about the urns, weapons, jewels, and 
other contents of our English prehistoric 
sepulchres. But due attention has not been 
given to the personal names which, in so 
many cases, yet cling to these ancient 
memorials. It is something to know that a 
man of note called Tid gave his name to 
Tideswell, and that he received the lasting 
honour of mound-burial on a hill which over- 
looks that town. 

The suffix -well, or -wally seems in many 
cases, as here, to bo the O.N. viill-r, dat. vdL-i, 
a field or paddock. I have already referred 
to New Wall Nook, and I might have men- 
tioned Swiuden Walls, l>etween Sheffield and 
Penistono. Tideswell is written Tiddeswall 
and Tidswale in a Derbyshire Poll- Book of 
1734, and the neighbouring Bradwell occurs 
in that book as Brad wall and Bradall. On 
Speed's map. IfilO. I find Tiddeswall and 
Brad wall. In IT.iS some fields at Heeley, 
near Sheffield, are described as " Seraary 
{alin$ St. Mary) Walla," and they also seera 
to have been known as Malkin Crofts. Here, 
then, K'<ifJ = O.N. viiUr. I often go to Tides- 
well and Bradwell, but I have not yet seen, 
or heard of, either the " ebbing and Howing 
well 'or the salt well. Davies, in his ' Histori- 
cal, itc. View of Derbyshire,' 1811, p. 053, says 
that Tidoswell "is supposed to have received 
its name from an ebbing and flowing well, 
situated in a field near the town, but which 
has now ceased to flow for more than a 
century." What proof is there that it ever 
did flow } Davies say that " the ebbing and 
flowing well, the last of the Wonders of the 
Peak, is about a mile and fa] half from 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, on the road to Tideswell. 
It is situated in Barmoor Clough " (p. 712). 
IJarmoor Clough is six miles from Tineswell. 
The story about the tUka of an ebbing well 

appears to have been invented by Charles 

f -otton, for he, in his * Wonders of the Peake ' 

1681, mentions " Weediag-wall orTydes-well, 

the third Wonder," and asks this question : — 

For me, who worst can speculate, what hope 

To tiud the secret cauao of these strange (\-ifA, 

Which an impenetrable mountain hides '*' 

S. O. Addv. 


i. 47). — The list of heads of colleges and halls 
appears for the last time in the 'Calendar' 
for 1862. To the 'Calendar' for 1863 is 
prefixed the following note :— 

'^Tbe Class Liat« and other historical matter 
which purchasers of the 'Oxford University 
Calendar' will miss in the 'Calendar' for IHfiSaro 
now printed in a sepiirate volume called ' The 
Oxford Year Book,' together with a full ludex of 

G. F. R. B. 

In the 'Oxford Historical Register, 1220- 
19<X),' the lists of colleges with their heads 
from the foundations are duly given. I 
understand that from the latter date the 
'Historical Register' as a separate publica- 
tion has been discontinued, and that the 
record of distinctions for the future is con- 
tained, year by year, in the annual ' Calendar.' 
It is to be hoped that all heads of houses 
after 1900 are, with their dates of ofBoe* 
included. A. R. Baylet. 

(Old Oxonian alio thanked for reply.] 

" MEYIfE3 " AND " RmNES " (lO'"" S. 1. 49).— 
River-names are old, and the origins of them 
are mostly unknown. In my opinion, it is 
quite unsafe to mix them up with modem 

As to mej/iif, I know nothing at present. 
As to the Somersetshire rhine, I am quite 
clear that the less we muddle it up with the 
river lihine, the better. Neither is it Dutch.. 
It is just provincial English, and duly 
explained in tne 'English Dialect Dictionary,' 
under the correct spelling r^xn. The extract 
given says: "The wide oiien drains are all 
written rhint arid pronounced irfn." Rhine 
id an absurd misspelling inventi-d by some 
very learned man to whom English wa« 
" all Greek " ; and he misspelt it accordingly. 
If English were really studied for its own' 
sake, it would not be "mixed up with Greek 
and Dutch. Walter W. Skbat. 

" Chapeeoked by hke father" (9"" S. xiL 
245, 370, 431 j 10^'' S. i. 54).— There can surel/ 
be no objection to the use of c/i/i.}>fTon if 
it be remembered that the French seldom, 
if ever, use the word in the English aenae. 

• Ed. 1699, pp. SI, 27. ' 


Jax. 30.1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


They do indeed ao use the word chapetftntur, 
but Littre gives no such raeaDtng to the 
vord chapa'on. 

I have often wondered why nu/rale, in the 
phrase " the vioralc of the army," is written 
in italics, as if it were French. As a matter 
of foict, there is no such word in BVench ; 
but there is a word le viornl, which means 
mornlitt/. Again, we often see in English 
books " une guerre k I'outrance," which is 
not Freucli at all. We write ij^yfne as if it 
were a French word, which it is not : and 
others might be added. We have surely the 
right to annex any words we choose from 
any language, and to attach any sense to 
such words as we may find convenient ; but 
why should we not recognize the words as 
frankly English ] H. A. Stbong. 

University, Liverpool. 

I have to thank SiupuclssiMtJs for his 
further instructive comments under this 
head. The rivulet of Judgment meanders 
pleasantlj' from its original fount. This was 
merely an inquiry on my part as to the 
correctness, or otherwise, of a phrase con* 
necting the male with duties hitherto only 
associated with the fair sex. After careful 
search amongst recognized authorities 1 was 
glad to discover that my notion as to the 
inaccuracy of the expression was generally 
confirmed. Lest I should stumble more 
seriously, I will not again venture into the 
perilous paths of a discussion anent c/fi]>€ro)ie, 
cliaperon, or escort. 1 have said ray say ; 
abler pens than mine must finally settle that 
question— if they can. 

SiMPUcissiMUs asks if I would "taboo the 
use of the word autJior as applied to a la<Jy. " 
To this I am bold enough to reply that 
assuredly I would. Authoress is, in my humble 
view, so welcome and certain a guide to 
identification that it should by no means be 
allowed to drop out of service. 

Cecil Clarke. 

West- Country Fair (10"" S. i. 48).— Among 
the records of the Exeter Corporation are 
letters patent concerning Exeter Fair in the 
fourteenth year of Henry IV. (1412) and in 
1610 (>jee Xntet and (iUnnimjt in Devon and 
Cornwall, ed. by W. Cotton, F.S.A., and 
James Dallas, F.L.S., Ifi Jan. and 15 Aug., 
1889, pp. 10 and 124) ; also Arckffolo'jui, 
vol. i. pp. 190-203 ; the Westeni Antiquiiiy, 
vol. i. March. 1H.S1, to March, 1882, pp. 102-3, 
129, MO; Doidgo's 'Western Counties 
Annual ' ; Cooke's ' Topographical Survey ' ; 
Hugh Carew's 'Survey of Cornwall,' 1811: 
'An Account of all the Fairs in Englancl 
dDd Wales,' by Wm. Owen, London, 1756, 

I2mo; *A Manuell of the Chronicles of 
Englande, from the Creacion of the Worlde 
to the Yere of our Lorde 11565,' abridged and 
coUecteti by Richard Grafton, London, 15(55, 
with index and a list of the principal fairs ; 
and Walforfl's 'Fairs Fast and Present.' 1883, 
pp. 24, 35, f.6, &c. In the Kvenimg Po$i of 
8 Feb. {1 1721), No. 1956, is the following 
announcement : — 

" Whereas K. James I. by his Letters Patent, did 
er»nt to Sir Francis Lacon, Knt., nnd his lleira 
for ever, the Privilege of holding Three Fairs 
Yearly in the Town of Cleobury aliax Cloobury 
Mortimer in the Connty of Sadop : These are to 
give Notice, that William Lacon Childo, Esq., 
designs to hold Thieo Fairs in the «uiid Town 
Yearly, for the Sole of all Manner of Cattle, Goods, 
and Merchandize, on tho Days folIoMriog, viz.. on 
the2l8t of ApriL on Trinity-Eve, and on tne lytli of 
October. The First Fair to be held on tho 21 st of 
April next, and that Care will be taken to provide 
proper Acconimodations for auch as ahalf resort 

A long account of fairs will also be found 
in Brand's ' Popular Antiquities,' revised by 
Sir Henry Ellis {Bohn, vol. ii.). 


Capt. Death (10"' S. i. 48).— He commanded 
the Terrible, a London privateer, and was 
killed in action with the Vengeance, a 
privateer of St. Malo, on or about 23 Dec, 
17.'^6. F. F. L. will find an account of the 
action, which seems to have been a gnllant 
affair, in Beatson's 'Naval and Military 
Memoirs,' vol. i. pp. 524-5. J. K. L. 

[The Rev. J. Pickpokd refers aUo to the edition 
of Hume and Smollett by the liev. T, .S. Hughes: 
Mr. ({. T. SuEKBDKN to Tindal » conlinuatinn of 
Rfipin; and Mr. J. B. Wainkwriuht to iSinoUott, 
book ill. ch. viii. § 28. and Oen(hman'» Moffaxine, 
vol. xxvii. p. 90.] 

Hobgoblin's Claws (9^" S. xii. 189. 333).— 
Kinouchi Shigeakira's ' Unkonshi,' written 
in tho eighteenth century, describes and 
figures what is called by the Japanese 
"Tengu-no-Tsurae,"or Tengu's claw, which is 
the fossilized tooth of extinct sharks. It is 
reputed to have the power of repulsing evil 
spirits and curing demoniacal pos.session. 
The Tengu is a wood-goblin of Japanese 
pxipular mythology, and is represented nowr 
with prominent nose, now with bird's bill, 
as well as bird's wings, strongly recalling the 
classical Harpy. Kumaousu Mikakaxa. 

Mount Nachi, Kii, Japan. 

"Collectioner"(10"'S. L 28).-This word 
cannot be attributed only to East AnRlu*, 
A contributor long ago (2'"' S- x. 28) re- 
quired similar information, and gave two 
instanoesof its use from the church register 
of Great Hampden, Bucks, m which "tV»& 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ic" s. i. Jax. ao. iwi. 

word is often used," more particularlj' in the 
case of burials : — 

" 1741-42. .Un* iTi"'- Sarah Elherop, a CoUectioner. 

"1762. July 20"'. Jno. Apsalou of y' psh of 
Hitobendcu, CoUectioner." 

In the replj- gis'en at p. 98 it li explained 
that it applies to a person permanently in 
receipt ot parochial relief. Many legacies 
have been left to the poor not tating col- 

I cannot find the word in any of the many 
dictionaries to which I have referred. 

EvERARU Home Coleman. 

71 1 Brecknock Road. 

See under ' Collection' in 'N.E.D.' 

W. C. B. 

"As MEEEY AS Griogs" (9* S. xii. 506; 
li^*" S. i. 36).— The following quotation from 
a poet and accurate observer of nature may 
bo of interest: — 

All about the fields you osneht 
His weary daylong chirping, like the dry 
High.«lbowoa Krigs that leap in summer Kraas. 
Tennyson, 'The Brook.' 

If it is rememhered that " grifrs " are grasji- 
hoppers the explanation U siuipte enough. 

E. VV. 

Dr. Brewer ('Phrase and Fable*) explain.s 
this proverb : — 

"A grig is the sand-oel, and a cricket. There 
was aUo h class of vagabond dancers and tumblers 

who viaited ale-houeea so called Many think the 

expression should be ' Merry as a Greek.' " 

Halliwell (' Diet, of Archaic Words ') is very 
decided in stating that rfri'j ia a corruption 
of Greek. itlcttARD LaWsoN. 


Dickens uses this expression in 'The Old 
Curiosity Shop,' eh. 1. In alluding to the 
company of rats Quilp says ; " I shall be as 
merry as a grig anions these gentry." 

In Ttmpte liar fur .Tauuary is an articlo on 
Thomait Hearne, the antiquary. The writer, 
the Uav. W. E, Crothens, says that Hcarno 
in his 'Diary' states "that the piirase *a.s 
merry as a grig' should perhaps bo 'as merry 
as a Greek.'' John T. Paue. 

West liaddon, Northamptonahirc. 

The saving was in constant use when I 
was a lad in Derby.'<hire, but hero I have not 
known it used except by myself. It is 
indicative of merry dispositions and lively 
antics. "We were all as merry as griggs." 
Gnats dancing iu the sun were "as merry as 
griffgs," and so were " cheeae-jumpors " said 
to be as they moved and jumped on the 
cbeeseboards in provision shops. Anything 

having lively motion was "a grigg," and 
tadpoles were included in tho liat. Alone ] 
the roads after a shower of rain appeared 
lively insects, which were known as "fish- 
flies, ' and these "danced like griggs " in the 
sun OS long a^ the lanes remaiued wet. 


Grammar : Nine Parts of Speech (9"' S. 
xii. &04).— Between fifty and sixty years a^o 
these lines were current at a school in 
Nottingham, and that they wore of Trans- 
atlantic origin was never iio much a.-j hinted. 
Is there a Board-School child in these daya 
that would venture to call a, an, and <A«1 
" articles " I St. Swithin. 

The rimes sent you by Mb. Coleman 
I learned when I was eight years old, 
and attending Mrs. Attwood's school at. 
Fairfield, Croydon, in 186.0. I think thej 
were printed iu our grammar, but I forge^l 
what particular book this was. 


Veto at Papal Elections (&"> S. .xii. 89, 
174, 396).— The Roman correspondent of the 
Tablet, in the issue of that paper dated 
9 January, says that, out of the twenty -one 
cardinals in Curia, eighteen recently met as 
the official councillors of the Pope, and 
decided (1) that the veto ia abusive in ita 
origin, and (2) that it has never become a 
''consuetudinary right," In connexion with 
the second point tliey referre<l to the election 
of 1555, when Cardinal Caraffa was elected in 
spite of the veto of Charles V. They con- 
cluded by recommending the Pope to render 
the veto impossible in future by inflicting 
excommunication on any one bearing a veto 
to a Conclave from any civil authority. 

JoUN B. Wainewpjght. 

Fieldnames, West Hai>don, co. North- 
ampton (10''' S. i. 46) —The field-names of 
West Haddon which Mr. Joon T. Page has 
contributed are of much interest. I send 
notes on a few of them ; they must be , 
regarded as suggestions only, not as positive i 
statements of opinion. Many names depend] 
on local circumstances which a stranger to] 
the neighimurhood can by no means grapple 
with. It should be borne in mind t]iat when 
similar names occur in far separated places 
it by no means follows they have been alike 
iu origin. 

Several of the names iu Me. Page'^ list seem 
to be derived from those of former owners or 
tenants, but this does nut always follow as a 
matter of course. Priestlonds at Uedburn, 



^_ or 

Lincolnshire, may Imve been, and pvobabl}' 
was, so called from appertaining to some eccle- 
siastical endowment ; on the other hand, it 
may have been the private property of a prieat, 
r of some layman who had rrieat for a sar- 
name. SmilhfieUI, at Lough ton, in E^aex 
8"' S. i. 84), may signify land appropi-iated 
nder the old manorial system to the village 
lacksmith, or it may have arisen in recent 
luya from having been held by some one who 
bore that common patronymic. Bellfield, a 
name I have met with, but failed to make a 
note of, was probably land appropriated to 
the maintenance of the church's bell- gear 
and payment of the ringers, or perhaps a 
place where the church bells had been cast, 
or it may at one tirao have belonged to a 
an called Bell. Without research among 
old document**, which have often been lost or 
are unattainable, it is impossible to come to 
any dofiuita conclusion. At West Haddoa, 
as in most other places, the names are of 
various dates ; some apparently very old, 
thers dating from the nineteenth century. 
California. — Probably one of a class of 
arae^ given in recent days, adopted from 
breign places which at the time of the name- 
ividg were attracting popular attention. 
. 'here is a cottage in the parish of Messing- 
liara cajletl St. Helena j I was told by my 
father it wa^ built during the time that 
apoleon I. was a captive in the Atlantic 
land 80 named. Some houses in the Frod- 
ham iron district go hy the name of 
merica ; and I have seen a house near 
•ncaster, in what parish I do not know, 
Iktd Now Zealand. There ia a New Zealand 
Id in the parish of Aldeuham, Herts (8'" S. 

Castles, d'caf.— Possibly an encampment 
entrenchments have existed here. Castle 
not uncommonly employed in speaking 
an entrenchment or earthwork where no 
tie, in the popular sense of the word, has 
ver stood. 

Cockle Close. — Probably so called from a 

andsome plant, bearing reddish - purple 

owpfM, which grows among corn. See 


Copf/ Mfitji: — This may have been land 

»ld by copyhold tenure. In Lincolnshire 

id neighbouring counties copyhold pro- 

?rty is frequently spoken of as Copy or 


lluck'ifxick. — The word means a coarse 
lien fabric used for sheets and towels. The 
irliest exajnplo given in the 'H.E.D.'is of 
JO year 1(J9<>. Huckaback napkins were in 
at St, John's Coll , Cambridge, in 1698 
(ogera's 'Hist. Agriculture and Pncos,' 

vol. vi. p. 548). It may be that the place 
took its name from ponds or a stream in 
which the flax was steeped before being 
woven into huckaback. 

Ilell Hole.— la place-names Hell does not 
necessarily refer to the place of punishmenti 
though in some cases, which I believe are 
but few, it may do so. It often means a deep 
hollow or a darksome place. There was a 
Helle Bothe at Spalding ('Mon. Angl.,' iii. 
230). There are a Hell Hill and a Hell Wood 
in Yorkshire, and a Hell Hole in Notting- 
hamshire, but I cannot identify the parLshea 
to which they belong. There were a Hell 
Mill in Gloucestershire (Smith's 'Hundred 
of Berkeley,' 307) and a Hell Mouth at Cam- 
bridge (Gerardo's 'Herbal,' ed. 1636, 1390). 
It may be worth noting that there is a barrow 
named Hell's Hill in Wexio, whore Odin ia 
said to have been buried (Marryat's ' Year in 
Sweden,' ii. 37C). Other places with hell for 
an affix have been mentioned to me by frienda 
who were not a little indignant at the names 
having been changed by imbecile persons 
who were without reverence for the free 
speech of their forefathers. 

I/unrfer Wells.— To speculate regarding the 
meaning or origin of Hunger in place-names 
would be rash. Several solutions occur to 
mo, none of which ia wildly improbable, but 
all very far from convincing. The word is 
widely distributed. Hunger Downs occurs 
at Ivoughton in Essex (8^'' S. i. 84), Hunger 
Hill at or near Nottingham ('Records of 
Nottingham,' vol. iv. p. 114), and Hunger- 
lands at Aldenham, Herts (7^" S. xii. 383). 

Lords P/irc*.— Probably lands belonging to 
the lord of the manor. 

Lnnfhes. — Query, is not this a form of 
Linch or Lynch ^ " Hlinc, ridge, slope, 
hill" (Skeut, ''A.-S. Diet.'). In Lincolnshire 
linch moans a balk in a field dividing one 
man's land from another. It is |>erhap3 
obsolete now, but was not so in 1787, for 
in the 'Survey of the Slanor of Kiiton-in- 
Liudsey ' of that date it is stated that " the 
lands in tho field are called dales, and the 
finches or green strips on each side are called 
raarfurs or meerf urrows." 

Old Leys. — Ley or Lay, unenclosed gross 
land, which at some time or other had been 
ploughed, but had been laid down to grass. 
There is a farm at Ilibaldstow, Lincolnshire, 
yet spoken of as the Old Leva. , , ,. 

Voir Afan'i CVose. —Probably land dedi- 
cated in some way or other to the reliot ot 
the poor. Perhaps settled bv dec<l of gift or 
will before tho passing of the Act known M 
the Poor Law of Elizalwth. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio"" s. i. Jas-. :w. \va. 

Wad C7o«.— A dialectic form of wrxtd, a 
plaut used for dying. This spot has perhaps 
Decn a place wnero woad has been grown. 
It wa8 a crop very exhauatinf; to tho land, 
and tenant larmera were often prohibitecl 
from growinz it. In many oldf leases a 
covenant is round making the growth of 
" woad, otherwise called wad," penal. 

Edwaed Pkacock. 

Wickentree Hooae. Kirton-in-Liiirl««y. 

TuK Wykkhamical Word "Toys" O'" S. 
xii. 34;-), 437, 492 ; lO'" S. i. 13, 50).— I should 
like to thank Prof. Skeat for the opinion 
which my solicitation (at the third reference) 
induced him to express (at the fourth) upon 
the various derivations assigned to this word. 
The que-stion, Wlien did the word come into 
use at Winchester f may perhaps be material 
to the question, What is its true origin ? and 
for this reason I oflfer tho following evidence 
that the word was already current among the 
bo};s in 1771. I have a manuscript copy of a 
series of letters written during 1770 ana 1771 
by a " commoner " to his brother who was 
aosent from the school on account of ill- 
health, and the following passage occurs iu 
one of these letters, which is dated Winton, 
30 June, 1771 : — 

" Tho mice have found means to get into the well 
of your under Toys ; and to make a little liavock 
with some of your Papers : your upper Toys I found 
open, iiolhiriK is niisain^ as I can tind except the 
Bixth Volume of Pope's W'^orka." 

I imagine that the writer meant by "upper 
Toys" the cupboard which formed the upper 

Eart of his brother'* bureau, and that this 
ureau was similar to the bureaux which are 
sketched in the illustration at p. 20 of Worda- 
woith's 'The College of St. Mary Wint^yn near 
Winchester ' (1848), and at p. 226 of Walcott's 
* William of Wykehara and his Colleges ' 
(18.')2). (See also the picture of 'Seventh 
Chamljcr ' in Radclvflfe's ' Memorials of Win- 
chester College.') Mr. R. B. Mansfield, no 
doubt, had bureaux of this kind in liis mind's 
eye when he penned his definition of " toys" 
which I cited at the third reference. "These 
simple movable bureaux have now been 
superseded at Winchester generally, if not 
entirely, by fixed furniture of a aoraewhat 
more complex character. The word "toys" 
has been transferred to this furniture, and 
accordingly a boy's "toys" now mean, as a 
rule, certain fixed furniture which has been 
allotted to him for his own use. Sijecimens 
of tho old bureaux, however, still exist, and 
one of them is preserved in the college 

The mere fact that space is occupied by the 
furniture allotted to each boy does not justify 

acceptance of the derivation of " toys " from 
"Fr. <cnjtc = a fathom," which U offered by 
the authors of the useful book mentioneil at 
tlie last reference. They give no historical 
evidence pointing to a connexion lietween 
" toys" and foiw, and until some evidence of 
the supposed connexion has been gi\en, it 
seems prudent to abstain from regarding this 
derivation as satisfactory. 

In view of Prof. Skeat's suggestion that 
the word may bo only ''a peculiar use of the 
common K '^.'A" I venture to quote tho follow- 
ing passage from Addison's ' Remarks on 
Italy '(Hurd's edition of Addison's 'Works,' 
vol. ii., 1811, p. 167):— 

"Uue cannot but be amazed to see such a pro- 
funion of wealth laid out in coaches, irappio^S, 
tables, cabinets, and the like precious toy?, in 
which there are few princes in Kurojie who ci\ual 

This passage is cited in the ' Century Dic- 
tionary,' vol. vi., under " toy," with a reference 
to Bohn'a edition of Addison, i. 504. II. C 

Sadler's Well-s Play allpded to by 
Wordsworth (10«" vS. i. 7, 70;.— It may in- 
terest H. W. B. to know that in an unpub- 
lished letter from Mary Lamb to Dorothy 
Wordsworth, postmarked 11 July, 1803, is 
this passage : — 

" We went last week with Foutliey and Rickmao 
and his sister to Sadlerg Wella, the lowest and moat 
London-like of all (of] any London amusements — 
the entertainments were ' < loody Two Shoes,' ' Jack 
the (iiatit Killer,' and ' Mary o! Bultermere'! poor 
Mary was very hap)>ily married at the end of the 
piece, to a sailor her formnr sweetheart— we had a 
pi-odigious fine view of her father's house in the vale 
of Bultermere — mountains very like large hayooeks, 
and a lake like nothing at all— if you had been 
with us, would you have laughed the whole time 
like Charles and Miss Rickman or gone to sleep a« 
Southey and Kickman did." 

E. V. Ldcas. 

Richard Nash {Q^ S. xi. 445 ; xii. U>, 116, 
135, 272, 335, 392, 493 ; 10^'' S. i. 32).— The con- 
fusion over thoso-cAlled Chosterfield epigram 
has arisen mainly from tho fact that there 
was always (at least for more than one hun- 
dred ana fifty years) a statue, as now, of 
Beau Nash in the Bath Pump Room, but no 
picture of him. It was natural that some 
should conclude that the correct reading was 
"the ftatue (not jncture) placed the busts 
between." Tne lines were, however, written 
before the Ptatue was carved. When a second 
assembly room was opened on the Terrace 
Walk (called, after the leasee, ''Wiltshire's") 
in 1729 30, it was adorned, it is believeil, with 
a full lenRth portrait of Nash (thou in the 
height of his popularity), which was sup- 
ported by the busts of Newton and Pope* 

10 " 8. L Jas. 30. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



, the latter being at the time a frequent visitor. 
Taiie Brereton, who died in 1740, ntruck by 

[the incongruous combination, wrote the sub- 
joined poem, which is entitled * On Mr. 
lash'e picture, full lengtli, between the busts 
of Sir Isaac Newton and Mr. Pope,' and, as 

I 'Will be seen, it must have formed the basis of 

I the later epigram : — 

The olti Egvptians hid their wit 

In hieroglyithic dress 
To give men pains to search for it 

Aud please themselves with guess. 

Modems to tread the selfsKmo path 

And exercise our parts 
Place figures iu a room at. Bath ; 

Forgive them, God of Arts J 

Newton, if I may judge aright. 

All wisdom doth express ; 
Hia knowledge gives matikiad new light, 

Adds to their happiness. 

Pojie is the emblem of true wit, 

The t=uu8liiiie of the mind ; 
Read o'er h\s works fur proof of it. 

You 'li endless pleasure find. 

Nash represents man in the mass. 

Made up of wrong and right, 
Sotneiinies a knave, sometimes an ass. 

Now blunt and now polite. 

The picture jilaced the basts between 
.\(lil8 to the thought much strength : 

Wisdom and Wit arc little seen. 
But Folly 'sat full length. 

W. T. 


Pe.vbith do*'' S. i. 29).— The editorial note 
eay8, " Penrith ia still pronounced Ferith in 
the North." As a Isorth-Countryraan, I 
8houUl like to point out that tiiose letters 
do not in these days, and especially in the 
Bjuth, sutUciently represent the pronun- 
ciation. Ptei-i(h would be better. Hy-tbe- 
by, i« Perth (pronounced very similarly in 
Scotland) a name of the same origin and 
meaning I 

In the same direction it might be noted 
that "Peercy" is the spelling in many 
&ijcient Northern documents of the old sur- 
name Percy {e.g., " the Peercy Fee," iSrc.) ; 
presumably "Peercv" would not be 
lounced as we usually now pronounce 

»rcy. Balbus. 

Rof 8 OR RowsB Family (9*'' S. xii. 487 ; 
JO"" S. i. W).— For Speaker Francis Rous see 
also ' D.N. B.' aud the Rev. Douglas Macleane'a 
' Hittorv of Pembroke College ' (Oxford His- 
torical Society, 1897, pp. 291-6), wiieroat he 
founded the existing Kton Scholarship. The 
College possesses a half-length portrait of 
him, in which he is represented wearing a 
tail wido-briiumcd hat. There is another 

gortrait at Eton of Rous in his robes as 
l)eaker. His father Sir Anthony married, 
as his second wife, the mother of John Pym, 
the statesman. A. R. B.vyley. 

'• CoNsTANTiNE Pebble" (Q"' S. xii. 606; 
10"' S. i. 33).— A really excellent illustration 
and description of the above are to be found 
under the heading of ' On Cromlechs ' on 
p. C4, vol, vi. of the Saturdai/ Magazine for 
14 February, 1835. It commences :— 

"The accompanying engravinu exhibits a view of 
an insulated rock, popularly termed a Vroinltrh, 
standibK on a nioor in the parish of Const&nliue, ia 
Cornwall, and called by the people of the oountrv 
•TheTolmea."' ' 

The article concludes :— 

"The Tolmen points due north and south, u 
33 feet iu length, 18 feet in width in the widest 
I>art, and 14 feet 6 inches in depth. Ml feet in cir- 
cumference, and is calculated by admeasurenieat 
to contain 7iK) tons of stone." 

Chas. F. Foeshaw, LL.D. 


Error i.v 'Pouphiu Hyi'nerotomachia ' 
(10"- S. i. 4).— The error which Mr. Eliot 
HoDGKiN has noticed in some copies of this 
work appears also in the Grenville copy in 
the British Museum (G. 105G4), in wliich the 
clumsy alteration obtrudes itself very un- 
pleasantly upon the eye. I do not know 
whether SIr. Hodokin has seen this copy. 

S. J. Aldrich. 

New Southgate. 

Caedigan as a Surname (10"" S. i. 67).— 
Is it a surname ? On the contrary, it seems 
to exist only as a territorial title. If G. H. W. 
lefers to the earldom, the pedigree is, of 
course, in Burke. But it only goes back to 
the wedding, early in the eighteenth century, 
of a Bruce with a Lord Cardigan of another 
family. D. 

Salep or Salop (O"" S. xii. 448). — The 
vending of "saioop," as it was more gene* 
rally called, among the street- barrow men of 
London, is now, I think, quite an extinct 
calling. Its use began to be superseded by 
toa and coffee about the year 1831, up to 
which time it had supplied the humble needs 
of the early wayfarers in tlie ftame way that 
coffee does now. It was when coffee biecame 
cheaper, with all its accessory adulterations, 
that it began entirely to displace .saioop. See 
Henry Mayhew'a 'London Labour and the 
London Poor,' 1851, vol. i. p. 101 itq. The 
beverage was originally made from salep, 
the root* of Orchis mascula, a common plant 
of our meadows, the tubers of which, being 
cleaned and peeled, are lightly bc<i'*i>osA vo^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no^ s. i. Jak. so. 19m. 


an oven. It was ranch recommended in the 
last century by Dr. Percival, partly as con- 
taining the largest portion of nutritious 
matter in the smallest space. John Timbs, 
F.S.A., the author of 'Something for Every- 
body ' (q.v. p. 200), remembered many saloop- 
stalls in our streets. The date of that work 
J9 1861. J- Hold EN MacMichael. 

Mi;. Clabk will find a good deal about this 
concoction in the new edition of Yule's 
'Anglo-Indian Glossary,' s.v. 'Saleb,' where 
references are given to articles in ' N. «t Q^,' 
on its modern use. W. Crooke, 

"Lost in a convent's soutary oloom" 
(10»* S. i. 67) is to be found in Pope's ' Eloisa 
to Abelard,' 1. 38. R. Engush. 

[Mil. Vardlkv also refers to Pope.] 

BiBCH SAP WrNB <9"' S. xi. 467 ; xH. 50, 

296; 10'*' B. 1. 18).— William Simpson, of 
Wakefield, in his * Hydrologia Cliymica,' 
1669, p. 328, writes :— 

" If you wound a branch of the birch troo, or lop 
the bole thereof, iu March, if it be done below, 
near the groun«l, thu lalex tbunce iasuiu^ is a mere 
insipid water: but if n branch of about 3 (inKera 
thicKnesfl be wounded to the Bemidiameter thereof, 
and Bird with wool), it weeps forth a subacid 
liquor in great abondance, insomuch that in one 
day Buch a wounded branch may give 8 or 10 pound 
of that liquor: concerning the vertuo whereof 
Helniont eaith, Qui in ipso lithiasis torniento 
Bolatur adlictos, tribus quatuorve cochlearibus 
ossumptia, vi^ that it gives help, in the torments 
of the stone, being taken to the quantity of three 
or four spooufuUa : which he saiih ia balsamua 
lithiasis racroa." 

W. C. B. 

A'hn!'<'<{nii<i fo ihf Cofh'Of of St. John (he Krangtli*t, 

Cnmhriilfit. Part III.' 1715-67. Kdited, with 

Notoa, bv Robert F. beott. (Cambridge, beighton, 

Bell & C'o.) 
The .Senior Bursar of St. John's has here continued 
the work which Prof. .T. E. B. Mayor began in a 
niunnoi- worthy of his predecessor, aud of a splendid 
foundation. Wc cannot 8i>eak, in fact, too highly 
of the great care and research which have gone to 
the elucidation of details in the careers of Jonnians. 
The Register is one of bare names, but by the aid 
of various aourcea, including our own columns, 
parish regiHlers, the Otuth:man'^ Maga:iiif, and 
other collections known to spec-ialiatR, a larjie m&s"* 
of illuminating detail has been aecurod- Wieu we 
add that the inik'xes are wonderfully complete, in- 
clu'liPR "uc of cotinties, another of bciiooIs, and two 
of trades, in Ktifilisliand Latin respectively, it will 
1)0 seen Ihnt the volume is a oiodel of what such a 
tliiii« (dinuld be. 

This was afi infrucluou? time In (Cambridge bis. 
tory, ami these admisttions include no names of 
the highoat mark : still they do not fail to interest 

ns a good deal. Looking for men associated with 
Johnson, we come across ' —nen" Taylor, 

the most silent man that i ^»ver saw" yet 

one who could change, in IJ.^ ..^.i. • umpany, from 
the laborious 8tu<lent to the festive eomjianion v ith 
wonderful rapidity, left fortv volumes of common- 
place books, played cards well, and was an ele>?ant 
carver. Soame Jonyns, a review of whose book on 
' The Nature and Origin of Evil ' brou(jht Johnsoti 
repute, also wrote an ' Essay on Dancing,' fanmus 
in its day, and was by no means such a fool as the 
Doctor and Boewoll made out. Johnson's ** moat 

! exquisite critical essay " anywhere, as Boswell calls 
it. Its victim and subject never forgave, writing a 

( scurrilous epita])h on his reviewer many years later. 
Johnians of this time also were Dr. Heberden, who 

I attended Johnson on his deathbed, and the satirist 

i Churchill, whom Boswoll defende<i against the 
charge of Ijcing a blockhead. 

^lany singular chiu^ctera appear in these paRes, 
and no one can fail to be struck with the cheerful* 
nesB and hilarity which is so frequently noted as 
a characteriHtie of tliese university men. From 
oar own columns is iiuoLe<l a curious account 
of the marriage of Robert Ijinib. who wrote booka 
on chess snd the battle of Flodden, and selected a 
carrier's daughter be had not teen for many years 
as his spouse. .S ho was to make herself known to 
him by walking down the street with a tea-caddy 
under her arm. She did so, but he was too absent- 
minded to bo there, though he met and married 
her in due course through the intervention of an 
old Castoros- House officer. 

An odd forgotten worthy is Dr. John Brown, 
the author of ' BarbaroHsa,' a play for which (iarrick 
wrote Prologue anil E)iilnj;ue, and a book on the 
manners of the time.i which in 17J7 went through 
seven editions. His reputation for organixiiig edu- 
cation was such that he was engaged to go to 
Russia by the Empress, and given 1,000/. for the 
journey, which his ill-health prevented- There 
were very serious people about in these days, too, 
such as the Hulse of various theological benefac- 
tions to the University, who left a will of nearly 
four hundred pages of closely written n t ! 

Next to Hornc Tooke, on whom tli K.-e 

pages of excellent notes, comes .Stetih' .,iie, 

who in 1770 horsewhipjied and kicked a "Jip," as 
Cole spells it. The jip died, and Fovargue ab- 
sconded to France, ana played the violin in the 
streets of Paris as a l)eg!pr. Finally, in l(/4 ho 
returned " to Cambridge in long dirty rutiliM, his 
hair lied up with a piece of pack-thread, and In a 
sailor's jacket, and yellow trousers," and was ac- 
quitted on the deposition of various doctors, as the 
college servant had been in ill-health for some timo 
before being maltreated. What romance and 
adventure such careers, illuminated by the ad- 
mirable collections of Cole, Nichols, and others, 
and the exemplary research of the pi^' -■ •■* 'his 
Kegister, afford may l>e guessed from tn us. 

Wo wish that olner great foundatu id 

and Cambridge would indtate that of St. John the 
Evangelist in the zealous collection of material* 
growing every day harder to find. 

Sont/x of the Vhie. ffith a Mnltey for ^falhnMtiu. 

Selected and eciitcd by William G. Hutchinsan, 

Tm: parentage of this volume conBtitntee .% voucher 
for its menis. SttUicloii by Mr. Hutchinson, and 
l^bliahcd by Mr. BuUen, tantc and jutlgmeut hav» 

Ky- S. L Jan. 30. 19M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


presided over its birth, and it ia llie ntoat enjoyable 
work of il« class to which the enlightened and 
sympathetic student may turn. Alo and beer songs 
we have in iileuty : but we know not where else to 
point to so htirniilating a collection of bacchanalian 
mics. Not only Mr. P.uUcD, but the late W. E, 
Henley h»B assisted in the task of selection. The 
opening poem consiHtfi of the immortal drinkini;- 
800K aaaiKned soniewhatdubiously to Walter MapeH. 
From thi«. however, one or two Btan2a»i, especially 
that beginuinn 

Magis quani ecclesiam diligo tabemani, 
disappear, a matter of which wo do not complain, 
but for which we are sorry. Lei^h Hunt's familiar 
translation is piven. Much of this is good. Would 
not the following be a better reuderinu of the tirat 

In a tavern I propose to end my days a-drinkinjf, 
With the wine-atoup near my hand to seize when I 

That celestial choirs may sii)?, sweet angel voices 

Ood be merciful to one who drank well without 

The credit of writing the famoas " Back and side 
Ro bare" is withdrawn from Bishop Still; but the 
Rev. John Home, of ' Douglas ' fame, is responsible 
for the praise of claret, and the Kev. Joim lilack- 
lock, D.D.. for that of j)unch, while Dean Aldrich 
is credited with the five excellent 'Reasons for 
Drinking.' Those who supply the remaining lyrics 
include Lyiy, Shakespeare, Jonaon, Herrick, Heury 
Vauehan, Congreve, Dr. Johnson, Sheridan, (iold- 
sniitb. Burns, Blake, Thackeray, and innumerable 
others, besides some few writers of later date. It 
is s fine collection, truly, almost the only really 
immortal lyric we fail to see beinn that concerning 
"All our men were very merry," which probably 
does not come into the scheme. A poem assigned 
to Thackeray, called ' Commanders of the Faithful,' 
we knew very many years ago in a different form. 
Pernibsion has been obtained to insert Sir Theo- 
dore Martin's (or Aytoun's) ' Direo of the Drinker.' 
Wo repeat that for those to whom bacchanalian 
chants appeal the volume will bring unending 

The Jmlieia! Dictionary of Words and Phituttn 
Judicialty IiUtrprtiid. By F. btroud. Second 
Edition. 3 vols. (Sweet & Maxwell.) 
SiNCK the apiwaranco in 1800, from the same pub- 
lishers, of tiio tirst edition. Stroud's 'Judicial 
Dictionary ' has Ijeen enlarged to thrice ita original 
Bt/.e. 'i'his is ilue in |iart to the amplificatiun of 
materials. The augmentation of size may, how- 
ever, be taken as a proof of the utility of a work 
wl\ich is, in its way, uniijne, and has, as its author 
justly observes, neither predecessor nor rival. Its 
first and most obvious a])peal is to lawyers, to 
the more intellectual and philosophical among 
whom it ia iridijpensable. Its aims extend, how- 
ever, far beyiin<i this limited circle, since it is 
sought to make it " the authorit-itivo Interiireter 
f,f tlw. i>'i, -iislj of .\irair« for the British Emiiire." 
I its ntility does not end, anu the 

1 uill do well to have it at hi« hanrl 

whicli have rettiveii iiiii:<r^>rel<iiiun by the judKcv. 
Not easy is it to convoy to those who are imfumiliar 

with the work an idea of its nature and methods. 
A basis is to be found in works such as Cowel's 
'Interpreter' and the like, but the general moss 
of information is derived from decisions in the 
various courts. A rjreliniinary * Table of Cases' 
occupies over one hundred and twenty closely 
printed pages in double columns, to which a ' Table 
of Statutes' adds some fifty pages more, other 
lists of abbreviations bringing the preliminary 
matter up to two hundred and twenty fiagefl. 
Sometimes the information given is purely legal, 
ae when, under 'Cheese,* we are told, with a cross- 
reference to ' Margarine,' that what is known aa 
cheese contains "no fat derived otherwise than 
from milk " ; sometimes it seems arbitrary, iis whea 
we find, under 'Crew,' that "the crew does not 
always mean the whole crew." Sometimes, again^ 
it is of widespread influence, as when we meet the 
many definitions of 'Crime.' Often ii is technical, 
as under headings such as 'Negative Pregnant '^ 
sometimes, again, the information au|)plied is vir- 
tually negative, as when we hear that "the word 
'indecently' has no definite legal meaning," or 
learn that "'negligence' is not an affirmative 
word," but is " the absence of such care, skill, and 
diligence as it was the duty of the person to bring 
to the performance of the work which he is said 
not to have performed." Any work that, facilitates 
reference, and in so doing saves time, is of extreme 
importance, and in this re8|)ect, aa in others, the 
present book should be fouud in every library of 
reference, private as well as public. 

27ie CofJtcled Potnxs of Lord i/e TaUey. (Chapman 

ft Hall.) 
Tbess oollect«d poems of John Bvrne Leicester 
Warren, third ana last Lord de Tabley, are issued 
without any form of preface or introduction beyond 
an inserted slip to the effect that a single poem, 
entitled ' Orpheus in Hades.' is reprinted from the 
Xiiietieiilh Cnutiiri/hy permission of .Mr. [.Sir) James 
T. Knowloa- They include, preanmably, all that is 
fouud worthy of prescr\'ation in the volumes issued 
respectively in 1850 and 1862 under the pseudonym 
of (jeoree F. Preston, and in 18<J3 and 18(58 under 
that of William Lancaster, the anonymously pnb» 
lishtd tragedies of ' Philoctetes' and ' Orestes,' and 
the verses subsequently given (1873, 1876) under the 
writer's own name, 'fheir reappearance has been 

E receded by that of selections, which wonld, itmighb 
avo been supposed, have sutficed for the require- 
ments of the average reader. There is, however, a 
class— with which we aympathize— which, if it ia to 
have a poet at all, asks for him in his entirety, 
and to this the present volume appeals. Lord ae 
Tabley's poems are the i)roduct8 of a thoughtful, 
highly cultivated, and richly endowed mind, which 
at its best rises near inspiration. They have been 
sadly over])raised by writers who should know 
better, but who may be pardoned, i>erhaps, the 
dosiro to find in the dead level of mediocrity of 
modern verse some promise of better things, and 
they owe something to unconscious imitation of the 
best models. The subjects arc largely classical, but 
are not treated in the conventional manner. It is 
curious, indee<l, to encounter a tragedy with the 
title of ' Orctps' rnntaiiiin;; !<•■> nifntiin of I'yUdes, 

:" ' \iit 


.1. - .- -- .. - -- - _ , -'ys 

at. ins beat, bonioliiue*, na i" ' llie Nyiiiuli aad. 
the Hunter,' the subject of wVi.viV\S»y(a.Mix-vJv'&&5S>Aa^, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [w s. t Jax. 30. i9w. 


he shows a fervid imagitiation. Hia style w fre- 
ouently too el*bor»le, bub his book deserve*, anrl 
will i-ew^ive. a. welooine. 'On a Portrait of hir 
John Suckline' (p. 277) i« an interesting poem. To 
it is appended a foot-note making a promise which 
13 nowhere fulfilled. 
The Caihf.drcd Church of St. Patrick By J. H- 

Bernard, D.D. (Bell k Sons.) 
To " Bell's Cathedral Series" has been added a 
volume on the cathedral church of Su Patrick, 
Dublin, compiled by the Dean. In addition to 
the iiitscellaneouB documents contained in the 
■'Dignitaa Decani' which were used by Monck 
Mason in his ' History of St. Patrick's falhedral, 
the Patent Rolls ami Papal Registers jjublisJied 
under the direction of the Master of tlie Rolls have 
l)een laid under contribution, so that the volume 
is complete as regards historical information. In 
addition to illustrations from Monck Maaon's 
inonuniental work, from Ware's ' Antiquities, from 
Walton's 'Dublin,' and from Whilolaw's 'History 
of Dublin,' the work is enriched by photographic 
views, reisBuea of ancient print*!, and reproductions 
of braases, 4c. A list of the Deans of St Patrick's, 
from William FitzGuido in 1*219 to the writer of 
the present volume, is appended. These, of course, 
comprise Philip Norris. 14.'>7, excommunicated by 
Pope EuKenius IV. ; William King, subseipietilly 
Archbishop ; and Jonathan Swift. The bust of 
the last named in Carrara marble, nresenlod in 
1775 by a nephew of Alderman Faulkner, is alao 

iven. Swift a remains are buried in the nave. 
^f Stella, who is buried near .Swift, the Dean sava, 
" Her sad and sbraneo history has never been fully 
revealed to the world, and her relations with the 
Dean [Swift] will, probably, always bo a mystery." 

How to Decipher mid Study Old Docnmciifi. By 
E. E. Thoyts (Mra. John Hautcnville Cope), 
^KS years have elapsed since the api)earance of 
Mn>. Cope's useful and well-arranged volume (see 
8"" S. iv. 100), and a second edition is now forlh- 
coming. For the young student it is probably the 
most serviceable work in existence Ihe old intro- 
duction of Jir. Trice Martin is reproduced. In 
her preface tho author answers the obieotiou we 
advanced in our previous notice against ner second 
chapter on handwriting, and insists that a careful 
atudy of every line and letter is useful, a statement 
we are prepared to accept. Wo had, indeed, no 
notion then, nor have we now, of censure, tho book 
for its purpose being entitled to high nraise. We 
hope Mrs. Uopo will lonu continuo her labours, and 
sometimes, as she has done previously, favour ua 
with the resulls. 

TUK Jlixonl of the Summer ExcvrMonx of the 
ffpper jVor»coot/. Athciunnn for rjM ia full of 
interest. The places visited include Clandoa uid 
Merrow, when Mr. Charles Wheeler, the chairman 
for the year, conducted. Tho manor of West 
Clandon datea back to Kdward U. The house 
was imparked in 1521, and in the days of 
■Charles I. enlarged and improved by Sir Richard 
Onslow. "The present mansion was built by 
Thomas, the second Earl, in 1731. from designs by 
iiiacomo Leoni. a Venetian. Iho next ramble 
was to Wamham Court, Mr. Henry V.rgoo b«ing 
the leader. The manor was held by W ilham de 
iuve in 127'2. Ita present poaseasor is Mr. Charles 
T 'lu^ Tbe paVly aftefwards visited the new 

Christ's Hospital Schools at Horsham, erected «tj 
A cost of 1100,000/. The buildiugs contain " fortj 
miles of hot-water pipes and ninety-eight miled 
of electric wires." Another iilace' visited waif 

Holmbury Camp, when Mr. T. H. .\lexander 

a paper. Mr. William Frederick Potter took the 
ramblers to Bex ley Heath and Crayfonl. Crayford 
Church is remarkable for its nave, which "has the 
very singular plan of a row of columns and arches, 
down the centre, abutting against the chancel arch.'*] 
Mr. \V. T. Vincent, the antiquary, of Woolwich, 
informed Mr. Potter " that he l>elieve8 the only 
other example of this kind in P]ogland is in the 
church at Grasmere, We.stntiorelaud." At Bexley 
the Red House, erected by William Morris in liCiT ^ 
was visited. It was of this house that RossettS" 
wrote in 186"2, " Above all, I wish yon could see the 
house Morris has built for himself in Kent. It is 
a most uoble work in every way. and more a i>oem 
than a house, such as anything else could lead vuu 
to conceive, but an admirable place to live in, too." 
In another trip Mr. Frank E. Spiers conducted the 
laat of his series of visita to Oxford. Mr. G. H. 

Suartermain's excursion was to Roydon and Nether j 
all. Selsdon Park, as well aa Redboume anif 
Hemol Hempstead, by the editors, form interestii, 
papers, as also does Horton and \^'raysb^^y,' bj 
Mr. 'Theophilns Pitt, who has been chosen as tk 
future editor of the annual transactious, to succee 
Mr, J. Stanley and Mr. W. F. Harradence, wh 
have ably edited the * Record ' during tho pal 
eleven years. We cordially wish the new editor 
like Buocesa. 

We mvut txUl uptciai aiUntion to the following' 
notices : — 

On all communications mnst be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but 06 a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of thu writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. W ben answer- 
ing (Queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pa((«« to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requeated to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

StekrHoi-e (" Nelson's Signal ").— See the autho- 
rities quoted at S"" 8. xi. 405 .; xii- 9. 

H. Cecil Bill.— "Kismet" equals fate. For 
• Facing the music" see the articles in S"- 8, ix., x 

C<tRRiGKvn\.—Antf., p. IS, col. 2, 1. 15. for "\oiz ' 
read loiar. P. 65, col. 1, 1. 7 from foot, for " Janes " 
read James. 


Editorial commnnicationa should be addreaaedi 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"— Adveril 
tisementa and Business Letters to "The Pnb^ 
lisher"— at the Office, Bream's Buildings. Chancerr 
Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to sUte that we decline t« return 
oommunicatioDB which, lor any reason, w« do not 
print; and to this rule we can make no exoeptiou. 

JO"" s. I. Jan. 30. loot ] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Last Week's ATHENJEUM contains Articles on 





OUR LIBRARY TAIJLE:— The Argnments on Either Side of the Fiscal Question ; The Fields of France; 
Sidelights on the Court of Trance: Labour and other QucKtions in South Africa; Toryism: New 
Tr&oslations of Damos ; The Juvenile Work of the Lambs ; Poems by Aca and Jane Tajlor; A 
French Book on Submarine Vessels ; Thackeraj's ' Critical Papers '; The Book of Garden Furniture ; 
The Buaday School Union ; Burke and Lodge's Peerage. 





SCIENCK:— Books on Birds; Besearch Notes; Mr, J. 0. Badgett ; Societies; Meetiaga Next Week; 

FINE ARTS:-The New Gallery; 8. A. Strong; Goeaip. 

MUSIC:— Music in Paris ; Gossip; Performanoes Next Week. 

DRAMA:— 'The Dynasts'; 'Joseph EnUngled'; Gossip. 

The ATHEN^UM for January 16 contains Articles on 




NEW NOVELS:— General George; Jemima; The Boy, some Horses, and kOirl; Roderiok Taliaferro ; 

St«ppiDg Blindfold ; Cambria's Chieftain ; The Conquest. 

OUR LIBRARY TABLE:— The German Emperor's Speeches ; From a Woman's Note-Book ; London on 

Thames in Bygone Days ; The Hundred Best English L} rical Poems ; Memoir of B. F. Stevens ; 

A Versatile Professor ; Record of the Upper Norwood Athenmam ; The Hibbert Jooroal. 

list of new books. 

mr. w. j. c. m0en8; the cambridge studies syndicate; george gis8in0; the 

association of assistant masters; miss ottfi ; miltonic elision; m. 

hippolytb mabinohl 

literary GOSSIP. 
SCIENCE :— The Nature of Man ; The Care of a Uooae ; Euclid and his Revisers ; Societies ; Meetiogs 

Next Week ; Gossip. 
FINE ARTS :— Roman Archseoloiiry : The Old Masters at Burlington House ; Jean L^on G£rume ; Gossip, 
MUSIC:— 'lb and Little Christina'; Broadwood Concert; Popol&r Concerts; Miniature Series of 

Masioians ; Haydn Colleotions ; Gossip ; Performances Next Week. 
DRAMA: -'The Question ' ; 'Bolitmoa'; 'Tha Widow Woos'; 'Swift and Vanessa'; Seaaon of 

Qerman Plays ; Gossip. 


JOHN G, FRANCIS, Atbenseam Office, Bream's Boildings, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

And of all Mewaagonts. 


IIO^^S. I. Jax.S), loot 



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talnlng Notea on Booka publlabed by the Cambridge I'nlveralty Proa*. The BULLETIN will uaually be publlthcil 
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London : 0. J. CLAY k, SONS, Cambridge Uaiversit; Preu WMtbouM, Are Matla Lane. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. DO- s. l Feb. b. ikm. 




rouii«<i ISM. 


yanil* exaesd n OOtU. 

JW* t Xsraorikl Hall MiUMiBfi, tt. F^rritHrdoa Btiw*, LoMea, K.C. 


■na airhc Bob. th* KABl, of liOSBBB&T. X.O. 

Piciiilest ; 

Tha RIf kt Hoik. iHt LOKl> OLBMBSK. 

TpcAiarer • 


3K. l«U«o*. W.C. 

TnutMt fRx oidcta McnbenotGomiBlMMj: 



Ai.i'imu BBMUV H&NCB, B«) (CtelrBUd Of ConiainM, 

CHAULE8 .VWJIKY, B«<|., II ik. 

OBilKTa — Tlilt InttlrntioB mi eilabllUieil In 1B« In the Clt]' of 

LoBitOB, BBder Ihm Vntldtaef o[ lb* l&M ;U<lcniun Uarmcr. tor 

fimaUDr f«iiilaa< Bud TcmpoTBrf AaaMtanee M prlselpBlt sad 

ftulBOUict B&OIC0^ BA Tondor* of aewapBpftn. 

A. DoBBttoB at Tan UulBi«t contututM k %'i«a-Prr«l4«Bt bbJ (1t»i 
thTM votfa l<ir Ufa at all el««tion> Uneh doBBtlon of I'hrca Ouini»« 
«tac« a Tnic at all •Icciloni lor Ufa Brar^ ABBoal Raharnher It 
«BUUa<ltoonaToMBtaU«l»«ttontlB napect of BBOh PtT» 8bllilB|« aa 

MXMUBUAHtr -KTBfT man asd woman thmfhoat Iba l^DlMd 
KIb||4ob>, whrMier puMiabcr, wholMBler. retailer. emnlor«r or em- 

IilOTBd. I* antiUcil to bocome a mniuber at thii InaUtquon. tai «n]0) 
taMBBlUa apnn parmriit ot rire MbilllBfi aanoallr or llire* Oalnaaa 
tsrlAla, rroTlded tbai he nr aha la eooretl In tbr aalg of namnapera. 

The pnaelpal leatnrea ot tha Balaa troraroiar electiaa to all Panaioat 
■ra. chBi tmta csndldAW ahBll hB*t iwrn ilia member of the iBaUlutlon 
lor not leaa Ihah ua yaua preoedliif applleauan-. (*i an laaa Ibaa 
aitr-Ht* T«an s( B<B 1 (Si •acacBd la the aale of Be«ipa|i«n torat leaat 
tea 7aara. 

MBUBr.— Tempoiarr relief la »lTen In eaaai of dlalr«M, not OBlr 
to Kembera of (ha laetllaUoB, but u> n«w»T<iadora or Uxlr MrTaaia 
who mar be reeomaiBBdBd lor aaalataoce br Hrmhera of the Inatiration. 
lB4«<rr !• mad* la aneh caa«a ttj TUlllna Commlttara. anil relial la 
awaidad to aeeardaBO* with the meriu and r«iiiireni«qt« of raon «*«. 


Then make a 




Your " Right 
Hand Man 


arc Knaranlood to 

give SatLi&otloa. 
S«e Oat«loxue, poit free 

Prices :— 

10b. 6d., 168. 6d.. 25a., to 


Putapi Fru. Sold by all Stationtri. 


. Chaapalrta. B C. , «;; ^ruW^l^^mf*"^" 
BKENtANOl, n. *t«. (UlOp«rm. PARIi. 

to l«OTB6 LPv urilKIBf< r 
or xli.M forTirelra MoBtiii.lii 
r)tA.MCl», HtUt mJ uiafU40»ii 


Mod thai 
.'iiti C. 

"Bsaaala* veil ^oar blood. H* 

Vrom Joha of Gaont doch brlBx tale pe^tiTTve *^~i 

ANCESTRY. Engluh, S 
TIIACBD Iriioi 8TAT8 tU.' 
Bad BmiRraot ramlllea — Mr H) 
Baeier. mai I, fpham Fark Kaad. c hiioi.k., l.unaoo w 


<a licwd. 


L. OtILLKTUN, 03, I'lKatftllj, LondoB. 


BUALDIC ENG HAVING, Book- Plate;, Beala. 

8|>rctal attaoUoa tlTcn to accniaref of 

tUaa. Mom Paav, *e. 

beraiate dalaU. 

Bafrared Copper-plata Bad SO l««t quality 



CVUJrroM'S. n, PleeadlUj-, Utadoa. 



af n and ». Wait ttrd Btraet. Kew Yort. and :«. BBUruKU ^TUBXT, 
LONUuK, W.C, iiaaita to rail tha aiiaailon at the KKADINO 
PVBI.IC 10 lh« aaeellaBt laciuuaa praaaolcd by their RraacB lloute la 
Uoadoo (or IIIUbk, oa tlka moat laTaurabli larma. ordere tor chair 
»n STAADA.II.I> rtlULlCATIONB. Bad for ikIX AUKaitlUt 

OatalocBBi aant ana ppiieauoa . 

yUad, BO BACter oa what 8ab)aet Arkaowitdfaa ih> world o«cr 
»«the Bteeieacart RnunflanarioxaDt. rir««« tcaM waata.— KAJ^'II'B 
OraatBookahop, li-lB. Joha Drlfht Mraat. BlmUathaai. 

TBMTH BUITIOM, price Slapenee. eiath 

I>£MARKABLB COMETS : a Krief Survey of the 

M.\i nrtat iBlereaUnc PacU In tha UUtorr Ot CaaiatarT AnroaOBT 

ut w. t. l\hs. ha. r.KA.s. 

BAKItsuN U)W B CD. St l>iiBitan'i HoBM. Peiur Laac, BO. 


'l^HE PENNY CHRONOLOGY: a Series of 

X Importaac l)«l«i la tha HIatorjr of the World from the Rain al 
Paai'd to the PrvaaBtTuaa. Third BdlUoa. Kjr W r L\NM, lia. 
F Ic.,A.h 

BAMFSUH LOW A CO «t. imBitan a Honae, Feiur Laaa, BC. 

(The LBACBMHALL I'KBBe. Ltd Pabluhenand rrlaCen, 
to. Leadenhall Hcreec. tooaoB. B.C ) 
C«8lalBa hajrlaM paper. »>ar which the pen allpa witli pcrlBit 
freadom. Mflpebce each. ft., per doaaa. rnlvd ot plain New POM M 
41aa, Sr. per doxen, nilad or plala. 

Aalhon ahnuld note that The I«adaohall l'f«ai, ltd . raaBOt tia 
rMpaatlble tor the lo<* of KB8. by Bra or otherwiic, UuplloBM eopterf 
•boBid be retalaad. 

STICKPHAST PASTE is miles bett..r ilian Gutn 
loT aWehlBftB Herapa, joinlnir Papan. *c ■ ih 

•troncaaaliU ttrsih (not a lof I. Aesa twu •!- .<9 

lor a tamnla BolUe. loeladiB( Hmah PBcti>> ! ' i. 

Ueadcahallaireat. ac. Of all StaUoBara. Bttetpnut r-ajK »ic«a. 


■*-*- FRANCIS. Prlnier of i«i Alhm^tim. Xft rt»J - . 

prapared lo (UltMlT B»TIMATBS /nr aU ainda ijt 

Bad I'BKIODICAL raiSTUHO.— 1». Hraaai'i Hall. t 

'r UN BRIDGE WELLS.-ComfortAbly FUR. 

i^TV. '"•??»"'• •'"' «»B«iBi. rarea mibuub walk from a B K It C. 
«~i'oB. >.« «j.,r, uaea.-a. H . «, Or«»a Hill Itoaa, nattMf* 

10* 8. 1, fkb. 6. 19M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




nOTBS :— The PlouahunDK and other MeMurec, 101— The 
Fint Billtloa or Horiw«, 103 — Carpenler'f 'Qeognvby 
Delineated,' 101— Pigr ai><l KlII-plK— Bo«b«in'a Inn, Ald- 
wych, 10&— 0. Bernard Gib»on— Belles of St. Gregory the 
Qreat. lOS. 

^OEKIBS: — J. Turin, French Clookinaker —" Twenty 
thousand niffiaiiR "—John Oor<lon and Znffany— Hu'liler»- 
field HUtory— Court I'mt* under Staart Kings -CompoBer 
and Origin ot Air — Dolores, Musical Oompoaer— Son u( 
Kapoteou I — " Glnierro," 107— Nicholas Fermr't 'Hai^ 
monlei '— " The elernnl feminlne"—Wolfe— Children on 
the Statte— Buckingham Hall, Camliridga, 106— Mortimer 
— Cbrlstalwllik Tyrri-ll-Klpples— Psalter anfl Latin MS.— 
* Beoommendeil to Mercy' — Carved Stone— Col. T. Cixiper 
—Torch and Taper, 100. 

SBPLIB6 :-Liimb. Colrridee, and Mr. Mav. 109-"0h«pe- 
roned by her father "—Sh«ke«p«»r«'« "Virtue of neoea- 
ilty," 110 — Bmmot and Du Kontenay Letters— Ipswich 
Apprentice Books — ' Memoirs of a Stomach ' — Werden 
Abliey— ■•Clyse'— "Papers "—The "Ship" Hot«I. Green- 
wich," 111— John Denmau — Glowworm or Fin'fly— " All 
roads lead to Rome." lia-Venisoii in Summer— HerVrrt 
Spencer on BIIMRrd* — Downing Family — Ash: Place- 
name, UU-Barllest Playbill —NlKbtc&pa — QUMl Manu- 
roi-iure ~" Prior to"— Before, lU-JFro«t and Its Forms— 
C«|'"''cum— Buchre, 118. 

2IOTBS ON BOOKS:— 'The Works of Thomas Na«he'- 
Dllcbfield's 'Memorials of Old Oxfordshire '—' KinKs' 
L«llera ■ — ' The Biitish Journal of Psycholo((y ' — The 
* Burlington ' and other Magnziues — Boukiellert* Cata- 

NotlCM to Corrwipondents, 


The typical holding of Eni;Ii*th land in the 
Jftventh and twelfth centuries was the yard- 
land or virgate. It contained thirty acres, 
and wai tho fourth part of a hide, hov the 
word.s " yardland " and " virgate " mean pri- 
marily a rood or Quarter of an acre.* But 
why should a holding of thirty acres have 
been called a rood 1 Tho answer ia that a 
rood of land was the area of tho " nae-isuage" 
which bolonged to a hoIdioK of thirty acres, 
and was the tneasure thereof. When men 
said that X was tho holder of a " yard " or 
'* rood " of land they usually meant that ho 
was the possessor of an arable holding which 

• This was proved by Prof. Maitland in ' Domes- 
<lay Hook and Bcyona,' pp. 381-5. See also *Cui- 
tnmal* of lUttlo Abbey' (Camden Soc), p. 124, 
where we have " viij acraa et dicuidi&m ot una 
virRatft." and Bimib^r entries. Mr. NilmiolsoV, in 
ai ' ■ ' ' Verge and Yard ' (9»* y. vii. 

'J^ l>lo tbat viTijiff [=virgate]aa 

rt . H.'ijuired the seuae uf Aquar- 

tor, till* U-rm IjHuji/.m! wonid ivUo be applied to tho 

?uartoroftb»'hiib'-" Mr, Round (' Fondnl England,' 
'^'' '■'■ ' ' .1.1. ^,^ may 

h 1 if thai 

V I'liiiired 

lltu rtuii/.uu( Mi t;le;lil li. uiiii I Ijo l.itiiti^oi iduughgan^ 
must have acquired the nensic of a half. 

was measured by a rood of " messuage," the 
area of the messuage being to the arable 
holding as I to 120. Of course a man might 
hold an actual rood and no more, but tlie 
context of surveys usually enables us to dis- 
tinguish between the rood which was the 
measure of a larger holding and the rood 
which was an actual quarter of an acre. I 
have taken the virgate first because it was 
the typical holding, and because the equiva- 
lent word " rood " can be more easily under- 
8to<:)d than " bovate" or "oxgang." 

I have already, in the form of a table,* 
summarized my theory that every bovate of 
fift«en acres was measured by half a rood of 
messuage ; that every virgate of thirty acres 
was measured by a rood of messuage; that 
every half -hide, or carucate,t was measured 
by two rwjds or half an acre of messuage ; 
and that every hide or casate^ of a liundrca 
and twenty acres was measured by an acre 
of messuage. If, then, virgate moans pri- 
marily a rood of land, bovate should mean 
half a rood, carncate should mean two roods, 
and casrtte should mean an acre. Let hs take 
these words in numerical order, and inquire 
whether this supposition is well founded. 

1. Seeing that the holder of a virgate was 
called a yardliuK. and the holder of a bovate 
a half-yard ling,.^ it is probable that if virgate 
originally meant rood, bovate meant half- 
rood. There are indications that it did so. 
The English term for the late Latin homta 
or boviga was oxgang,|| oxegan(g)dale, or 
oskin. and this quantity of land was loosely 
reganled in the seventeenth century as a 
holding not of fifteen acres, but as a piece of 

• 9"' S. vi. ,304. 

-f Relying on wnll-known authorities, I have 
hitherto regarded the hide and the caracate as 
equivalent terms. The fact that the carucate wu 
really only half a hide in no way a (Tec la my tables. 
It is often described as cootaiDirig sixty acres. 

% " Men are beginning to epeak of manent«(, 
raialfs, tributaries 'of land ' much as they would 
apeak of acren or perches of land" (Maitland, 
lU mtpra, p. 359). 

§ "Isti subscripti dicuntur half-crdlinges " 
('Customals of Battle Abbey,' p. 77), " Vherd- 

lingea cualomaiii" (iV-iW., p. 42). The yardling 

i» sometimes called virgariMi or riryalariiiJ'. Uall- 
tofts, as whU as tofts, are often mentioned in old 
BUtA-eys: "in uno tofto et dimidio" (' Couchor 
Book of Selby.' i. 3"22). We have also " nn-dietatem 
capit&lis niansi," half a capital measure (iV»W., ii. 
274). When a nieesuage, or a tolt, bud not boon 
partitioned, but remained in ita original condition, 
il was described as a whole messuage or (oft, and 
it ig from tlii (bat we get the word "all" 

which ntu . ihe "parcels" of modem 

deeds. Th- id was fo/ti»»i, 

I II " Doratn, ft lioxKangyn lond " ; "fcowojrjo., «. 
ooxgaug" (Wrisbi-Wdl<iW<it' \Qft.\i»i^V 





im S. L Fra. 6, igW. 

land containing half an acre, or aa much 
land as two oxen could plough in a day.* It 
was also regarded as so much land as a team 
of oxen could plough in a day.t If we look 
at the word oxgang closely we shall find that 
gan// translates the Latin ac/wjj, and that the 
oxgang (ox-path) was the patli which a pair 
of oxen traversed as they walked from one 
end of a piece of land to the other. It is a 
mistake to associate the oxgang with a single 
ox, for the ox never ploughed singly, and 
Hexham in his 'Nether-Dutch Dictionary' 
was right in associating it with a pair of 
oxen, but wrong in associating it with half 
an acre. He ought to have said "half a 
rood." Sir Henry Spelman (1562-1643) 
defines the oxgang as ''so much land as 

suffices for the path or actus of an ox But 

we understand it to refer to yoked oxen. "J 
These authorities, late and imperfect as their 
statements are, are very useful in showing us 
that the bovate or oxgang was primarily not 
a piece of land containing fifteen acres, but 
a small fraction of that (quantity. Hence a 
strong jpresumption in raised that originally 
it was half a rood. 

2. The carucate was originally a piece of 
land which contained two roods, being the 
double of the virgate. Its English name 
was ploughland, ploughgang, or ploiclnde 
(plough journey), and it was also known 
Himply as "plough" (A.-S. jtlf'ff), or a 
"plough of land."^ It appears in an 
' Inquisitio' from which a portion of Domes- 
day Book was compiled tnat the carucate 
was originally a piece of land containing two 
roods. In at least four places we read in 
this ' Inquisitio ' of churcbes which held so 

* " An Oxgang of land, Soo vtet landts alt ttctx 
OMtn ai-n't jock ffchmidtn, op eenen dagh kottnen 
ploegen, ofte een biirnJer landtn." " Bunder landtg, 
tikir an acre of land, ao tnucli as two oxen can 
plough in a day" (Hcxhntn's Nether-Dutch l>ic- 
tionary,' 1875). In I'JT.'J wp havn '* prorelevio uniue 
bovato (luaruni acrarunt" ('Wakefield Court Rolls,' 
i. 62). 

t Note in Best's ' Farming Book,' 1641 (Burteos 
Soe., p. 128). 

t MUoMariuni,' 1G87, p. 440. Cf. " Adiu, ane« 
wwnes MnKweR. Uia, twegrm Wfeoa Kangweg" 
(Wright-Wiilcker ' Vocab.'). In Lancashire the 
oxgang was known ae oxegan(g)dale, i.e. oxgnn^ 
portion. By an undated charter John de Croynton 
granted to Richard dc Edesford " totain ineani 
oxegandale in Sydalith cum Buia pertinenciis, ot 
totani terrarn tne«tn ad sepeni piaciuni, et toiatn 
menni oxegandaJo in Swayncroft cum suiii perti- 
DOUtiia, et totam aieam oxegandnlo in le Westwong 
cam pertinontiia auis.'' The rent reserved was one 
obolua, payable at Chriatmaa ('Coucher Book of 
WhttUey." Chetham See, p. 1128). 

S*'A ploghe of land, caruca/a" ('Catholicon 

many acres and a cAnte&t«, or bo many acres 
and half a carucate.* Here the carucate is 
a measure which contains less than an acre, 
and, seeing that the rood in described in 
Domesday Book as rirffntfi,^^ the carucate 
niujjt have contained two roods. The author 
of the 'Promptorium Parvulorum,' dated 
1440, is careful to show ua the two meanings 
which the eouivalenb word ploughland had 
in his time. It means), he says, (a) a carucate, 
and (b) a jugcr, or as much lana as a plough 
may till in a day.^ Instead of juger Be 
might have said two roods, but }U(Hnim was 
the best Latin word he could think of. 
Obviously the lesser ploughland was a mea- 
sure of the greater. 

These three units of measurements the 
carucate, the virgate, and the bovate, exnaust 
the plough team. Theoan^oi was the plough, 
and these units obtained their names from 
the space or breadth which groups of oxen, 
when yoked to a plough, occupied in the 
6eld. To get the breadth of the several 
strips or portions of the acre forming the 
bovate, virgate, and carucate respectivelj', 
we have to ascertain the space in which a 
pair of oxon can stand abreast. Roughly, it 
18 7i or 8 feet. Doubling the lesser number; 
we get a rod of fifteen feet as the length of 
the yoke to which two pairs of oxen, stand- 
ing abreast, could be attached. This rod§ or 
viroa is the breadth of the virgate or rood. 
Half the rod is the "gangway" or achia in 
which a pair of oxen, standing abreast, could 
plough. The carucate takes its name from 
the full team of eight oxen.|| If the eight 
oxen ploughed abreast they would, taking the 
rod as fifteen feet in length, occupy a breadth 
of thirty feet, and this would be the theo- 
retical breadth of the carucate. In practice 
they ploughed four abreast, but the breadth 

• *' RIooIesIa de Berkin^, de ixxxiii acrii libern? 
feme et j carucata el lij ocris prati. *' Eccleaia 
de Dereham, de xxx arris libera; (terrre] et j 
carKCttta." " Ecclesia dc Torp, de xij acria liberiK 
terra? et dimidia carucuta." " Eccleaia de Wtiiinr- 
gesele, do svj acris et dimidia carncata" (Hainil- 
ton's ' Inquisitio Coraitatus Cantabrig.,' p. iV', 
index). Domesday Book (ii. 2ft4b) has, under 
Weringheaetu, " Kcclesia xvj acrarum ot dimidi« 

t " In Staintono habuit Jalf 5 bovatas terra; et 
14 acras terr:u ot nnani virgatam ad geldum" 
(Domesday Book, 1. 364, cited by Maitland, nt 
nuut-a, t). .184), 

* "I'lowlond. rniTiwft/CT." "Plowlond, Miplow 
may tylle on a nay, j«oe(«»>.'' 

§ In the Wright-Wiilcker 'Vocftb.,' 737,21, we 
have " rifffotOj a rodlande." 

II Mr. Round ('Feudal England,' p. 35) has proved 
by a comparison between the Inquisitio ' and 
Domesday Book that the carucate wu related to 
eight oxen. 

10^ s. I, Feb. 6. 190L] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


o( the c&racate reats oo the assumption that 
they ploughed eight abreast. 

S. O. Addy. 
ITo he continued.) 


The Brst edition of the works of Horace 
has neither imprint nor date, but it is be- 
lieved to have oeen printed in Venice ; an 
approximate date can, however, be assigned 
to it, because an edition of the ' De Vita 
Solitnria' of St. Basil, printed iu the same 
type, bears the date 1471. The types may 
be recognized by the e of the lower case ; in 
this letter the horizontal stroke is extended 
considerably beyond the loop. There are 
several books in the same types, viz., Basi- 
Hu9. * De Vita Solitaria,' 1471 ; Donatus, ' De 
Barbarismo'j Plutarchua, ' Apophthegmata'; 
Flofus, 'Epitome'; a Lucan; Lodovico Bruni, 
' La Prima Guerra Punica'; and there may 
be others. 

The printer of this eJitio princepB had 

another peculiarity : he was not contented 

^with placing the word " Finis " at the end of 

khe book ; he also puts it at the end of each 

jpart, and tite re&son is supposed to be that 

^e^ might be sold separately ; but be this 

" it may, the binders, having no signatures 

guide them, have bound the four parts in 

all kinds of different ways. This printer 

makes the same of the word " Finis " in 

the edition of Plutarch's ' ApophtbeKmata.' 

In the Grenville copy in the British Museum 

the arrangement of the four parts, each of 

which ends with the word "Finis," is as 

follows : — 

Part I. fol. la, "Quinti Oratii Flacci 
Car |, minum Liber Primus." 

Fol . 16b, " Quinti Oracii Flacci Car | minam 
Liber Secundus." 

Fol. 3Ua, " Quinti Oracii Flacci Car 1 minum 
Liber Tertius." 

Fol. 50a, "Quinti Oracii Flacci Ser I monum 
[misprint for Carniinum] Lil>er Quartus." 
Fol. 61b, "(Quinti Oracii Flacci Epotlos." 
Fol. 74a, " Quinti Oracii Flacci Carmen 
Fol. "."ib, " finis ": then four lines as follows : 
H' "' 111 carmen Hormtii : 

Va iinxit in istia 

Viu.*. ,» .. ,. . ..^ .,,. :.- . -cultt uiiicat 

Omnift: ecu niin(|Ui»ni iiumeria abolebilurauctor. 

Part 11. fol. TGa, "Quinti Oratii Flacci 
Sermonum | Liber Primus." 

Fol. D6a," Quinti Oracii Flacci Ser | monum 
Liber Seeundus."' 

Fol. 117a, ''finis/' 

Part IIL fol. n8a, "Quinti Oracii Flacci 
Poetria [ji'c]." 

Fol. 127a," Bnis." 

Part IV. fol. 128a, "Quinti Oratii Flacci 
Epi I stolarura Liber Primus." 

Fol. 147b, "Quinti Oratii Flacci Episto | 
larum Libor Seeundus," 

Fol. 157a, "Finis." 

In the copy in the King's Library, British 
Museum, the arrangement is in this manner : 

Part I. fol. la, "Quinti Oratii Flacci Ser- 
monum I Liber Primus," 

Fol. 21a, "Quinti Oracii Flacci Ser | mouan> 
Liber SecuncTus." 

FoL 42a, " finis," 

Part II, fol. 43a, "Quinti Oratii Flacci 
Epi I stolarum Liber Primus. ' 

Fol. 62b, "Quinti Oratii Flacci Episto | 
larum Liber Seeundus." 

Fol, 72ft, "finis." 

Part III. fol. 73a, "Quinti Oratii Flacci 
Car I minum Liber Primus." 

Fol. 90b, "Quinti Oracii Flacci Car | minum 
Liber Seeundus." 

Fol, 102a, "Quinti Oracii Flacci Car | 
minum Liber Tertius." 

Fol, 122a, "Quinti Oracii Flacci Ser | 
monum [for Carminum] Liber Quartus." 

Fol. 1.^3b. "Quinti Oracii Flacci Epodos." 

Part IV. fol. 142, ISl, first and last leaves 
of the 'Ars Poetica,' wanting. 

Fol- 150a, "Quinti Oracii Flacci | Carmen 

Fol. 157b, "Finis." 

Signor Posquale Castorina, in a pamphlet 
entitled 'Intornoad una Prima Enizione di 
Q. Orazio Flacco Cenni Bibliografici,' pub- 
lished at Catania in 1887, describes a copy in 
the Biblioteca Univeraitaria di Catania, in 
which the four parts are arranged thus: 
PartL, 'Epistolaj'; PartlL, 'Ars Poetica 'j 
Part III.. ' Sermones '; Part IV., ' Carraina, 
• Epodes, ' Carmen,' ' Carmen Saeculare.' This 
edition is supposed to have been printed at 
Venice, because some copies contain a border 
which is found nowhere else, Vindelinus de 
Spira being one of the printers who used it. 
The watermarks, the cardinal's hat, pair of 
shears, and the column (the anna of tho 
Colonna family), occur also in St. Augustine's 
' De Civitate Dei,' printed by Joannes and 
Vindelinus de Spira in 1470. 

This edition is interesting from a literary 
as well as from a typographical point of view. 
In the Epistles, bk. ii. ep. ii. 1. 140, there is 
an extraordinary reading : the words per vim 
nienli* road " pretium mentis." I give the 
complete sentence ; — 

"I\»l in« oci.'i<li»t«», ainici, 
Non servMtis," ait, "ooi eio cxlorto voluptas, 
Kt <l«inptu« |>er vim rnet)tUgrRti*aiRiu« «rrur," 

The first edition roads ; — 



NOTES AND QUERIES. no- ts. i. fi:b. g. i9M. 

'* Fol me ooctdistis, aniici, 
2fon acrvMtU," ait, " cui aic extorta voluptas, 
Et demptus pretiiim mrntii gnitisairauB error." 
This edition is also remarkable a« contain- 
ioR the eieht spurioua lines at the commence- 
ment of ttie tenth satire of the first book ; 
they are said not to appear again till 1691, 
■when they occur in the edition printed at 
Paris, "in usum Delphini," with notes by 
L. Deaprez. They read thus : — 
<L)Voi1i quam sis mendosus teste C&tono 
Defensoro tuo pcruicani i|ui male factoa 
fmendare parat iicraus hoc lenitiR ille 
£st quo uir molioi- ; lobge subtilior illo 
Oui mullum puer tc loris et funibua udis 
liixhortatus ut esset ojk.'tii i^uia forre poctia 
Antiquis posset contra fastidia nostra 
'Cr&niaticorum equilu doctiaaimus [ut] redeatn illuo. 

S. J. Aldricii. 
New Soutbgate. 



(See ante, p. 22.) 

Carpenter informs us he waa born in 

Devonshire, Hb pride in his native county 

was not only pardonable, but justifiable. 

When he recalla her worthies he rises to a 

degree of entliusiasticaud dignified eloquence 

•quite inspiring. The following is well worthy 

of being remembered (book ii. p. 2C1) : — 

" Neither can it be etiled our re|>roach, but ii}ory, 
to draw our olf-Bpring frotn such an Aire which 
produceth wita as eminent aa the Moantainea, 
approauhiag farre uearcr to Heaueu in Excellency, 
then the other in hight transcend the Valleyea. 
Wherein can any Province of Great Brittaine 
ciiallenge precedency before v8 7 Should any deny 
-vs the reputation of Arts and Leamlne ; the 
.piona Ghoats of lewell, lUyaolds, and Hooker, 
would riae vp in opposition; whom the World 
knowca ao valiantly to hauediaployed their Banners 
in defence of our Church ana Religion. Should 
'they exclude vs from the re()utatioD of knowledge 
lin State and politick aiTaires? who hath not 
acquainted hinvaelfe with the name of S' William 
Potre our famous Benefactor, whoso desert chose 
tiim chief Secretarie to three Princes of fanioua 
memorie? Who hath not known or read of that 
prodiKio of wit and fortune S' Waller Rawloigh, a 
man vnfortunato in nothing els but the greatnes of 
•his wit &. advancement? whoae eminent worth 
<wai auch, Ijoth in Domcatick Policie, Forrelgue 
'Expeditiona, and Discoveries, Art4 and Literature, 
botn Pratick and ContctnplBtiue, which might 
seeme at once to conquere ixitJi Example and 
Imitation. For valour and chivalrous ])eeignea by 
-Bea, who readca not without admiration of the 
Act* of .S' Francis Drake, who thought the circuit 
of tliis Earthly Globe too title for his generous and 
magnanimous Ambition? Of S' Kichanl Gren^-ill, 
who vndertaking with ao great a disadvantage, ao 
ktrong an Enemy; yet with an vndaunted Spirit 
ido his Honour legible in the wound.q of the 
cud SpAniard : and at last triiirii|ilieii more in his 
iwoe honourable Death, then the other in hia baec 

conquest? Of S' Harofrey Gilbert, 8' Richard 
iHawkins, Davies, Frobisher, and CajiL Parker, 
with many others of worth, aot« ft estimation, 
whose names line with the Ocean ? " 

Then there is another type of character not 
less worthy of honourable remembrance. I 
may mention that Hakewill in his ' Apologie,' 
1635, refers to Sir Thomaa Bodley as '*ajy 
honoured Kinsman " (book ii. p. 262) ; — 

"Sliould 1 ai>eakeof C'l "' und 

Favour of Learning, shew • s in 

the general Muniticeace i . ^ . , hole 
Vriiversity ; what Age or Place can giuu a Parallel 
to renowned Bodley, whose name carries more per- 
ewasion then the tongue of the wisest Oralour? 
Hia magniticent Bounty, which shewed it nclfe eo 
extraordinarily transcendent, aawell in erection of 
lua Famous Liurary, which he (as another Piolomy) 
so richly fumisht, as other munificent Lari^esses, 
exhibited to our English Athens, was yet farther 
crowned by his wise cnoice, aa proceeding from one, 
who being both a great Bcholier, and a prudent 
Statist, knew aawell how to direct aa bestow hia 

The next extract includes tlie name of Dr. 
George Hakewill. Here we have coutem- 
poi-ary testimony to tho personal worth of 
the man. The " Pious Monument " referred 
to by Carjienter was, no doubt, the cbapel 
whicu Hakewill built and gave tc Exeter 
College. Hia ' Apologie ' was first published 
in 1627 ; but as 1 have already expressed my 
opinion of it in the^e pages, I shall say nothing 
further on that point. I may, however, take 
this opportunity of recording a curious ex- 
pression used by Hakewill, which I should 
not have expected him to employ, and 
which, I believe, was a colloquialism cir- 
culating more among the common people. 
Speaking in his ' Apologie ' of the testimony 
in favour of John Fust aa the inventor of 
printing, Hakewill goes on to say that the 
author cited "in truth shewos good cards for 
it "(p. 317), in plain English, that he assigns 
good reasons for what lie stAtes. I remem- 
ber only one other example of the phrase, 
and that in the fine old comedy of ' Nobody 
and Somebody,' 1606, where one of the 
characters, a clownish fellow, employs it La 
the same sense as Hakewill does: "My 
M[aster] hath good cards on hi.^ side, He 
warrant him " (sig. H 4 verso). Here is the 
passage from Carpenter (book ii. p. 26iJ) : — 

"If Founders and Bencfactoura of priuate Col- 
leges may find place in this Catalogue of Worthies, 
the sweet hiue and receptacle of our Wosteme 
wits can produce in honour of our Com ' ' -oua 
Stniiledon UisliDp of Exceslt-r, and v 'ler 

of Exont^iillcdge: whose lftri:"I'"util\ ■■ ird 

seconded (next to Edm. .V' .i. ut ^liiiini, 

a Westemc Man) by the p :*ud liberality 

of Mr. lohu Peryam, S' mm, .,< hmd. Ac very 
lately by Mr. Dr. Hakewill, wlioiie worthy Eu- 
comiam, I (though vuwillingly) leaue out, lest 1 




Bhonlrl seetne rather to flatter then ootninend his 
Worth. But what oeedea ho iny poore mention T 
His learnod works published to the World, tc his 
Pious Monument bestowed on our House, speuke in 
Biience mure then I can vtter out of the highest 
pitch of Invealion. " 

Nor does our author forget to includo in 
Ilia list of Devonshire worthies the name of 
WUh'aui Browne, author of ' Britannia's 
Pastorals,' the first part of which belongs to 
1613. Carpenter was evidently a personal 
friend of his (book ii. p. 264) :— 

" the bla7x>ningof whom to the life, especially 

the last [Poets], I had rather leauc to my worthy 
friend Mr. W. Browne; wiio an he hath already 
honoured his countrie in his ele^nt and itweete 
' PastorallSj' so rjuestionlos will easily beo intreated 
a litle farther to grace it, by drawing out the line 
of his Poelicke Aunceatera, oeginuiug iti losephus 
Isc«nu8, and ending in him»elfo." 

Our author falls very ^ab indeed when lie 
passes from prose to verse. In a metrical 
eflFort of 8odio 104 lines, " My Mother O.xford " 
is suppose<^l to be the speaker, reproaching 
him for being so devoted to the interests of 
his native county, and anything more wooden 
or could scarcely be imagined, lie 
concludes the piece thus (book ii. p. 269) : — 

Or if thy nature with constraint, descends 
Below her owne delight, to prociick eodes: 
Rise with my morning Phivbua, slight the West, 
Till furrowed Age inuite thee to thy rest. 
And then perchance, thy Eirth which seldome gaae 
Thee Aire to breath, will lend thy Corps a graue. 
Scone the last tn.uni>et will be heard to sound, 
And of thy load Eeise the Deuonian ground. 
Meanc time if any gentle swaine come by. 
To view the tnarble where thy ashes ly. 
Ho may vpon that stone in fewer yeares, 
Engraue an Kpitajib with fretting teares. 
Then make mean frozen hearts with all hi« cries 
Drink in a drop from bis dialilliug eyes : 
Yel will 1 promise ihv neglected bones 
A firmer monument then spcachle^ stones. 
And MJien 1 ]iiiic> with iigo, and wit« with rust, 
Keraphiuk Aiigclls s,lmll prcBcnie thy dust. 
And nil good men acknowledge shall tvith me 
Thou lou «t thy Country, when shee hatoth thee. 

To thiij fanciful complaint of his Alma 

ter Carpenter replies in tho same form, 

the 116 line^ ho devotes to hi.s address 

are almost worse than those which have 

gone before. 

On the famous line in Hamlet's soliloquy 
(there are analogous expressions in ' Richard 

Thua coDBoieDco does make cowards of as all— 
ft curiouH comment may be found in this 
work of < 'arpenter's (book ii. p. 284) : — 

*' ' .:row the vsnall Proverbo anioiipsl 

Vti'' \na; that ron-tcicnre wwXfi fowarfit. 

But Li.i.' i.i> 1 said) is meeroly accidentall: For 
aiimiK'h us nothing epurres out a true resolution 
tnore then a i/oo<i cau^cicnct, and a true touch of 
ralixioD ; witoeasc ibe buly Martyrs uf the Church 

of all age-s, whose valour and constancie hath out- 
gone ull heathen presidonle." 

I should note that the italics are Car- 

f)enter'8 own. Whether he had Hamlet's 
ine in view when he wrote the above can 
only be a matter of conjecture. I give thd 
extract for what it is worth. 

Since the foregoing was written a perfect 
copy of the edition of 1625 has come into my 
hands. I find on collation that tiio poem ' To- 
toy Booke'is common to both the first and 
second editions. A. S. 

Pin AND Kill- PIG : the American Colonies 
AND England. — If tho following verses, 
written in a contemporary hand on a sheet 
of foolscap, which I have found among some 
old papers in my pcssession, have not been 
published, they may be thought worthy, in 
spite of their crudity, of preservation in your 
columns : — 
" When on a trestle pig was laid, 
And a sad squealing sure it made; 
Kill-pig stood by, with knife and steel: 
' Die quiet, can't you ? Why d' you squeal J 
Have I not fed j'ou with my neaao, 
And now for tn'fles such aa these 
Will you rebel? Brimful of victual. 
Won't you be cut and kill'd a little?' 

To whom thus piggy in reply :— 
" How can you think I'll (juiet lie. 
And that for ;>easo my life I '11 barter 1' 
' Then, piggy, you must shew vour oharfor. 
How you re exempted more than others, 
VAm go to pot, like all your brothers.* 
" Pig struggles. 
' Help, neighbours, help 1 This pig 'a bo strong 
1 tind I cannot hold him long. 
Help, neighbours ! I can't keep him under. 
Where are yo all ! See, by yonr blunder 
He's gone and broke the cords asunder.' 
■' Exit pig, and KiUpig after him with a knife." 
Endorsed : " Verses on tho Situation of 
England and America in the year 1779, in 
which England is describ'd by Kill-pig, and 
America by Pig." J. Eliot Hodoktn. 

BosHAM'a Inn, Aldwycu. — The ancient 
name of Aldwych having been judiciously 
revived by the London County Council as 
the official designation of the crescent which 
finishes off the southern end of the new 
thoroughfare connecting Holborn an<l the 
Stran<l, it becomes of interest to trace the 
early history of the locality. In the davs of 
King Richard II. one of the principal inhabi- 
tants of the district was John Boshara, 
citizen and mercer, who in 1378 served aa 
one of the .Sherirts of the City of London. la 
-. Richard II. (1381) John Walssh, of London. 
goldsmith, and Margaret his wife, cowM;<wi«k V 
on two c»t«A.««tA\olk«^\i:'$i»5«o»s».^^X 




[10«» S. I, Fkh. 

London, raercer, and Felicia his wife, promises 
in " Kentissheton," and in the parish of 
St. Clement Danes, without the Bar of the 
New Temple, and St. Giles of the Lepers, 
without the Bar of the Old Temple. In the 
following year John Spirst<:>ke and Margaret 
his wife conveyed to John Bosham ana his 
•wife premises in the same parishes (' Uftlendar 
of Feet of Fines for London and Middlesex,' 
ed. Hardy and Page, i. 157). On these broad 
lands John Bosham built himself a lordly 
idence, which was known as Bosham 's Inn, 
«.nd was probably situated on or near the 
spot on which Drury House was afterwards 
built. He died in 1393, his wife Felicia 
havine predeceased him. By his will, which 
was dated London, 8 October, 1393, and 
proved 25 March following, ho directed his 
rents and tenements in the parishes of 
St. Michael "de Bassyngeshaugh " and 
St. Pancras. and in " Sevennodlane " in the 
parisli of St. Laurence in Old Jewry, to be 
sold by his executors, and the proceeds 
devoted to pious and charitable uses for the 
good of his soul, the soul of Felicia his late 
wife, and other.s (' Calendar of Wills, Court 
of Husting, London,' ed. Sharpo, i. 308). The 
records of St. Paul's Cathe<iral give some 
further information with regard to this 

In 3 Hen. IV. (1401) there was recorded 
an acquittance from William Caustoa and 
John Purchas, vicars of St. Paul's, and 
guardians of the light of the chapel of 
St. Mary in the New Work in that church, 
to the executors of the will of John Bosham, 
citizen and mercer of London, for one year's 
rent for a new garden by the great inn of 
the said John Bosham in Aldewich without 
the Bar of the Old Temple, in the street that 
leads to the Hospital of St. Giles (Hist. 
MSS. Com. App, Ninth Report, p. 52a). Three 
years later another acquittance of the Dean 
and Chapter of St. Paul's is recorded, for 
rent issuing from a new garden lately belong- 
ing to Joluj Bosham, adjoining his great inn 
"in Aldewych extra la Temple Barre," on 
which three liousea formerly 8t«o<l (ibid., 
p. 7a). The name of the place did not die 
with its owner. Mr. H. R. Plomer, in a paper 
entitled 'Some Notes about the Cantlowe 
Family ' in the Nome Count ia, Mayatine for 
January, 1904, p. 43. cites a deed in the 
Public Record Office (Ancient Deeds, C. 31,^4), 
bv which in 20 Henry IV. (1441) Sir Robert 
Hungerford and others demised to Sir William 
Estefekl, Henry Frowyk, William Melreth. 
John OIney, and William Cantelowe, all of 
em mercers, their meadow adjoining their 
essoage called "Bosammosynne" on the 

west, and their land called " Cleraenbesynne 
mede " on the north ; reserving a sufficient 
footpath for their servants to go by the said 
meadow from the gate of the said messuage 
towards London. It is possible the records 
of the Mercers' Company might throw some 
further light upon this property and its later 
owners. W. F. Pjudeaux. 

Charles Bekxaud GrasoK. — On looking 
in the * Dictionary of National Biography ' I 
was surprised not to find the name of the 
Rev. Charles Bernard Gibson. The following 
ia some account of him. He was minister at 
Mallow, CO. Cork, under the Irish Evangelical 
Society, 1834-66 ; chaplain to Presbyterian 
convicts of Spike Island, Cork Harbour ; 
lecturer of St. John's, Hoxton ; chaplain to 
Shoreditch Workhouse ; and author of the 
following publications : — 

The Liut Karl of Desmond. 18M- 2 vole. 

Life among Convicts. 1863. 

Historical PortraiU of Irish Chief tains and Anglo- 
Norm&n Knighta. 1871. 

PhiloBophy, Science, and Revelation. I'i74. 

Beyond the Orange River. IhW. 

Dearforgil, an Historical Novel. 

History of the County and City of Cork. 1(163. 
2 vol«. 

The last is sufficient to per|jetuate his fame 
and to establish his worth. He died 12 August, 
18tt5, aged seventy- seven, in London. 

The above facts are to bo found in the 
Jfjunial of the Cork Historical and Archaao- 
logical Society of July to September, 1903. 

W. Devereux. 

Relics of St. Greuoky the Gueat.— As 
the thirteen-hundredth anniversary of this 
great apostle of the English is rapidly ap- 
proaching, a note on this subject will not Be 
deemed out of place. 

Me. Wakd. under the heading "The Consul 
of God " (ante, p. 32), saya : *' In 720 Gregory, 
who had been buriea in the atrium of 
St. Peter's, was translated within tlio church." 
By the "atrium," in this connexion, is meant, 
I suppose, the portico, i.e., that portion of 
the arcade running round the atrium which 
immediately adjoined the church. This 
portico was a favourite burying-placo of the 
Popes from the time of St. Leo the Great. 
Is Mb. Waed right as to the date ? Neither 
Hare (' Walks in Rome,' ii. 187) nor Fr. Barnes 
(' St. Peter in Rome,' second edition, p. 267) 
knows of any translation before Uiat effocteu 
by Gregory IV. about 840. Hare says that 
the remains of the saint were then removcJ 
"to a magnificent tomb in the church, with 
panels of silver and golden mosaics"; but aa 
a matter of fact, as Fr. Barnes says, the 
translation was to a position under the high 


ID"' S.I.Feb. 6. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


, filbar of the neighbouring basilica of St. An- 
drew, built by St. Symmachua in 498, which 
basilica afterwards became known as St. Gre- 
gory's. There the relics remained till Piaa 11. 
(Pope 1468-64) transferred them to the altar 
of ot. Andrew at the eastern end of the 
northernmost aisle of St. Peter's. This altar 
remained till the reign of Paul V. (1604-21), 
when it was destroyed, and the relicsi were 
removed to the Capella Clementina, lately 
complete*!, where they now rest under the 
altar on the right, Mrs. Oliphant ('Makers 
of Modern Kome,' second eflition, p. 180) 
ignores all these translations. 

John B. Wainewbioht. 


[We must request correspondents desirin? in- 
nnation on family mattera of only private interest 
. Affix Lhetr naniea and ftddresses to their queries, 
B order that the answers may be addressed to them 

J. Turin, Fkench Clockmakeii.— Will any 
reader kindly tell me when a French clock- 
maker named J. Turin lived, and whether 
the firm still exists 1 

■ Evelyn Wellington. 

Wonston, Mioheldever. 

"Twenty thousand ruffians." — What 
historian was it who described the Normans 
"who came over with the Conqueror as 
"twenty 0) thousand ruffians'? Was it 
Freeman, and was it " twenty *' ? I should 
be grateful if any one would give me the 
&ctual words or a reference to where I can 
find them. R. A. H. 

■ John Qohdox and Zokfany. — In Cham- 
bers's ' History of Norfolk ' it is stated that 
the Rev. William Gordon possessed several 

gictures collected by John Gordon, who 
cured in Zoffauy's picture of the Gallery of 
Florence. Mr. Gordon, Imwever, does not 
figure in the key-plate of the picture as 
exhibited iu the British Institution of 1814. 
Who was John Gordon? J. M. Bulloch. 

HuDDEESKiELU HisTOBY.-I am engaged in 
compiling a family history, but have met 
with an obstacle which stops further pro- 
^res«. About 17C8 two persons were married 
ID Huddersfleld parish church. At their 
death they were interred in Buxton lioad 
Old Methodist Chapelyard, Hudrioisfiold. 
This chapel was taken down about 1837, the 
gravestones were destroyed, and, to make 
matters still worse, the registers are missing, 
not bring in the possession of the chapel 
authuritivs or at Somerset House. I desire 


to ascertain the date of the death of these 
two persons and their age. Is there any 
means that can be taken to accomplish this f 

C. X. V. 

CouKT Posts undee Stuart Kings.— Can 
any reatler inform me what were the duties 
of persons holding the following posts: also 
in what rank of life the holders would oe? — 
Marshal of the Hall to James I. Yeoman of 
the Privy Chamber to James I. Yeoman de 
le lesh to James I, Page and Yeoman of the 
Bedchamber to Charles L Is there any 
equivalent to these posts in the Court to-day ^ 


CoMPOfsER AND Onir.iN 01" AiR.— I am 
desirous of ascertaining the name, composer, 
and origin of an air, the first portion of which 
is as follows : — 


Doix>RE8, Musical Composee.— I should 
like to know whether the musical composer 
who wrote under the name of " Dolores was 
her late Majesty Queen Victoria. 


Son of Napoleon I. — Had Napoleon an 
illegitimate son at St. Helena i The Tivies 
of 27 Mav, 1886, quoting the •S'an Francisco 
World, tells an extraordinary story about the 
death in San Francisco, in the previous April, 
of a person calling himself "Gordon Bona- 
parte," who was alleged to be the natural son 
of Napoleon by an English housekeeper who 
had been sent out to St. Helena. She after- 
wards returned to London, and married a 
watchmaker named Gordon, who adopted 
the child. What truth is there in this storv ? 
A Theodore Gordon, a watchmaker, wno 
edited the Ilurolof/ical Miigazine, and was 
associated with VuUiamy, had, I believe, a 
natural son. I wonder if this is the watch- 
maker referred to. Gordon Bonaparte is 
said to have had a remarkable likeness to his 
putative father. J. M. B 

"GiMKRKO." — What animal is indicated in 
the following extract from Jo.seph Ba.c«,t<>\!% 
'Account of the ^Luuckft^^ mA v::.^aaiy5ra» ^ 

[Ul» 6. L Feb. 6, 190t 



Italy,' 1768? Baretti seom* to have lieen a 
trutliful person. He no doubt believed what 
ho told his readers :— 

" It will not be improper to «ay aoraethinx of the 
giincrrui, aa I find that no travel-writer, of tlie 
many 1 have rea'l. has ever mentioned them, and 
that they are bat little known even to thoiie of my 
Eoijliah friends who delight in various and cx(«d- 
aive readint;. A gimerro i? an animal bom of a 
horac and a cow : or of a bull and a mare ; or of au 
au and a cow The two first sort« are eenerally us 
large aa the largest mulen, and the third Homewhat 

■mailer Of the two fimt Borta I have seen 

hnndrede, especially at Demont, a fortreaa in the 
Alps (about ten miles above the town of (Juneo) 
that waa much talked of during the last war 
between the French and the Piedmonteae, There 
many of these cimerros were used, chiefly in 
carryin^r stones and sand up to the fortrest tliat 
was then a-buildin(c on a hi^h rocky hill. Uf the 
third afieoiea I rone upon one from iiavona to 
Acuui 8o late as the year 1765."— Vol. ii. p. 282. 

K. P. D. E. 

Nicholas Febrar: nis 'Harmonies.'— 
Oapt Acland-Troyte read, on 26 January, 
1888, to tlio Society of Antiquaries a most 
interesting paper on these ' Harmonies,' and 
at its cloRe expressed a hope that the result 
of his paper would be the discovery of the 
original MS. of the first ' Harmony,' prepared 
by the community at Little Gidding for their 
own use in 1G30. Waa his wish fulfilled ? If 
80, where is the volume now ] As the paper 
was written nearly twenty years ago, .«iomo 
of the ' Harmonies ' then in private hands 
may now have passed into public collections. 

Where are tno ' Hariuonies ' then owned 
by C'lipt. Acland-Troyte; Miss Heming, of 
llillingdou Hill, Uxbridge ; Lord Arthur 
Hervev, formerly Bishop of Bath and Wells ; 
Capt. Gaussen, of Broolcman'a Park, Hatfield ? 

I assume those then belonging to Lords 
Salisbury and Normanton are still at Hatfield 
and Somerley respectively. If not, where 
are they T Have the ' Harmonies ' made for 
George Herbert, Lord Wharton, and Dr. 
Jackson been discovered ) 

T. Cann Huoheb, M.A., F.S.A. 


•'The eternal FEMiNtNE.' — When did 
this phr».s0 become current among English 
writers? Dr. Murray lines not c^uote it 
under "eternal," but undtjr "feminine" ho 
gives a reference to the Pall Mall (rnzetie of 
16 Juno, 1892. I fancy it wus iu vogue before 
that dale. It is, of course, borrowed from 
the Fi'ench, but whether it was invenU*d or 
not by Thi'nphile (lautier I cannot sav. 
That writer iniike.s u^e of it in tlie mii>ilerly 
essay on Bnudplaire which wjis profixc<l to 
the doliriitive edition of ' Les Fleurs du Mai,' 
ieC8, p. 30. He itttlicizee the phra«e :— 

" Diverges fignres de ferome paniMent ao food 
des iKi^tes de Baudelaire, lea naea voildes, les ' 

autrea demi-nuea, nidii Bane <iu'on duImc lea* 
attribucr un aom. ^ qu» ' 

dea person nes. Ell- r/m, 

ot 1 amour que le i-o- 1> t 

l amour et non i>»a uii « s 

que dans sa theorie il n :> 

individuelle, la trouvaut trup cruc, Uup iiUiiilikTO, 
et trop violentc." 

Perhaps some correspondent may be able 
to say if Gautier was the author of the 
phrase. W. F. Pripeacx. 

[Surely the orii(in of the phrase is found in the 
last words of ' Faust,' Part II. ; an invocation to 
the Virgin Mary ;— 

Dob Ewig-Weibliche 

Ziehl una hinan. 
It may well have l>een conveyed atraight froni 
Goethe to fiuclish without coming through the 

WoLrE.— I should like to know what regi- 
ments General J. Wolfe, the conqueror of 
Canada, was in. The 'Annual Register,' 1759, 
p. 281, refers to Kingsley's, but very vaguely. 

1{. B. B> 
second lieu* 
tenant, 3 Novemlwr, 17*1, in hia father's regiment 
of marines, then known as the 44th Foot. On 
27 March, H^'-i he became ensign in the Itith Foot 
(Duroure'e). lie was with his regiment at Det- 
tingen; adjutant. -' .July, and lieutenant, 14 July, 
1743. On .1 June, 1744, caj.tain 4th Foot (Bdrrel's) ; 
12 June, 174i), brigade-major. On the atalT at Cul- 
lodcn. In January, 1746/7, bricade-major in Mor* 
daunt's brigade ; wounded at LaetTelt. On 3 January, 
1748/9, major in 20lh Foot (Lord Ceorge vSackville'sl ; 
on '20 March, 174050, lieutenant-colonel. On 7 Feb- 
ruary, 1757, Quarterniastcr-flenoral in Ireland. In 
1758 commanded a brigade in America, and during 
hia abaence there was made colonel of the iind Bat- 
talion of the 30th. then converted into a separata 
regiment, the ffllh. For further particulars conault 

Children on the Stage. — When did 
children first act publicly for the entertain- 
ment of children 1 Was the fashion of so 
doing set in Gilbert and Sullivan opera, or 
by a French company of children which, 1 
believe, came to England a little before? 

Nigel Playtaib. 
Oarrick Club. 

[Children, of cotiree, acted in Shakespeare's time- 
See the references iu 'Hamlet* to "an aery of 
ohildron, little eyaaos,"' II. ii. 353, supposea to 
Indiontn (he fhildren of Paul's or of the Chapel. 
In 'Jftck IVuni'a Entertainment; or, PasQuil and 
Katlicrinc,' ItiOl, one reads :— 

I saw the ••hUdrat of Powks hist night, 
And troth they pleosed me pretty, pretty well ; 
The apes, in time, will do it handsomely.] 

BnoKiNOHAM Halt^ or Colt-kob, Cam- 
BRiuoK.— Can you kindly help mo *o find 
any contemporary, or early, accounts of tha 

[Wolfe's first commission was as sec< 
3nant, ,1 Noveml)er, 1741, in hia father's 


L Feb. g. 1904.] ] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



baildings of this liouso other than those 
referred to in Willin and Clark's 'Architectural 
History of the University ' ? 

E. K. PuRXEtL. 
Wellington College, Borks. 

Mortimer. — Hugh de Mortimer, son of 
Robert Mortimer, of Burford, by liis wife 
Margaret de Say, is said to have had a son 
named Elias. Whore can I find information 
about tiiis £lia.s Mortimer, his parentage and 
his progeny } H. .M. Batson. 

Hoe Beaham, Newbury. 

Christabella Tyrrell.— Can any reader 
of 'N. tfe Q.' kindly tell me the years in 
which Christabella, daughter of Sir John 
Tyrrell, Bart., married her first two husbands, 
Jolin Knap and John Pigott, of Doddershall, 
Bucks! She married thirdly, 28 January, 
1754, RicharrI, sixth Viscount Say e and Sele, 
and died t.p. 1781), aged ninety-four years. 
^M. Jackson Pkk)tt. 

KiPPLBS.— What is known of this family, 
prominent in and about Glasgow during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? and 
where can allusions to and records of its past 
and present members (if any) be found ? 
If the surname is early or middle Scots, what 
may have been its meaning? J, G- C. 

PSALTEE AND Latin MS.— Oliver (" Monas- 
ticon,' Dio. Exou.^ mentions a Fsalter existing 
at IJgbrooke which formerly belonged to 
St. Androw'n Priory at Tywardreath, in Corn- 
wall. Has any facsimile of this MS. or of 
any part of it been published ? and, if so, by 
whom ? Also has iho fifteenth- century Latin 
MS. preserve<l at Wardour, containing the 
obits of the brethren, homilio>4, Usuard's 
'Martyrologium,' Ac, Ijeen published in 
facsimile or otherwise, and by whom ? 


'Rkcosoiendeo to Mercy.'— Some years 
ago I read & novel with, I think, the title , - , , ,. ,o , 

' Recommended to Mercy.' Could any reader t»a<^ "^ ^ a"«""y beaded ♦ " Salutation " lavem, 
of 'N. ifc Q.' kindly help me to trace the I Newgate Street, —•-'- i-~-J "' a—' 

incised pattern resembling those of very 
early crosses, .so-called Runic, such as those 
at Raiusbury or Cirencester, or it may per- 
haps be a pattern of a thirteenth-century 
comn-lid with incised floreated croas, but 
seems roughly done for this. 

Mrs. Huntley. 

Col. Thomas Cooper.— Can any one give 
the pedigree of tbe Cooper family of Hasetey, 
in Oxfordshire, and any information that 
would connect Col. Thomas Cooper, M.P. for 
Oxford, with this family, and also with the 
Coopers of Bengeworth ] 

Arthur L. Cooper. 

Torch and Taper.— What was the actual 
difference between the torches and tapers 
mentioned in ancient wills? Robert Balser, 
of Whitstable (1511), requests that 
" two torches be bought, price lO."., to bum about me 
on the day of my burying aud afterwards to remain 
to tbe obtircfa. Also four tapera of wax of 2 lbs. 
each to burn about my hearse, at burial, month'a 
mind," &c. 

Robert Withiott, of Faversham (1512). left 
a bequest "to the maintenance of the torches 
and tapers belonging to the Bachelors of 
Faversham." Was a torch made of different 
substance from a taper, or was it only a large 
candle? Arthur Hussey. 

Tankorton-on-Sea, Kent. 

(10'"S. i. 01.) 
When I wrote the note headed as above I 
little thought that the theory I wa-sadvancing 
(viz., that May, whoso name occurs in Lamb's 
earliest extant letter to Coleridge, was none 
other than the Boniface of tiie " Salutation " 
Tavern) had over wcurred before to anybodj^ 
— still less that it had been previously venti- 
lated in this journal. Now, however, I find 
' ■ ~ • • i"Ta 

or, with a view of renewing myacquaint- 
with the book ? I have not now the 
htest idea of the name of the author (the 
story may have been anonymous), but fancy 
the heroine was a village maiden named 
Rosaline or Rosalind. Ednvard Latham. 

[It is by Mrs. Houston.] 

CAR^'ED Stone.— Can you tell me what is 
vbably the origin of an old carved st-one in 
aanor house built in 1G()'2 on the site of a 
irious house] Over the front d(X)r is a 
atone about ten inches square, whirh may 
rOD back into the hall ; at the angle is an 

>t,- published 21 April. 1900(9"" 
8. v. 315), Mr. J. A. Rotter had already 
broached the question of identity. Great 
wits jump. For years past I have held the 
opinion expre-ssed in my note published on 
23 Januarv. The fact— only now brought to 
my knowledge — that it is approved by so 
profound and accomplished a student of 
Lamb as Mr. Rutter is universally acknow- 
ledged to be will, 1 feel confident, servo to 
commend it to the readers of 'N. it Q- far 
raoro powerfully than any words of mme 
could clo. 

lo one particular I find my note of 
23 January is inaccurate. I aa^ tlvixs^ ^^^a^• 



NOTES AKD QUERIES. po"- s. l feb. e. 

the curious story of the offer of entertain- 
meat made to Coleridge by mine host of tlie 
"Saiutalioa" rests on the sole authority of 
Josepli Cottla This is not so. In Allsop'a 
'Letters, Conversations, itc, of S. T. Cole- 
ridge ' we find the following confirmation of 
Cottle's tale:— 

" * You ihould have eeen hira twenty yeara *gn,' 
said he [Lamb], with ooq of hiB sweet eniiloa, * when 
he was with nie al the "Cat and Salutation" in 

'Newgale Market Such were his extraordinary 

powers, that when it wae lime for him to go and be 
married, the landlord entreated his stay, and offered 
him free quarters if he would only talk. " 

AJlsop's accuraci'. of course, is by no means 
unimpeachable. Thus he tells ua (p. 1 16) 
that "Coleridge accused Lamb of naving 
caused tlie Sonnet to Lord Stanhope to be 
reinserted in the joint volume [' Poems,' by 
Coleridge, Lamb, and Lloyd, 1797] published 
at Bristol." This is simply impossible; Lamb 
had absolutely nothing to do with the print- 
ing of the 'Poems' of 1797; and we know 
from another source that it was Cottle (that 
"fool of a publisher"), and not Lamb, that 
Coleridge blamed in this matter. Again, the 
story which Allsop tells of the circumstances 
under which Lamb wrote the ' Old Familiar 
Faces' is absurd. Allsop here clearly con- 
founds the writing of the 'Old Familiar 
Faces' with tlio inditing of the letter to Cole- 
ridge containing the famous * Theses qufedara 
Theologicse.' six months later (June, 1798). 
Still there must, 1 think, be some foundation 
in fact for the story of Lamb's conversation 
about Coleridge, which Allsop here (p. 110) 
reports in terms so distinct. Mk. J. A. 
RuTTER, to whom I am indebted for pointing 
out the error in ray note of 23 January, 
suggests that an offer of free bed and board 
was actually matJe to Coleridge, but 
made by the landlord of the "Angel" in 
Butcher Hall Street (whither Colerirfge bad 
migrated from the "Salutation"), not by 
William May, of the Newgate Street tavern : 
and this is, most likely, what actually occurred! 
At all events, by adopting M.&. Rutters sug- 
gestion, we, in a mea-sure, save the credit of 
the two witnesses— Jose^Jh Cottle and Thomas 
Allsop— without any disparagement to the 
theory which identifies May of Letter I with 
mine host of the *' Salutation and Cat." 

Thomas Hutcdinson. 

"Chapekonkd By her father " ^9't> s »ii 
246, 370. 431 ; IQt^ S. i. 54, 92).-I am no? con^ 
cerned as to whether "chaperon "or "escort" 
IS the better word, but I think that all of us 
who contribute what we can to 'N Jt Q ' 
aro concerned about that courtesy without 
which the journal caunot work smoothly. If 

I remember rightly, it was stated in the 
editorial article on tne Jubilee of *N. .k Q.' 
that iu the early days of the paper there 
was much doubt as to whether it would be 
possible to allow communications to apiiear 
anonymously, lest correspondents, sheltered 
by concealment of their name.s, should be 
discourteous. Vou, Mr. Editor, I think, de- 
clared that that presentation of anonymous 
signatures had given rise to no difficulties. 

At the penultimate reference appears a reply 
signed SiMPUCiftsiMDs. In it the writer rerers 
to his earlier replj' at 9"^ S. xii. 370. The 
matter of the question and replies is inter- 
esting and worth discussion— discussion in 
the ordinary, the courteous, manner of 
* N. & Q.' Both replies appear to me to 
be lacking in that respect. In order that 
I may show that I am not writing down a 
suddenly formed opinion, I may mention 
that I made a note at the time that the reply 
at 9'''' S. xii. 370 was discourteous. 

I find in my notes a similar memorandum 
concerning a reply (9"" S. xii. 194) ».v. ' The 
English Dialect Dictionary,' to which you, 
Mr. Editor, appended a mild remonstrance. 
This reply was signed F. J. C. 

Some other fairly recent examples could be 
quoted, even some signed with real names, 
but I have given enough for my purpose. I 
believe that most of the objectionably worded 
replies are anonymous. 

I have been a humble contributor to our 
paper for nearly twenty years. Perhaps I 
may be allowed to suggest that discourtesy 
is out of place amongst those who write for 
' N. it Q.,' and contrary to your and j'our 
correspondents' desires. Many of us who 
give our little contributions to the paper 
have found that it forma for us an introduc- 
tion to each other, almost a bond of friend- 
ship. This is very pleasant, and I, for one, 
am very unwilling that any discourteey 
shoulil tend to weaken this bond. Surely, 
if a correspondent knows, or thinks that ho 
knows, more than another, ho should be 
aatisfied by giving his knowledge without 
trying to hurt the feelings of hira to whose 
suggestions or beliefs he does not consent. 

I write to deprecate a growing tendency to 
acrimonious disputation in ' N. & Q.' 

Robert Pierpoint. 
[We hope that the tendency is not arrowing.] 

Shakespeare's "Virtue of necessity" 
(10"' S. i. 8, 70).— This phrase Shakeapeore 
adapted, I think, from Sidney's 'Arcadia.' 
On p. 138, recto, ea. 1590, it occurs as foUowa: 
"learning vertue of necessity." 

On tint same page may also bo found two 
other passages arterwards made famous by 


the dramatiat. Sulnpy says, "O thecowardiso 
of a guiltie conscience," rendered by Shake- 
speare " Thus conscience does make cowards 
of U3 air'CHamlet,' III. i. 83); while Sidney's 
" a popular licence is indeed the many-headed 
tvranny " ia changed to " Stuck not to call us 
the many-headed multitude" ('Uor.,' II. iii. 
18). Chas, a. Herpich. 

New York. 

Emmet and De Fohtbnay Lbttebs (9"" S. 
xii. 308 ; 10"' S. i. 52).— I wish to thank Mr-is 
L. I. GuisEY for her reply to my query ; but 
the letters I denire to trace are not the throe 
printed in Dr. Emmet's book, but the rest of 
this correspondence. The letters were to- 
gether until thirty years ago, when their last 
known owner died. It is possible that some 
reader of 'N. ife Q.' in France may be able to 
furnish a clue. Letters of R. Emmet are 
rare. Only nine have been traced, and until 
lately but five were known. The late Sir 
Bernard Burke showed Dr. Emmet in 
Dublin Castle a box of documents relating to 
the Emmet family which were seized in 1798 
and 1803. Dr. Emraet was not allowed to 
see the contents. In 1886 he got permission 
to examine them, but the box could not thco 
be found. Feancbsca. 

Ipswich Apphentice Books (10"" S. i. 41). 
— In reply to numerous inquiries, I may state 
that the apprentices whose name^ appear in 
these books fall under the following counties : 
Suffolk, 34.') ; Essex, 19 ; Noi-folk, 18 ; North- 
umberland, IG ; Yorkshire, 5 ; Cambri<lge- 
shire, 3 ; Durham, Sussex, and Middleaex, 
2 each ; Beds, Wilts, Leicester, Derby, Devon, 
Lines, Rutland, Shropshire, Surrey, West- 
morland, and Kent, 1 each ; making a total 
of 423. M. B. Hutchinson. 

37, Lower Brook Street, Ipswich. 

• Memoirs op a Stomach ' (10"' S. i. 27, 67), 
by a Minister of the Interior, was written by 
Sir James Eyre, at one time Mayor of Here- 
ford, and a medical practitioner in that city 
The object of the book was, I believe, mainly 
to vaunt the properties of oxide of silver in 
the troatmont of stomach disorders. He 
eventually went to London, and, I think, 
died there. When the Duke of Clarence be- 
came King William IV., he refused to carry 
out the plan which had been adopted by 
hi« predecessors, viz.^ to knight the mayors 
of the chief cities of England, but would only 
knight two. The two selected were George 
Dririkwat^r, Mayor of Liverpool, and Dr. 
E " irof Hereford. This incident gave 
oi Aberuethy to suggest to a corpu- 

Icui ])itiifut, who consulted him as to bis 

internal minister, that he should constantly 
keep in mind the names of the two mayors 
the Icing had just knighted— Eyre and Drink- 

Weuden Abbey (10**" S. i. 67).— The Bene- 
dictine Abbey at Werden (not Werdens), on 
the river Ruhr, was founded a.d. 802 by 
St. Ludcer, a Frisian priest, who lies buried 
in the old church. The monastery buildings 
are now used ais a State prison. When I 
visited the abbey about ten years ago, I tried 
to procure a hijjtory of it, but failed. An 
account of the antiquities found in the 
neighbourhood was then in prejiai-ation, I 
was told. Your correspondent might apply 
to Mr. G. D. Baedeker, bookseller, II, Burg- 
strasse, Essen, Rhenish Westphalia. 

L. L. K. 

*' Clyse " (9"' S. xii. 480).— In * Observations 
on some of the Dialects in the West of Eng- 
land, particularly in Somersetshire,' by James 
Jennings, I find, p. 30: " CUze, s. A place or 
drain for the discharge of water, regulated 
by a valve or door, which permits a free 
egress, but no ingress to water." This work 
was published in 1825, and carries the use of 
the word back more than half a century 
further than Mr. Dodoson's letter in the 
S/iectator, 1882. The word is in general use 
in the moors of Somerset, in tlio drainage of 
which the clyse plays an important part. 

C. T. 

" Papers " (Q*^ S. xii. 387 ; I0'»' S. I 18, 53). 
— The following passage comes from 'De 
Jure Maritimo et Navali,' bv Charles MoUoy 
('D.N.B.,' xxxviii. 130), I^ndon, 1670, bk. ii. 
chap. ii. sect. 9, and relates to the duties of a 
master of a ship : — 

"He must not carry any counterfeit Cocqucta or 
other fictitious and colourable Shin Papers to in' 
volve the Goods of the Innocent with the Nocent." 

H. C. 

The " Ship'' Hotel at Greenwich (9"" S. 
xii. 300, 375, 415, 431) —As one of the oldest 
natives of Greenwich, I mav perhaps be 
regarfled as an authority for local informa- 
tion. The original " Ship " Tavern stood at 
the eastern end of the spot now occupied by 
the pier, and in proximity to the Drawdock 
at tlie river end of Friar's Road, ranniog 
southward out of Romney Road, between 
the Hospital and the Infirmary. This roftd 
led into a little square in which were tliree 
or four public-housea, one of them "The 
Che.3t of Chatham," another " The Red Lion " 
and another " The Crown and Anchor." All 
this has been changed— Fm.v'%^^saA^"^x«*- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. uo^ ». i- f^b. e. iw*. 

house Lane, and the east end of Fitiher'a 
Lane have been taken in by the Hoapttal 
and Infirmary grounds. Hobeut Parker. 

JoH.v Denman (0"' S. xii. 447),— The Rev. 
John Deuman, M.A. Line. Coll. Oxon., was 
vicar of Knottiugley. Yorks, in 1852. 

Chas. F. i OKSHA w, LLD. 

Baltiiuore Uouse. Bradford. 

Glowworm oa Fieefly (10"» S. i. 47).— 
See Mrs. Hemana's poem ' The Better Land ': 
la it where the flow'r of the orange blows, 
And the tirelliea dance thro' the myrtle boughs ? 

Alao Southey's 'Madoc,' ed. 1853, part ii. 
p. 219 (with long note, p. 353) :— 

She beckon'd and descended, and drew oat 
From uuderuoath her vest n eage, or net 
It rather niiKht be cali'd, fco tine the twigs 
VVliieh knit it, whore, confined, two firetfies gavo 
Their lustre. Ily that light <Ud Mudoc first 
Behold the features of his lovely guide. 

In Kirby and Sponce's 'Introduction to 
Entomology,' 185G, p. fiOG, it is remarked that 
the brilliant nocturnal spectacle pres»ented 
by these insects to the inhabitants of the 
countries where they abound cannot be better 
described than in the language of Southey, 
who has thus related its first effect upon the 
British visitors of the New World :— 

Sorrowiojf we beheld 
The night come on ; but soon dni night display 
More wonders than it veild : innumeroua trilJeg 
From tlio wood-coyer swarm'd, and darkness made 
Their beiiuticH visible : one while they strcnm'd 
A bright blue radiance upon Uowera that closed 
Their gorgeous colours from the eye of day ; 
Now, motionless and dark, eluded search, 
8elf-shrouded ; and noon, starring the sky. 
Rose like a shower of fire. 

But Southey "confounds the firefly of 
St. Doraingo {Elater noctilucus) with a quite 
different insect, the lantern fly (Fti/ffom 
lantenuiria) of Madame Merian " (p. '507, 
Kirby and Spence), Madame Merian painte(i 
one of these insects by its own light. 
And for night-tapera crop their [i.e., the glow- 

worms"! waxen thif^hs, 
And light them at the hery glowworm's eyes. 
m I f 1 It • lhid.,\t. 51.T. 

losteful dlumination nf the nieht. 
Bright scaltored, twinkling star of spancte.1 earth ; 
Hail to the nnnuilosa coloured dark-and-Iight, 
The witching nurae of thy illumined birth, 

John Clare's sonnet ' To the Glowworm.' 

Shelley somewhere [* To a Skylark '] has :— 
Like a glowworm golden, in a dell of dew, 

Scatterinp utiboholdon its ncrial biuo [line] 
Among the flowers and grass that [which] screen it 
from the ri»w. 


There is in All the Tear Ronndot 24 October, 
1863, a poem entitled 'The Olovrvrorm,' whic h 

well deserves being reprinted. I do not at 
present call to mind any English verses on 
the firefly, except those referred to by the 
liditor. This must be due to ray own 
ignorance. It is highly improbable that 
these bcMiUtiful creatures should not have 
attracted the attention of other poets than 
those named. 

It may bo well to draw attention to the 
fact that Italian peasants think " tho fire- 
flies dancing above the ripening wheat are so 
many tiny living lamps of the sanctuary, lit 
in honour of its future consecration, and 
thus offering their anticipatory service of 
adoration" {Dublin Review, October, 1897, 
p. 490). 

The Malays have a belief that the blood 
of murdered men turns into fireflies. See 
' Malay Magic,' 329, quoted in FolkUre, Juno, 
1902, p. 150u. Edwakd Peacock. 

There is a poem entitled 'The Glowworm,' 
translated from Vincent Bourne's Latin, by a 
IK>et named Cowper. Walter W. Skeat. 

The following was in a small collection of 

children's school-songs in daily use in the 

practising school of the Chester Diocesan 

Training O^Uege about sixty years ago :— 

Once a little boy M'aa straying 

Throash the woody lanes at night, 
And he there its light displaying 
Saw a pretty glowworm bright. 

He a moment stood to wonder 
What could shed such dazzling light. 

Then some green leaves hid it under. 
And took home thia glowworm bright. 

Thus through life wo see with sorrow 

Hijlie-s which Eceni so brinht to-night 
Fade and die upon the morrow. 
Like this pretty glowworm bright. 

E. Clakk. 
4, Lome Street, Chester. 

A poem by Lowell called 'The Tjfts-son' 
draws a grand moral from tho firefly iD 
rebuke of human self-suflicieney, 


"All lead to Romb"(10">S. i. 48). 
— So far as I know, this is not strictly an 
English proverb, but merely a translatioa , 
of the French one "Tout chemin mune 
Rome,'* or the Italian "Tutte le strad* 
conducono a Roraa";f and it seems to mo 
only natural that we should go to Italy for 
the origin of the phrase. 

• Some anthoriticB derive the word chfinin from 
the Italtiin. 

} The e>|uivalont Knglish proverb seems to be 
" Therp are more ways to ino wood than one " ; 
Scottish, "There are mae ways to the wooil nor 


10* 8. 1. Feb. 6, 1904.] 





The figurative sense in which it is generally 
nsed, if not in Italy (I cannot sav), at ail 
events in England and France, is tliab there 
are many ways of reaching the aame end or 
of attaining the same object. La Fontaine 
applies the proverb in the fable (bk. xii.) 
of ' Le Juge Arbitre,' ic, of which I give 
the opening line^j : — 

Trois Mints, '. ilonx He leur s«lut, 

Porl^ d'un i- , tc-iulaicnt \ nit-me but. 

Ila a'y \tr\reu\ . par ilea routes iliveraes : 

Toos cliemins vont n lijiiiie ; ftinsi noe concurrents 
Crurent i>ouviiir choiair des eeuiiers dilTereuts. 

Edward Latham. 
[Mr. Holder MacMiciiagl sends a similar re])ly.] 

Venison in Summer (10"* S. i. 47).— Thomas 
Cogan, in 'The Haven of Health,' 1588, 
chap, cxxxvi., writing of venison, mentions 
that, whether it be or red deer or fallow, it 
maketh ill juice, and is hard of digestion, 
and that the best way is to drown it in 
wine : — 

"And concerning rcdde Deere, Simeon Sethi 
writetb, I'hat SuKgcs iu the summer se&son eat 
vipers and sori>cnt«, whereby their Qesh is made 
veninioua and noyaonio, and therefore it ia no wise 
to be eaten. Vet M. Kliot thinketh the llesh of 
fallowe Deere ia more unwholesome and uupleaaaut 
than of red Deere." 

Robert Lovell. in the * History of Animals 
and Minerals,' 1661, writes of the buck, 
Dama : — 

*' When young and in serwon they are a whole- 
tome Meftt, Having no bad juyce of themselves; 
when old ii^ dry. too cold and full of grosse 
humours. Hut ii may bo corrected by Butter, 
Popper, and Suit." 

There is a very full account of the various 
uses to which parts of the bwly of the hart, 
Cervus, can be applied, and witn some extra- 
ordinary results. He mentions : — 

" The bezar stone, or la<-hryina eeri'i 'fffrk. 
reaiateth ]>oy«on : They are produced by [the itartj 
Btnndin;; in the water up to the neck, after their 
devoiiiing of .Serpents, which they doe to coole 
tbum.'clve!*, not darinx to drink ; these tears falling 
into tiie water, conf;eate, and are theooe taken by 
those, that doe observe them, the quantity is as 
that of d walnut." 

After nearly two pages of further informa- 
tion on tlie qualities of the intestines, Ac, 
the chapter finishes in the following manner, 
in whicn it will bo seen there is a reason for 
the flwftllowing of serpents :— 

".Siirne say ihev live 38(X) yearns. There noiae 
is unploMttnt. They linvo frietidshin witfi the 
heath i-ocl: ; hut i-nm<i/ to the Ea!;lo, Vulture, 
Sc , and iioiflo of Foxes: 

t<"j mil red Feathors, &o. 

Tlivj ..... ., K ••"■' .-luaio." 

I pre<iUuiL% on the Uisuoiption that like cures 
liKe, the bozar stone, which ia said by 

Lovell to be made **of poyson and a certains 
herb : of a crass terren matter," is used by 
advice of Garzias for helping the bites of 
vipers and serpents. Herbbkt SouTHJkM. 

Herbert Spencer on Billiabd.s (10'" 8. i. 
48). — I met Mr. Herbert Spencer some three 
or four years ago in a country house where 
he was staying ; and on our hostess inviting 
him to join her in a game of billiards, he 
answered that he should be delighted, but 
that he was too old. He adde<l, "You know 
I used to be very fond of billianls, and, 
apropos of that, they tell a malicious story 
of me." He then repeated the story in mucn 
the same words as quoted by your corre- 
spondent, adding, witn some warmth, that 
there was no foundation for it whatever, and 
that his personal friends knew that it was 
not like him to make any auuh remarks. He 
went on to say that, though he had contra- 
dicted it often, he knew it was still repeated, 
and he feared that it would be circulated 
after his death. C R. 

Downing Family (10^'' S. i. 44).— It ia 
curious that Dr. Stevens should not have 
been able to find any record of ao well known 
a person a-s Mr. A. O. Fullerton. Ho had 
property in the north of Ireland, was for a 
time in the Guards, and resided for much of 
his life in France. His wife (a daughter of 
the first Earl Granville), Lady Georgiana 
Fullerton, was well known both as a writer 
and for her works of benevolence. Both Mr. 
Fullorton and his wife were Catholics, and 
resided towards the close of their lives at 
Bourtiemouth. R. B. 


Ash : Place name (Q"" S. xii. 106, 211, 291, 
373 ; 10"' S. i. 72).— I am willing to admit 
that Asham may be explained as " a home- 
stead among ashes"; but I would still say 
that tliis cannot always be inferred. The 
original may have been ^scan-bam, " the 
home of .-Esca": and it ia ditticult to decide 
unless you find a spelling you can depend 
upon. The parallels suggostotJ are to the 
point. The name /Esca occurs in Kemble. 
^Cod. Dipl.,' ii. 74, 1. 12. 

Walteu W. Skbat. 

Prof. Skeat possibly misread my note i-« 
Lashnm village. I did not say trees lived in 
homes, but that the village was a homestead 
iu or araong«t ash trees— and why not ( as 
Or. O. KRt;KfiER (Berlin) says. Tliere la 
ample evidence of the Saxons having aettle- 
ments in the distiict. The next hamlet to 
Lasham is Bontworlh (Sax.<.iw\, t^sA '^visssss. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo-^ s. i, fkb. 6. iwl 

easy distance are the well-known villacea of 
the MeoHH (Jutes). Certainly the Xorraans 
called LaHham Esseham. is Norman 
for a-sh, and why the Normans should so 
call the place, unless ash trees were there, it 
is diAicult to imagine. There wa?, until of 
lata years, standing at the parting of the 
ways at Lashani a fine ash tree, the po<isiblo 
descendant of another tree. The latter may 
•well have been a Saxon sacred tiee {vide 
Green's 'Short Hist.'). There are other 
features of this \'illage which point to its 
Saxon origin. 

A suggested origin of the village name has 
been lei/, A.-S. meadow, but this is hardly 
feasible, as at the Domesday survey one acre 
only is mentioned as meadow. 

Fbank Lasham. 


Ea^uest Playbill (10"" S. i. 28, 71).— At 
1»^ 8. X. 90 is a contribution ' Supposed Jiarly 
Playbill,' which carefully examines a copy of 
one with a full cast of Drury Lane, dateci 
8 April, li;(J3, and given in J. Payne Collier's 
'Hidtory of Dramatic Poetry' (vol. iii. p. 384), 
and pronounces it to be spurious, while 
incidentally it notes that it was not usual 
for playbills to bear the date of the year 
until as late as 1767. Dutton Cook, in hi.i 
collection of essays 'A Book of the Play,' 
under the heading 'A Bill of the Play,' gives 
Payne Collier's authority likewise for assert- 
ing that printed announcements of the piece 
to be performed were "certainly common 
prior to the year 1563.' But were they ? 
Alpkbd F. Robbins. 

NK-JHTCafs (9"* S. xi, 480 ; xii. 65. 17G').— 
In Simes'a 'Military Medley,' 1768, and in 
his 'Military Guide,' 1772, a list is given of 
'Things necessary for a Gentleman to be 
furnished with upon obtaining his first Com- 
mission.' The list includes " three pillow 
cases ; six linen night caps, and two yarn." 
A ' Scliome for an Ensign's Constant Ex- 
pence' is also given, and it provides for 

'two Night Caps a week Hair Fowder, 

Pomatum Soldier to drejss Hair." 

An interesting instance of a temporary 
discontinuance of powdering the hair occurred 
at the beginning of the siege of Gibraltar :— 

"Orders were isBued for tho troops to mount 
guard with their hair unpowdercil ; a oircumatimce 
trifling in appearanoc, but which our silu»tion 
afterwaniB proved lobe of great iniportanco; and 
which evinced onr Governor'n Kt-eat attoniiou, and 
prudent forcsifjht, in the arrangement of the 
etorca."— ' Drinkwater,' first edition, p. 5S, 

Fine flour had been used for the purpose, 
and now it was reserved for food for the 

In the ' Life of Lord Hill,* p. 36, we read : 

"In those days of all-prevailinir ]K>wder and 
pomatum, Sir John Moore h«d a. : " l:e 

inuovatioM of a crop, nnd apjwar'' i 

un floured upon parade It wu u ■. ', al 

of .Sir John Moore from .Stockholm lu itiUS that &a 
order reached his if.wipH to out off their 'pi'VrM, It 

was dated 24 Juh ' , ' ^ht 

The tails were kt'i ''U, by 

a signal, the wbo]< li three 


W. S. 

Glass Maxckactdre (J)"' S. xii. 428, r>15 : 
Ky S. i. 51).— About 1881 my late father sold 
a small piece of property, including a house, 
situated near Cleoburj' Mortimer, in the 
county of Salop, and this was called Glass- 
house Green. There is another piece of pro- 
perty adjoining, which in a deed dated 
22 May, 1810, is described as being at the 
Glass-house Green, which seems to imply 
that the name was used not only for the one 

f)iece of property, but for some adjoining 
and. £ cannot ascertain, though I have 
made inquiries from one of the oldest in- 
iiabitauta of Cteobury, that any one ever 
knew of glass manufactured in the neigh- 
bourhood. H. Soi;tbam. 


"Prior to"=B»orb (9* S. xii. 66, 154, 
312).— Dr. is too modest, for, in 
addition to his other qualifications, he is — 
foreigner though he be— English in his know- 
ledge of the English language^ and therefore 
entitled to utter his opinions on matters 
affecting it. However, though he refrains 
from passing formal judgment on '* prior to" 
and previous to,'' I infer that when ho 
draws attention to the equally anomalous 
expressions " preparatory to " and " owing 
to," he holds them all to bo grammatically 
indefensible and to be avoided both in speak- 
ing and writing. To call these phrases, to 
which might be added "antecedent to," 
"anticipatory to," and "preliminarv to," 
with others of the same kidney, ail verbs, 
shows amazing ignorance of the nature of 
that part of speech, and affords ample excuse 
for Home Tooke'a sarcastic page, where he 
writes: — 

"AndServiumto whom learning has great obliga- 
tions! advance* Bomelhing which almost justifies 
you for callinR this class, what you lately terniod 
It, the common sink and repository of all hot«ro- 
pencoiii, unknown coi-rupliniis. Fur. he says,— 
Ununa para orationis. ijuando desinit c•ssL^ (juoif cat, 
migral in Adverbium. I think 1 cuh iranslato 
borvius mtelhgibly. Every word, ,/natudo UtMuU 
r*»«f ijuod .:V, when a Gruninianan knows not what 
*j" ,*.."' 'J^' "^^vrat ill Afhrrbium. lie calls an 
Adverb, --'Diverriona of Purloy.' vol. i. p, 430 
(Loudon, 1829). 

10* 8. 1. Pkb. 6. 1004-1 






But the writer is hero dealing with sinf^le 
words, and not with double monstrosities 
such as those we are consideriiiK- If he had 
been told that a comparative adjective, used 
absolutely, like jmor, followed by the pre- 
position to, was an adverb, immense would 
nave been his astonishment, and very violent 
the language of his condemnation. And yet 
that is what we are told by the compilers of 
the * Century Dictionary,' whose laooura I 
do not wisii to undervalue. Perhaps they, 
seeing it was a prepositional phrase, based 
their assertion on what Ben Jonson says in 
chap. xxi. of his 'Engliiih Grammar*: "Pre- 
positions are also a peculiar kind of adverbs, 
and ought to be referred hither." But that 
masculine genius, in this case, would have 
called the one word an adjective and the 
other a preposition, but never the two 
together either preposition or adverb. 

Du. Krueler singles out one of the ugliest 
and absurdest of these neologisms, which he 
justly declares to be " a disgustingly lengthy 
thing." Here is an example, taken from one 
of tiie best magiuiaes oi the day, and the 
oldest: — 

"The king, piujiavatoni to causing theiu to be 
trampled to death by eleritiaiits in the hippodrome, 
ordered Hernio, their keeper, to dose them the 
day before with frankincense and undiluted wine." 
—Oeulleman'H, July, 1903, p. 1.3. 

Whoworedo.sed— the victims or the elephants? 
Such a monstrous way of saying htfort makes 
one think that the ancient proverb, which 
Horace had in mind, should bo reversed, and 
that it was not the parturient mountain which 
gave birth to a mouse, but that the "wee, 
sleekit, cowrin', tim'rous beastie," in her 
portentous and unparalleled travail, did the 
other thing: Parturiunt murti ; nascetur 
ridiculus ww«» .' I do not credit the writer 
of the interesting article from which I quote 
with orifiinating this lumbering phrase ; it 
was used before his time, though this is the 
only instance 1 have at liaud. 

All these inkhorn expressions, which one 
cannot call "vulgarisms." because they never 
came from the mouth of the people, seem to 
have crawled into being after "prior to" 
matle its appearance, which happened some- 
where between the vears 1630 and 1840. as I 
think I can show. Of course, a few instances 
of its employment may be produced before 
that date, but the writers doubtless fancied 
they were using a comparative adjective in a 
perfectly legitimate manner, as in tne example 
from Sir John Hawkins (Si"^ S. xii. 06). 

In my search for the phrase in its present 
absolute sense, I have looked through Haz- 
litt's 'Table Talk' (1821), Lamb's 'Es-saya of 

t [they] were thought to have antednted 
oca men's titles, by certain liberties they had 

EliA'(1823). Coleridge's 'Table Talk' (1«35}, 
Dickens's ' Pickwick ' (1836), Carlyle's ' French 
Revolution ' (1837), Thackeray's ' Paris Sketch- 
Book ' (1840), and have onlv found one 
example, which is contained in Lamb's 
' Vision of Horns,' where he writes :— 

their goc 
indulged theuiselvea in, prior to the ceremony." 

But it was not until after John Poole's clever 
and most amusing book 'Little Pe<iliugton 
and the Pedlingtonians ' was published in 
1839 that the phrase began to push its way 
into notice. There are three examples of its 
use in this volume, the first of which shows 
it to be of theatrical origin. It will be re- 
membered that Poole was the author of the 
comedy * Paul Pry ' and other pieces, and 
there can be no doubt that he is ridiculing 
the inflated language of playbills in that of 
'The Hatchet of Horror; or, the Massacred 
Milkmaid,' of which this is a sample :— 

" To be preceded by an oecasional Address, to 
bespoken oy Mias Julia WriKxles. Prior to which, 
the favourite llroad-Sword Hornpipe, by Mi»a 
Julia W'rigKles.' — P. 15(3, ed. 1800. 

I may observe that on the foregoing page 
we have "previous to," the whole gamut of 
before and afier being exhausted in this piece 
iti a most ludicrous fashion. At the foot of 
p. 186 there is the following note : — 

"The five chapters in this volume, ujxm the 
Little Pedlington theatricals, were written ijrior 
to the month of April, 1837. " 

An extract from the " Life of Captain 
Pomponius Nix, by Felix Hoppy, Esq., 
M.C.," contains the last example : — 

"Toiling with unwearied step throuRh the 
mouldering archivea of Little Pedlington, 1 find 
mention of the name of Nix (sometimes written 
Nyx, sometimes Nicks) a« far back as the early 
part of the reign of our third Ooorp, or, iu other 
words, about thirty years prior to the close of the 
eighteenth century."— P. '^A. 

Not long after the publication of this book, 
we find the expression in Edgar Allan Poe'a 
'Adventure of one Hans Pfaall,' where it is 
written : — 

" At twenty minutes before nine o'clock— that is 
to say, a short time prior to my closing up the 
mouth of the chamber— the mercury attained its 
limit, or ran down in the barometer, which, as I 
mentioned before, was one of an extended con- 

^[r. Augustine Birrell is a great admirer of 
Cardinal Newman's style, and ha-s perhaps 
been led to adopt the phrase after reading 
the 'Apologia pro Vita Suii.' which appoared 
in 1864. But 1 hope I shall be excused if I 
say that that famo^ njo-c^ ^Qv\"5i.\\V4*.\wisvv 

[lO*" S. L Feb. 6, 19M. 




better than it is, did it not contain 
examples of this faulty locution :— 

"In my Univer»ity Sermons there is a serie* o! 
dUcUBsioDS upon the subjecl of Faith and Reaaon ; 
these again were the tentalivo comnicncement of a 
crave and necesoary work, vi/„. an inquiry into the 
ultimate Vjaais of religiouB failh, prior to the dis- 
tinction into Creeds."— P. 73 ( Longmans, 1890). 

"It seemed to rao as if he [Keble] ever felt 
happier, when he could speak or act under some 
■uch primary or external sanction ; and could use 
argument mainly as a means of reconimendinR or 
explaininK whatnad claims on hia reception prior 
to proof. "-P. 290. 

I doubt whether this expression occurs iii 
Newman's earlier writings, and excuse it 
here on the score of haste and age, for he was 
over sixty when the 'Apologia' was com- 
posed iu a few weeks, and dotibtless was more 
absorbed in his matter than in his language. 
Since the publication of this book, "prior to" 
has V>ecoiue the darling of the minor writers 
of the press, who scorn the homely word 
before, bequeathed to us by our fathers. 

Hence we are told that "Mr. Chamberlain i-s .„„.„, ^ ^.,^ ,, , 

spending his vacation, prior to entering upon j^xg assumed to account for their method of 

falling into the stream of our speech, have 
been polished and rounded and made a part 
of its l)ed ; but these ugly neologisras float 
on the surface like "snags on the Mississijipi, 
to which the wary l>oatman given n wide 
berth, for he knows they are dangerous, 


Fkobt and its Fohms (lO"" S. i- 67).— As 
M. L. B. has fruitlessly searched many 
volumes, one is tempted to suggest a i-efer- 
ence being made to the remarks on frost 
forms by the late James Glaishcr, F.K.S,. 
also those by M. Guillemin in his (two) 
works on the forces of nature, and to the 
Proctcdimjs of the Royal Meteorological 
Society (of which an index volume exists). 

11. B. 


The beauty of the frosted pane is due to 
the predominant form of the ice-crystals 
deposited. Why that should be hexagonal 
is naturally beyond human ken ; but, given 
minute crystals, their electrical properties 

his promised campaign in the autumn, at his 
residence, Highbury. ' 

I quote from a provincial newspaper in 
which I have read the quotidian liistory of 
the world during the last twenty-five years. 
But I have seen the phrase in the Athenamvi, 
and more than once, horrefco referent ! in 
•N. & Qi' but not used editorially, so to 
Bpeak, in either case. It is rampant^ saltant, 
visible, audible everywhere. Over the sliop- 
front is the epigraph, "Great Sale prior to 
Removal, " or, perhaps, " Genuine Sale pre- 
vious to retiring from Business." Edwin says 
to Angelina, " Dearest, prior to our being 
married we must have our house in apple- 

Eie order," and the fond creature, whose 
nowledgo of grammar is scanty, smiles 
approval, and is proud of her lover, who is 
going to bear all the without trou- 
bling her old father, who tios other daughters 
besides herself. Therefore she accepts and 
adopts " prior to " as the equivalent of before, 
and in due courseT after (po.sterior to) the 
ceremony, wlien her pretty babe is cooing on 
her knee, she will try to make it utter, "semi- 
hiaute labello," what cannot t)o called awear- 
ing, but is certainly "bad language." And 
80 it comes to pass that violations of gram- 
mar, which a servile spirit of imitation 
adopts, at last supersede proper and idiomatic 
forms of expression (Marsh's ' Lectures on the 
English Language,' London, 1863, p. 4tI0), 

Mr. James F'latt in his admirable notes 
in these pages shows how we have borrowed 
vrords from every tribe and people, wliich, 

growth. The frond-like appearance is. of 
course, not unique. It may bo imitated by 
evaporating some solutions, and this opera- 
tion, when watched under the microscope, is 
full of interest, for the curious deliberation 
and method evinced, and the plant-like forms 
which frequently result, lend the process, m 
many cases, a moat deceptive air of being 


J. Dormer. 

Capsicum (S"- S. xii. 449 ; 10'" S. i. 73). 
— Major Thorne Gkorue says: "Surely 
'chillies ' and the powder produced by crush- 
ing the dried pods were known to Rome in 
the time of the C«?sars," but unfortunaiolv 
he does not state under what name. Accord- 
ing to all botanists the L-ajnirniri nnmnim 
was unknown in Europe before the discovery 
of America ; but I am open to conviction. 

L. L. K. 

EccHEE (9^»' S. xii. 484 ; 10^" S. i- 13, 77).— 
I must knock another imaginary derivation 
on the head. The joker is not used in the 
game of euchre (which is correctly deKcribeu 
in the *H.E.D.'). but only in a particular 
variation, which was certainly not invented 
till after ISTO, or perhaps even 187ri. Tha 
employment oi an extra card as a inastetf 
card appears to have been intrtxluce<l about 
the same time into the game of poker, bub 
in neither game was it first known as thr 
joker. In euchre it was called " the imperial 
trump" or "the best bower"; in poker, 
" miatigris." The card used vras the blank 

iv" 8. L pkb. 0. 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ird which accompftnieil a pack of cards, 
id I have alway^i understood that a firm 

' i an card makers, finding that their use of the blank card instead 

,Mi..i, iiiitely throwinK it away, imprinted 
jereon their device ot a jester, and from 
lis circurastanco the card came to be known 

the joker. I cannot find any reference 

the vrorti joker before 1880. I remember 
Bing shown >5uch carda as a novelty about 

[879. F. JES8EL. 


public or private libraries. Nothing that can con« 
Lribute to tho advantage or delight of the reader is 
waatirig, and the edition seems m every way prefer- 
able to that of (irosart. Where we hove compared 
the texts we fiud them word for word and letter for 
letter the same, except that in the editiou uow 
iijijued the short is substituted for the loog .« of early 
printing, bo apt to be confounded with the/. What 
will be thecontents of subsecjuent volumes we know 
not as yet. ' Martin's Moiitii'a Miudo ' is rejected 
as presamably not by Nashe, We may also assume 
that the h-uf/fwlia, still in manuscript, which Nashe 
wrote for the delidht of the young rutllers of the 
Court and for the tilling of his own very ill-jjarnished 
pockets, will not be printed. Mr. McKerrow's 
task, so far as it is accomplished, is admirably dia- 
charKed. Tho most important portion of it has yet 
to be awaited. 


rht Wortu of ThonuM N(v<he. Edited by Ronald 
B. MoKerrow. Vol. I. (Bullen.) 
Boris to the student of Tudor literature ereater 
lan a reissue of iho works of Thomas Noahe i.s 
^•srcely to be hoped until Mr. Bullen gives us his 
long- meditated and lonjfpostponed edition of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher. ThoUi^h not to be counted 
jiniong the most potent spirits of tho Elizabethan 
[epoch, Nashe is aa interesting and, considering his 
"brief life, a fairly voluminous writer, aud is closely 
Iconnectcd with the literary development of his 
[period. Best known as a controversialist and a 
'•alirist, he is entitled to a place among jioets and 
^dramatists, and is one of tho most vivacious chro- 
liolers of the follies and fantasies of his day. In 
their original shape his works are all rare and 
'costly. Some of tnem have been reprinted in more 
or leas expensive forms. Others are included in 
the publications of the first Shakespeare Society 
maii in the eminently valuable and scholarly col- 
lections of I'rof. Arber. In the " Huth Library," 
_aeantinio, Dr. (Irosart gave the wiiole of Nashe's 
[works that could, in his judgment, be set before a 
I modern public. Like iilmoat all Grosart's pub- 
lications, the issue of Nashe was in a very limited 
[edition, and is seldom to bu found except in iin- 
[fwrtant libraries. It occupies six volumes, and is, 
we cau abundantly testify, a work of much 

Tiie present handsome ami attractive repnnt will 
|l)e 111 four volumes, of which three will be occupied 
by text, with the addition of prefatory notes chiefly 
biblioRraphical, while the fourth will be occupie«i 
with a memoir, notes, and a clossary, the last named 
indispensable iu the case of Nashe. Beginning with 
' 'The Auatomie of Alisurditie,' the first volume 

MctnorUult of Old Oxforhhire. Edited by P. H. 

Ditchfieid.' (Bomrose & Sons.) 
The editor is fortunate in his connty and, on the 
whole, iu his coadjutors in this volume. Apart 
from tho glories of Oxford itself, the theme is 
spacious, and the more remote regions described 
may be said to have been but recently discovered 
aa far as modern literature is concerned, or, at any 
rate, to have been revived witii the enthusiasm 
which they merit. Mr. THtchtield ojHins his volume 
with a summary of 'Historic Oxfordshire,' which, 
thouj;h brief, shows cousidenible aocomplishment. 
The next paper, however, by Mr. A. J. Evans, on 
' The Rollriglit Stones and their Folk-lore," is tho 
niostetrikiui; in the volume, and well worth perusal. 
Mr. Evans has made careful research in the neigh- 
bouring villages, for the stones thomsclves stand 
in solitude ou a hill, and gathered from Lone 
Compton, aud Great aud Little Rollright, a body of 
remarkable tradition, which is fast dying out in 
con8e<|uence of increased facilities for Roing to 
London and other populous, but less romantic 
spots. Outside the main circle of stones, which 
has been of recent years encumbered with an iron 
railing, there stands, on the other side of an ancient 
road, a single atone called " the KiuK." This 
monarch was nearly in view of Look Compton, 
according: to tradition and ^fr. Evans, when a witch 
(it was always Mother Shipton in the vei-sion we 
heard) said to him : — 

If Long Compton thou canst see, 
King of England thou slialt be. 

But he failed to reach the necessary point on tho 
hill, aud with all his men and the Queen— which is. 
we may add, the local title of the biggest stone of 
the circle nearest the road — was turned to stone. 

Xiijht.' >lany of these belong to tho | as a witch. The writer of these lines has himself 

Slarprelatc controversy. ' Pieroe j been introfluced to a reputed witch (male, as in old 
lb, perhaps, the l)est known of Nasho's | English) in a neighbouring parish, but the chief 

TCI : 


Peuiltj -- • V ■ ■ 1 . I -— o / - " = 'T 

■works, iiud is full of autobingraphical revelations. I reputotion of this man was apparently duo to tho 

Tliurc' ure, indeed, few works of tho writer that do 1 f^ct that ho had made a little money, »nd. oddly 

not reveal tho nbjccL state in which ho lived, bowed \ enough, kei>t it. A minor poet put I hi'' distrlot 

I down by poverty and disease, and unable to pre- into fashion for a M-hile, as if it wos all tr>iii was 

l«ervc the «'ste«m or patronage of those whom his | ^lost oharmioK. So it is, in a way; v • 

wit attracted. 



'.% critical, the various 

fiMjl uf the poRe, and 

^iven from copies in 

most oharuung. 

disadvantages. Wo recall tlio Parsot. x\ 

his dump vicarage, rather ruefully : Ul>, - 

a nif-e place, except that moss will gruw ou Ujo 

front stairs,*' It is a bleak dlUrict, but offat* ^ 



i.>a .lii.r H(trM4i4M i« lU mixtmr* of grcf 

•'I Uf t m m mkfU t^eanythtm 

i.|m tiiM of tlw oldtr piatuw of Umb, 

MfMM, Tffla ii 

Iff K'nn* -U^' 

i>i«M «l lolk'lora» wfcieh 


$t(> in (4 (>' 

anjr e(» wIm 

itimbwof tka 
wiali )m bM 

' I but Mr. KvHtii hiM fflovstfd 

UK lli»> riilf! of Ilolftno, thuA 

■ I iiiuiitAl 

:l»<l, No 

I by the 

vvii urtiiiiriuit 

' in thinking 

i> •'. 1 1" <ii«<i not tiioution 

<l urul Iraiiltloii •{ivak* of 

III many nther r«atiiroi« of 
I Niliih im Kivi'ltni), lUirfiini, 


A. I'uils ii 

M.M 11..- ..,'J 

1 in Tiiiioo 
xiitttiiL-o vif tho 

littli. .tiviki.].. 

in(ih« on 'Tho 

' wo tliiiik a 

I Ml her than 

I.v U 

.1 • 

' Ii n I.Alill ti n II 

> lit I ho viiluinn, whioh «r« wt^ll 

lil.liiliia •<( itiiiilL'lil.ii. I'll. till 






*!' ' 





»■'..:'■ ' I .. ;!..■ . , 

IHUuimU'Isi whIoU tht* UiWii-Lxotl laUu fur Btuiitdily, 

Ki:--' '"•'•', /V'"i/4 fk* jMi/M of At/red to thr 

ih< TuilovH. Nowly edited by Robert 

f lorinif.) 

T" tliu " Kiii«'> rluiiim," iiiued from the Da Lai 

Mure Pro«i, huB liiM:ti nddud it carefully edited 

viil ■ ,....,..-...,.. i„, I ,„„ ,.f I i,n private lottcrs 

o( : luring tho tlireo 

hun I nKin&rcha. It 

WHS at iJiul. iiiliuiiiLd to r'niriiii ll.illiwell'e 'Letters 
o( tli« Kirigi of England.' These wore found to be 

I«<» III 

I'l Mill lill 

if siittUt'- 

111 lit) lino, 

M it (III) 

led ns 
llivy of 

I awTwfinKly been altered 

IjUay i< tW leQanare iUmiinatorjr 


!d by 
*ol. r. 

TU Brkmk Jmrmi mf f^jiirfijj. 

FkrtL (OHBfcnlit^OamnitTPreM.) 
fKWammn n mammtimmm aseiaeil with reason of 
haiac out of toadi vitb filit: r«rcbology io its 
noMm ifawlnywH » a Uiif cd panwiount 
ioiwrtaDoe mwh is jMidn« iateratiDK reaalta 
every day eonceRUBK imctiaal life. Dr. Ward, 
wboce (uaaterly book on \ g Ht m irmi o vill be known 
to moat readers, baa l e wuw l an able band of 
coadjutors, and we are t,\md thai this country can 
at last boaat of a jonniaJ wkicli ia the eighth of its 
kind in the last mteen yean, bat the drst to aiijienr 
in England. In the nrcacat n«rt Dr. Ward writes 
on ' The Definition of P^hoioey,' and two papers 
Hre concerned with sensationa of the eye. 

The Febmary number of the Unrlinf/ton Magazinrt 
isaned from 17, "Beriiera Street, under the editorship 
of Measra. C. J. HolmeA and Robert Dell, onnlnina 
Roiiio now featnr< ""' ■ seems to 1 ' .st 

otrikinK ia the of a tin- >l 

r<>production of n i: by Drouai> -lo 

three of the name ; llin i.3 presumably Hubert), 
civint; ixirtraits of the .Vlarqnia and Alaniuise de 
M ■vifuirnais, with - 'i-.-!: vouth who hulda up the 
, and a Ui • ibly (he ])ainter, who 

■IX it. A *>•- .- liy the same paiuter ia 

liio picture of (he :>uu of the Marquia at the a^ 
of toil, lioth picture* are marveta. A desire i« 
at length granted, on which we expressed from 
the tirat, and liie huge wedges of text of 
which we complained are broken op. The frontia- 
iitiH^e coiisi.itij of a portrait bv T: i .Tane, 

Duchess of I iordoit. Mr. Claude ! i tea on 

'A Rrou/.e Relief in the Wallai x - ..uu/and 

Mr. (J. H. Wyldc on the '.Terningham Collection of 
Kn|:liiih Citass.' The itlufitrations to these and other 
arttoloa arc of ainifular beauty. 

.\ I'Koi'oKTioS much larger than usual of the 

^ devoted this month to literary and 

i-Im. The first article, whicli liear* a 

iniii; iiMi III > ■ . i,<5 occupied with an uppenl 

ill favour t'l I British stage. Thia ia wpII but I .'>rt of a rtMolnriori in our 

ill sjniow will work any Mr. 

I aII give* extracts on End -i from 

I, „,.-•, ...i»"s note-lKKjks. Mr. Artiii.. .. -i..^,. writes 

on iivoTao (iissin);, und Mr. Franois tinbble on 

IsuRcnc Sue. In its oh sing poKcs the last-named 

article dcaU with Ihc .lesvulJ*. Le Comte de S^gur 

■clcrtu for <'oiiinient three French novels of recent 

birth. Mr. William Wutaoii bewails 'The State 

DisormrttKcinciit of Litoratuns,' a thing for which. 

writers nro themselves ]>artlv to blame. Mr. 

Alfred H. Wnllncc ivrinis ' Lcouaiue,' a poem 

hitherto unpublished of l»oe, and Mr. Stei>hen 

<Jwynn writes on ' The Life of a Song.' — In the 

>\ iiii'/f . K/A Cfulin-ij Mr. Herbert Paul, Iri his 

• RcllKtim of the iiiccks,' takes for lent the recently 

publishtfd ' I'roleKumrno to the Stt > ' •'- ' - ' 

Religion 'of Mius Harrison (Caml' 

l^^M). What he nays is both irii| 

said, thouBh the arttole as a wholu id disuursiM.'. 

'A I'orgotten Volume in Shaksiieare's Lihr 


lo-" 8. 1. Fkb. fl, 19M.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Sir PMward Sitllivau, points out the reaetn- 
ancc l>etwecn thoughlft in Shakespeare and 
eorge Pettio's tranalatioti from the Ilalian, 
;h tho French, of what is called iu English 
Civile Conversation of M. 8teuen Gubzzo.' 
resemblance between ijosaagus in this book, 
bich appeared in I08I, and others in ' Hamlet ' ia 
..riking, and Sir Edward may claim to have 
directed tho attention of Hhakeapearian acholars to 
■ngKeat«d coincidences of thought. In 'Sermons 
•nd iiiamuel Pefiys' the esaayial maintains that 
Pepys was at heart a Puritan.— In the Pall Mall 
Mr. Riiubault Dibdin writes 'Pictures and the 
Public,' accompany inK hia contribution with repro- 
ductions of photoKtaphs. Mr. Begbie otudies Mr. 
CJ. F. Watts under ' Master Workers.' A portrait 
and an autograph accompany tlic paper. ' How 
and Why Animals are Coloured ' is ou a jiopular 
subject and is well illuatrated. 'Literary Geo- 
graphy' ia concerned with Thackeray. 'The 
Taming of Garden Dirds ' is pleasant and sym- 
pathetic— 'Some Gardens in Spain.' by Helena 
Kutherfurd Ely. which appears in Sa-ihncr, has a 
pleasing atniospnero both as regards letten)ress 
and lUustratious. A portrait of Tomraaso Salvini, 
accouipanying a sketch of hia life, shows the artist 
naturally as something of a veteran. Mrs. Iteorge 
Bancroft's letters from EoKland are continued, 
as ia Capt. Slaban's * War of 1812.' Mr. Bpiehiiann 
writes on 'Charles Keene as an Etcher, and Mr. 
T. R. Sullivan on 'The Centenary of Allieri.'— 
'Some Empty Chairs,' contributed by Mr. H. W. 
Lucy to the Cornhill, ia at the outset not political, 
bat literary, and is occupied with William lUack, 
Creorgo Aagastus }>ala, Jumca Payn, and 8ir J. R. 
KobinsoD. In later iiassagea he deplores, in common 
with others, the death of genial John Penn and of 
Sir Bhindell Maple, both of the House of Commons, 
and Lord Rowton, whose jilace is not yet tilled, 
and whose task, from which he shrank, is not 
acconnlished. In No. II. of 'Historical Mys- 
teries Mr. Lang deals with 'The Campdon Mys- 
tery.' concerning which little is generally known. 
Mr. Faimian Ordish writes on "Tno Improvement 
of Wostminbler,' Mr. Foxwell on ' Among Japanese 
Hills.' and Prof. Tout on Theodor Momnison.— 
Mr. Holden MacMichael sends to the Oe)ifl>)nan''i 
* On tho Reign of the Gin Terror,' and Mr. A. L. 
Salmon 'Some Folk-lore .Jottings,' in which the 
writer dilates on water-sjiirits and mouse myths. 
'Gossip in the Sussex Ol-wrland ' is likely also to 
interest our readers. — 'The Swimming Power of 
Animals,' which appears in LouginanK, is a fresh 
subject fresiily treated. In "Ai tho Sign of tho 
Ship' Mr. Lang writes with customary orightncss 
on many subiect.s, including the discomforts he 
aaffers from the doubles, trebles, &c., with whom 
he Beema to be afflicted. 


Thb catalogues received since our last notice 
include two from Mr. Pluckwell, of Oxford, who 
has a large assortment of books under ToiK>graph^. 
Music is also a protniuent feature. Clemcntr» 
* Selection for the Organ and Pianoforte,' 4 vols, in 
8, is ofl'ored for 30«, ; Hawkins's ' History,' 5 vols. 
iUy, 1776. ^ ~x. Gil.- Pureell's 'Selection for the 
Hari*ii.'hord,' S/. S». Theie are many volumes of 
inatruinenlal music of the eiehteenlh century, In 
the general list are Palgraves 'English Comnmn- 
WMltb,' 5/. 10$. ; the Library Edition of Motley, in 

9 vols. ; V^isconti's ' Iconographiu Ancienne,' 7 vols, 
atlas folio. 1808-'26; Wiclif Society Publications: 
Library of the Fathers, Oxford, 1H43. 40 vols. ; and 
Scottish History Society issues. Under America we 
tiud Morton's ' Crania Americana,' with ten extra 
plates, Philadelphia, 1839. 

Mr. Dobell's February catalogue consists wholly 
of MS. Works, documents, and autograpii letters, 
and ourold friend says : " I trust that I shall receive 
sulHcient encouragement from this experiment to 
induce mo to issue similar catalogues from time to 
time." Wo cordinliy join with him in this wish^ 
especially if future catalogues are to be so full ot 
interest as the present one. It opens with the 
original autograph manuscript of Dr. Josepb 
Beaumont's poems, unpublished. This is priced at 
(i5/. There is also an original autograph signature 
of William Herbert, Karl of Pembroke, "by some 
commentators believed to bo the W. H. of Shake- 
speare's Sonnets," The catalogue includes MSS. 
from the Sneyd collection just dispersed at> 

Mr. G. Gregory, of Bath, sends Catalogue 1^. 
a collection of books in new condition, and Cata- 
logue laS, coloured prints and engravings. The books 
include Cunsick's ' Epitaphs ' ; ' English Coronation 
Records,' by Lcgg, only 500 copies printed ; Elvin's 
' War Medals,' valuable for medal collectors; Elli- 
son's * Etchings of iiath,' Chiswick Press ; Foster** 
' Oxford Men and their Colleges ' ; Charles Gould's 
'Mythical Monsters'; Dr. Guest's 'Originea 
Celiicw'; Richards's ' Her Majesty's Army,' 3 vols., 
4lo ; ' Ancient Topography of London,' royal 4to, 
1810-15; Mayo's ' Medals of the Army and \avy ' ; 
' Paget Papers ' ; and Spenser's ' Faerie Queeno, 
1^. The last contains ' Bibliography ' by 'J'homas 
J. Wise. 

Mr. Iredale, of Torquay, has the first edition of 
' The Newoomes,' the ~i numbers in original covers ; 
Scott's 'Border Anticjuities,' 1814, 2 vols, folio; 
" Breeches" Bible, or Genevan version, lo99, a 
perfect copy, 51. 5«. ; 'Speaker's Commentary,' 
h vols., "/. 10*.; Marshall's 'Naval Biography,' 
12 vol?., 1700-1830; w\.oillhi^riUf.d X(w^, 1»42-M)02, 
18/. lax. There are a number of books under 
Devon, including Prince's ' VVorthies of Devon,' 
1701, " wherein the lives and fortunes of the most 
fatuous natives of that most noble Province are 
memoriz'd." To those interested in C^uaker litera- 
ture Mr. Iredale ofTers to send a wiiiten list of 
books he has, some of the seventeenth century. 

Messrs, Parsons & Sons, of Broinplon Road, have 
a most interesting catalogue of engraved portraits 
of actors, actresses, and musical celebrities. 

Mr. Russell Smith's list is strong in bibliography, 
astrology, and witchcraft: be has also a number 
of Speed's early maps of the English counties at 
aa. each. Among hia Shakespeare reference books 
are West's 'Symboleography,' thick 4to, black- 
letter, old calf, 1005, 4/. 4^., and the ' Lawes Reso- 
lutions of Woaiens Rights,' 163'2, Under Biblio- 
graphy are some valuable sale catalogues, including 
that of Isaac Reed, thirty-nine days' sale, 18(/7 ; 
in this the prices are given. The copy of the 
facsimile reprint of Inigr> Jones's 'Sketch-Book,* 
ItJU. presented by the Duke of Devonshire to 
Archbishop WranglMim, is ofTered at 0/. 10-<. Only 
l(J(J copies of this were printed for presents, date 
about lS.1t). .Vugustinos 'The Glasae of V^aino* 
Glorie,' translated by W. P, (Wm. Pridetux). 




(10»h 8. 1. Feb. 6, 1901. 

|2n\o, firat edition, new morocco extra. John 
Windet, 1585, !■ priced 41. 4«. Mr. Smith at^ites tli»t 
only three copiei are known, one of which is iu the 
Britiah Museum. 

Mr. Sutton, of Manchester, eends us »n advance 
copy of his new cataloRUO, which ho devotes to 
JSbakcspearo aod the dratna. Among the contents 
»ro the collodion of twenty-seven tino engraved 
portraits of Sliake«]ieare brought together by the 
late T. Birchall, the price beine 7/. 10*.; '.Shake- 
a|K:are, Life and Works,' edited by Cliarlea Knight, 
2 vols, extended to 2.5 by the insertion of 3,0(.>0 extra 
illuatrationB, price 150/. (the coat of the prinU and 
binding amounted to 320/.J ; Shakespeare Quarto 
Fucsiniile'», isHsuod under ihe direction of Dr. F. J. 
Furnivall, 1881-91 ; ' Shakespeareana,' a collection of 
20 vols, brought toKether about 184r> by Robert 
Balmaiino, o? the Temple, 8/. ; ' Memoirs of 
Charles Mathews,' 4 thick vols.. 1838 9; ' Moliire," 
Van Lauu's translation ; New Shakspore Society's 
Publications ; and Spenser Society's Publications. 
The whole catalogue naa many itema of interest. 

Mr. Thorp iaaues a catalogue from St. Martin's 
I^no, a lii-t of books of Keneml litorature. Among 
thorn wo notice the Spalding Club Publications, 
^ vols., 13/. 1(M. ; Bruno Ryvea'a ' Mercurius Ruati- 
cna,' r2nio, original vellum, 2/. '2-t., 1647; Cruikshank'a 
' "rho Loving Ballad of Lord Uateman ' the tirat 
edition. Tilt, IS30, 7/. !*■ ; Cruiksiiank s German 
storiei), first edition, |H/. 18^. ; a collection of illua- 
trated books of the sixties, 19 vols.; Boydell's prints, 
to be had separately ; ' Memoirs of the Dutch 
Trade,' showing ita nrat riae and prodiKioua pro- 
gresa, \~if2. price 30.5. ; early Quaker tracts ; and a 
number of works on Jilmblems. There are gdso 
jiumeroua portraits. 

Mr. Voynich'a short catalogue No. 6 has just 
reached us. Moat of the booka are very rare, some 
of them not in the British Museum, and many not 
mentioned by Lowudea. Under America M'e find 
Palafnx'a * V^irtudea del Indio,' being an appeal to 
the King in defence of the Indians, 1G50, price 21/., 
*nd Brerewood'a ' En(j[uirica touching the Diversity 
oif Languages and Religions through the Chief Parts 
of the World," 1655. in this " the author (levotes a 
portion of the work tothefirat peopling of America." 
Hia aocounta of the idolatries in America are very 
curious. Under Biblea we find Eaglish, Italian, 
and Ruseian. This last incluJca the third edition 
of the Now Testament, published by the Russian 
Bible Society, St. Petersburg, 1822, permission having 
been granted to tratuUte the Now Toalament into 
Ruaaian in 1818. Shortly after this third edition 
the Booiety was sappreased. There are some beau- 
tiful bindioes ofTered, one a work of ^''enotian art — 
Venice, ona of aixteenth century, Siil. 'There are 
also French, German, Italian, Flemish, and, what 
.fere seldom obtainable, Mexican epecimons. Another 
item IS a block book, 'Bdilia Paaporum,'20 guineaa. 
Until lately this blixik book was supposed to be the 
only one produced iu Italy, but it ia now ktiown 
there is another in a private library. A cojjy of 
Mrs. Aphra Bohn's * Abdoiaxor ' is oU'ered for LS*., 
flrat edition, Ifi/r Thi" ...■.I'lw the woll-knoun 
iyric, 'Love in Phanlan: ph" Th««rt< 

ia also a cony of the lii ' Irt.M nf \Vntton 

and Wnlloii> 'Rcliiiuiii w 
editjiin, edited by \Valloii, 

Mr llcnry Wollon. The lii „:. 

J/avater, 1572, is priood 1<W. la*. Tlicro arc 
treasures tu M found aad«r various hvadiaiK*, 

including Dante, Shakespeare, Clasaica, Italian 
Literature, Incunabula, Greek Presses, English 
History, &c. 

Meeara. Henry Y'oan^ A Sons, of Liverp"K)l. have 
many valuable booka in their Fel>ronr*" catntojiue. 
Those include a unique r . . . ..- ' '■■ng 

28 plates by Monnet. r.s 

original drawings by u ^|j. 

tccnth century, none of wbioii Loe bceu engraved, 
and 24 additional plates, 4 vola,, in full crimson 
morocco by Cape, Paris, 1796-1'"" ' ' ; King 
Edward VL'a Prayer Book, ^ , l.^j49, 

7;V. ; Book of Common Prayer fci ■ 16^, 

50/.; the Salisbury Missal. 15k>7, M. ; liough's 
'Sepulchral Monuments,' 178ft-96, .'< vols., 35/.; 
Charles Lamb's 'Album Versea," first edition; 
Brayley'a ' London." 4 vols., 1829 ; a complete set of 
Turner and Stolhard'tt illustratinn'^ to Rogcra't 
' Poems ' ; Turner's ' N'iews i'^ ind Wales ' ; 

eriee of 71 

the 'Liber Studiorum,' the 

plates ; and Tcmminck et Lat 

de Planches Colonc-ead'Oisea n, 

32/. Some 'Bargains for B'". .r- 

traits and engravings bring this luteieitiat; ciita- 

loguB to a close. 

We miut caU tptcM aUtniian to Iht /oliomn^ 
notices : — 

Om all communications must be written (he name 
and address of the (sender, not neceasurily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

Wk cannot undertake to answer queries jirivately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre* 
spondenta must observe the following rules, Let 
each note, query, or reply be writt«n on a sei^iarate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing quenes, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
uut in parentheaoa, immediatelv after the exact 
heading, the aeriea, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
qucriea are roqueated to bead the second coiii< 
munication " Duplicate." 

K. (Newton College). — *' An Austrian army 
awfully arrayed " appeared anonymously in Btnt- 
lev* MucrUany for ilarch, IKW. vol. iii. p. 312. It 
is copied in full in ' N. & Q. ,' 3"* S. iv. 88 (1 Aug.. 
1863). It also appears in 'The AVild Garland' of 
Isaac J. Reeve (F. Putnam, no date), vol. i. p. 8, 
whore it ia said that the linea are attributed to 
the Rev. B. Poulter, Prebendary of Winchester 
about 1828.— "Pop gooa the weaseL" \\'e do not 
know the origin of thia. 

B. G.— You give no address, and aak a question 
in)]Kissible to answer. 

LrruioK ("Sow an act"). — See loat volume, 
pp. 30!». 377. 


Editorial oommniiications should be addressed 

to "Tlie Editor of ' Not«s and Queries '"—Adver- 

ti««fnei<iB and Buainesa Letters t.o " The Pub- 

1 ' It the OSco, Broom's Buildings, Chancer; 


I'l'g Uave to state that we decline to return 
oomniuuiontiona which, for any reason, we do not 
print t and to thia nil* we oui make no exception. 

M'' S. I. Fbb. 6. 1901] 






Announces that his SHORT LIST (No. 6) of 
BINDINGS, aod INCUNABULA is published, and 
will be cent free on application. 

2f. 6d. each, post free. 

MENT contains descriptions of 162 UNKNOWN 
BOOKS, which are to be sold aa a Collection. 



BOOKS on FIKAJf CB, &o. 8 pp. 
AUBTRAI..ABIA. Supplement. 6« pp. 

100 pp. 

COLOUBSID BOOKS. Qlllniy. Alkeo, BowUndion, 

Gratit on appUeat'wn, 


Book, Print, and Autograph Dealers, 

109, STRAND, W.C. 




Ju»t PublUlied. 

Catalogne of Engravings and Etchings. 


Second-Hand Bookseller, 









OTIertoK. smonfc otiicr importiuit Booki, • I7nique S«t of Qll 
BIm, w)ih (niKiriKl OrKwIiiga— Bdwftrd VI. Pnypr Boole, 
l&t9-ArcbbUbiit) I.Jtiii'« frwfet Book, 1037— Sarum Mlta«l. 
1.66T-BAndol|ib't P.wma, liMO. \t&a, lS««-TefDmlnck et 
liUiglar'* PlancliM Coloii^et D'Otteaux. & ▼oil. — Qouali'i 
8«pulotkrftl UoDumenU, & voU.— Illumlnnt«d Book*— 
BngnvliiKi Bf(«r Turner— Cook'i Toyagei, Fint BdiUun— 
Lamb's Album Verte*. Fint BdlUon, fto. 

Frioo SXXPENOB, poat free. 



No. 87. BOOKS dealing witb POLITICAL BCONOUY 
and Kindred Sabjeota. 

No. as. SBCONOHAND BOOKS. claulQcid under Ibe 
headlnKi of Antiquarian. ArcbiUtstiire, Art, Moalo (a Uuge 
and loler««UDg wction). Sport, Topography. Ac. 

No. 89. S BOUND HAH D BOOKS, under tbe hradlDgi of 
Aioprioana, DIbtlograpb;, HUtory, Ireland, Naval and 
Military, Theology. Trarel, Ac. 

*,* 10,000 Volumes of Second-band Theological Booki In 

LiiU o/winU leill rrctioc imtiudiiU afUn'.ion. 



English and Foi'cign Second-ltand BoolcMi'.ltr, 

iMue* Catal'jguea of N«w Purcha«r« frrquenlly. and 
tbe laiTie will l>e furwanlvl on appllcatloQ. 


*°"'"" J OHN SALKELD, 

M'V HOl'»R IKJUK hldltR, 

uaauuu rtHCXAKBO for rKnuin- cajbu bitbsk ix 



IttOiuding Olckeoi, Thackeray, Lever, Ainiwortb. 

Booki illuilrated by O. and R. Oralkihaok, Fhli. Leccta, 

Bowlandton, Ac. 


Catalogues iuued and sent post frtt on 



27, New Oxford Street, London., TR.C 


no^' «• I. Fkb. 6, 1904. 

Crown 8vo, neatly half-bound in blue leather and scarlet cloth, 


Full dark blue morocco, with gilt edges, round comers, price 58. net. 





▲m) ooiTTAiinxo 











J. WHITAKER tc SONS, Limitbd, 12, Warwick Lane, Paternoster Row, E.C. 


% P^Mum of InUrrtrmmttnication 

"When foTUDid, make a note ot" — Caftaih Cuttls. 


ttwpaptr. XtUtrtd •( 

Stamitlau Mattmr. 

20«. M. p»tt fnt. 

( Pbice Pou] 

No. 7. [s^^] Saturday, Febeuaky 13, 1904. nif^JV. ^Im 




MESSRS. HENRY SOTHERAN & CO. have much pleasure 

in announcing that they will open on the loth instant, at their 

Piccadilly House, an EXHIBITION of Sixty of the largest of M* 

> TISSOT'S DRAWINGS for his last and great Work on the OLD 

TESTAMENT now in progress. 

ADMISSION (including Catalogue): ONE SHILLING. 

# They have been commanded by his Majesty the King to show a 

* selection of these Drawings at Buckingham Palace, 



HENR7 SOTHERAN & CO., Publishers, 

37, PICCADILLY, W. (opposite St. James's Church). 


NOTES AND QUKRTES. no* s. i. p/:». is. iwi. 


The WORKS of THOMAS NASHE. Edited from the Original 

Tcxia l.y R. B. McKKHKOW. To be completed in 4 volt, demy Hvo, wllh KAe«lmll««. it HA.U-a-Qalac« net per 
Volume. Sjoldonly in 3eU. Tbo BdlUon h llmltcil to ;5i> CoplM, mi<l tJi- type will be dUUIbuted. 

HENSLOWE'S DIARY. Printed verbatim et literatim from the 

OrlKinal Mb. aI Uulwloh. VoL I. TEXT. Vol. II. aOXBS. KaUe.1 l.y W. W, QKBQ. The i vols. Jli. net. 

[ f'ol. J. Tetl, ihirtly. 


Sao Ooplet of ewh Vol. printed, of which 500 are for S*le. Crown *to, with 6 Pbologniirara Fl»t«i, aii, net eaob. 

VALENTINE GREEN. By Alfred Whitman, of the Print Room, 

Brillab Muinum. \,lUady. 

JAMES McARDELL. By Gordon Goodwin. f««^,. 




The POEMS of CHARLES WOLFE. First Complete Edition. 

Bdltwl by G. MITOJf FAI.KtNBK. With a IVrtrAil and F«o*linile of tho Origlual MS. of the f»mous • Burinl of 
Sir JoUn Moore,' Crawu ttvo, 3i. 4(/. net. [Head^. 

A. H. BDLLBN, 47, Great RoBsell Street, London, W.C. 

JVBT PUBUBUIII. FrlM 3l. poit f r««. 


Ita HUU>i7 <u>d iMTelopuADC 
With 9 Coloarrd rUtra, ranprlilDC I! ntj«nau ot th« FUf. Bccfl4id 
SltClOD, with uldltloii*, £to. wreppt. wa. 

OXOHGX OUBOonv, llookullcr, taU>. 


■ > of IhHiki. r*mi>blcU. Ac , nlftUBC lo Uie Coamtf ol lonMnAt. 
WIUi lall Inijcx. Hf KMAHURL okBBH, F.S.A. Z Toll. iCo, 

i«T»pp 3i. a.. 

HJLROIMO. Orwt BoMaU BtaMt, W.C. 

Rare nnd Valuable Books, including tA« Libraty of the laU 
HIGH SHIKLD, k'tq., tC.C. {by order of the tilecuUrt)— 
jtutoj/raph Lttltrt, ^It;. 

A.UCTION, at their Uooin*. IIS. Cliancerr Laac W.C . ea 
TUESUA.T, PrbrnarT 14, and Two Followloir I)ar*, at I a'dock, 
RABB anJ VALUABLB BO<>K«, IBcluilIng tlir Jothnii Kernnldg'i 
Bacrattd Wotk«, 8 iroli — Hatlan* Vii;>ae>. 3 Tolo lisio inw— 
Kaoa'i CaropalfTfl' 'n ?*«rth Amfri.» ireu-A>ca** Snufi *uiirmll» 

— KuwUndso-' '• — ' '■- ■— <'o1«arv1 riat«»— WMt«'a erll>oia* 

Flrit Rdlli'^r. " ' 'V liermlncd. 16M, and other Bail j 

BilUoat ftl i ""' tioarlM, llwili. IMlrw. *e — 

gig,^-, rhrorii *n.s ....wral other HooVk pmcnrnrt 

to WllUam lJiiiin«r;<-, ".I'l in., r,f,ti.>t,« or M'^ Note* hv ' ' - 
In U>« Orlflaal Vcllnm Hioainf. ulrhanlinn • ilr (.hai), 
praMotatloD Ctipf, r vott — Rri«%««pnftrT'. WorkN. 
Uardloi'l Portrait*— fff^uka lltu.traied by UowlaDdton 
and lia««h— Fim Riiuiooii ol Lamb M«r»dlili, Olekeai. Aium.iii, 
8ar(««t and othrn ' l^oiitt on th« Finn Ana and ntaadajd M'orka In 
Oaaeral Utoratnrv-acninplele i<ei ol tlie Atehsolofta Cambrnnilt- 
Tba Caotarr HK-tlunarr, N «ni>. — The BacjelDpaidla HrltaonLca. 
Sfi TOla To which ii >>ld«d in UuthiUbk Collccclun of A.utofrapli 
Laitan: alav Waterooloor Ura«li>a», Rairatlift*. *e. 
To ba Tl«wcd, aad OaUlOffsai bad. 

Qalal. plaaaant, aad eaaiiBl Thra* mlaataa' walk tram ■.■ K A O. 

kuutiia. Ha aiaara lakaa K. K, M, OrATt Hill lload, Tubrldft 


to nOTES utci QUBRIBHIrcabf pott 3 J riir Six Moatha; 
arXir.M- (or Iwelva MoaUif.laclaaiaf ibe Tolamv Inati —JUHM O. 
rKAli)UU.Jir*w>>ndgM>Ti<iO«««, Draaai • Itulldlait.CtaanMrT Ias«. 

J P. GIBBONS, Haxby, near Vork. underLikos 
■ OEMKAXUOlUAli aBHBAilCfiJalU Yon, blpOO, LkBCOlIl,ftc. 

*' Bzainlna well roar blood. Ha 

From iota ot Oauat doth bdoir bla paillcree "-Satxairaiix 

ANCESTRY, English. Scotcli, Irisb. and American, 
TkaCBD trom tSTAtB Ue(V)Kr>S. HperlalltT - «ri-it of Bnctaui 
and BoiiKiaal Pamlllai — Mr. UH(Nai.L-UJ'HAU, X. Ualiloo itoad. 
Kiaur. aad I, Vpbam fark Ituad. tihuwltk^ Loadaa, W. 

L. OULLBTUN. H. PlccadlUj. Loadon. 

HERALDIC ENGRAVING, Book-Platea. Seals, 
Dial, Nola I'apar, fte. Bpaelal aiieall«B (iTta to Memwr ol 
baraldlc dalall. 

TI9IT1»0 OASDS: BncraTed Copper-plaia aad M bail taallt; 
Carda. Si. 

OUU.STOII'a. M, rtcaadlUr, Loadoa. 

pliad. as BUtttar 00 wfeatSab|*<i dckaciwiMfau ih. world errar 
ai tb« moa: •■part b*o.fladart fitaat f^raat.iaia wattta.— BJJLfW, J«hB HrifbtAtraat BirmlacbaB.. 


-i (Tba LBAURMUALL I- KBait. Lid . rabliajiara and rrtaUra, 

10, Laadaahall Straai. I.ABdoB, II.C I 
Conlalaf halvtaai paaar oral- whl«h tba paa allpt with Mrfaat 
Iraodom. RDiyaaM aaen tj par dotaa, ralad ar plalo. Naw reahai 
■taa. I< par doian. ralad or plain 

Aaibota iiiaBid aota that Tha laadaahall rraaa, ltd , maaai ba 
ratpaDitble tor tha loaa of MM. 6j era or oiberwiac XJupJiaaca eof i«a 
•baald b«r»talnad 

STICKPHA8T PASTE is miles better than Gum 
tor anaklaciB earapa.lointac l^aaara. A. si , «.( . au-i I •. wilfc 
•IroDf .aa.rtil Hmati > oi^t a T«f i Saaa <•" 
for a tampla Batilr. loalgdioc Rniah > 
Laadaahall Str* at, B.C. Of all llaMaaan 


10* 8. L Fm. 13, 19M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




CONTENTS. -No. 7. 

KOTBS — "•Oockshu*. lime •—Ob«ucieri«tii, IJl— Peg Wof- 
fiDgt«n't Lrtltr— " t)ii«>^iilii(h Cburcb," IM— " B»ck mm! 
aide go l)«re"— "H>.iolli(»n"— " Chlfvrick nUbtla|(«lM" 
—Moon Polk-tore— Orlgtuitl o( B-itber ia * Blenk lluuie,' 
I as. 

QURHIBS . - " Olnbrcad • - "Qaloe " — •' P«nn»gp niiJ 
toll«K« " — " Mv Liiril the Sua "— Nkpolron at St. Helena 
— R<l«r«r<l Younn. " tbo iwinUir of Ill-luck"— W. H. H. 
Brovra— P. K'>m|ili»t>i1 — K^iitapU by 6b«kMpe«re, IIM — 
Geaifral SU^wnrl't P.irlriit— DBiith-»eciueno<> in Suss«n — 
PoBcnrlnui -Puolball on Sbruve Tuc*Uy - VV. Hawkins, 
D.D — Hunclrt'l Courlii -' Tbc Ohildrt-ti of thf Abbey '— 
Hotioiir of Tutbiirs' — Trlnl of Qij«en Ciirollno — Hfy»l 
Kirrnli' — Kr ini , .f T.— Murjborougb atuJ Sli»ke«p««ro 
' wdall's Traditionary An»odol«( 

lii.. --.... .- iVirrinKton Church, 14'^ — Il*leljjli'» 

UiMrd, l.)j— I'rivv *J"Ui.c'il undor J&rno I.— St. Patrick at 
Orvlel'i. 131— Kitih.-inion — Mlle^u.Moi, 13-J-Rarelope«, 
\x: M.jii.u- I'.ii.i.i, Ksinlly, I'U— "Kissed bands"— 
1' ir*'« ' " VIrtuB if neces»Uy "— 

i.Ied to by Wnnliworth. 13«- 
I'arlah"— Snowball— St. Bridget'* 
BiiWfi — jjii Jiiliii icvniour'i 'BpitJijib— Inscription on 
Jamri ll.'s St*tue-yr<>nah Miniature P*lnt«r— A«h : 
Plaec-nanne. 137— " m»k '— Anatonil* Vivante-Saipp, 138. 

N0TB8 OH DOOKS: ■ BarW EnglUh Printed B<xik!i In 
the Unlv«r»ity Littrary, Oanibrldife ' — Qardon'i 'Old 
Time Aldtvycli'— DiNxii'ji 'On Saying Grace' — ShielU'a 
•Story pf ibo Token ' — 'Ship* and Shipping ' — Oon- 

fi^eK«t(l.lnnl UUlorlaal Sociely't ' Traojactiuua ' — ' The 
Ilev. Canon Ainger. 
KoUoM to Oorretpondenl). 

It U remarkable that this phrase, which is 
well known to mean " twilight," and occurs 
in Shakespeare, has never been properly 

are both more shortenings of cochhool ; in- 
deed, the latter is the nearer of the two! It 
is not in the lea-«jt degree likely that two 
8uch remarkable words a» cocfc thoot and cock- 
shuf sliould both have ariaon independently 
from difleront verbs. The verb to thul haa 
no place here ; nor is there anything, in any 
example, to support the idea of coch (why 
fiot hnis rather f) going to roost. 

Tliis i» as gocxl a-s proved by the fact that 
Middleton, in his ' Widow,' Act 111. sc, L 
has "a line cuchhwt evening " with reference 
to the time uf day, where he ought, by the 
false theory^ to have said cocksliut. And 
again, H. Kingnley calls the dusk by the 
name of cocksho't tiiiui. Hence all three forma 
denote but one word. 

Surely it is clear that mckshoot ti/ne was 
simply the time when the cockshoots were 
utilized ; and that is the whole of it. The 
cockfhooia wore not nets, but glades. The 
glades wore left to sot nets in. And, when 
It grew dusk, the neta (called cockfh*K>(nett) 
were set. Not even a woodcock would have 
been caught in a net at midday, when the 
danger was visible. 

See some most intere.sting remarks in 
Newton's ' Dictionary of Birds,' where men- 
tion is also made of a cock-road, an equiva- 
lent term to cock-shoot, meaning, of course, a 
road or direction which the woodcock often 
takes, and derived (as in ' H.E.D.') from 
roficf, as is suggested also in Newton's note, 
where he rejects two bad shots at its origin 
which he Quotes. Prof. Newton also quotes, 
from a book written in 1602, a passage which 

The account in ' H.E.D.' says : " From rtx-Ar , . ., i , . •, ■ ," , ,, 

and thut; perhaps the time when poultry go pak^ the whole clear enough, to the follow- 
to roost and are shut up ; though some think j f"8 f noc^- Woodcocks are described as being 


it is the same as cxka/toot, and refers to the 
time when woodcocks ' shoot ' or fly." 

The account in Schmidt's 'Hliake.spearo- 
Lexicon ' is; "The time when the cock shut, 
that is, a Urge net employed to catch wood- 
cocks, used to \ie spread ; or tlie time when 
cocks and hens go to roost ; the evening 

These must be con9idere<l together with 
thnot, well detined in 'H.E.D.' as "a 
iful way or glade in a wood, through 

hich woodcocks, ic, might dart or 'shoot,' 
so as to be caught by nets stretcho*! across 
tho opening." To which is well and justly 
jwldwi (for it is material) that *' the stato- 
(ueiitii that the net itself was the cockgfuHtt, 
and that the proper auelling is cock thut, 
appear to be dictionary oluodors." (No quo- 
tAtionq support thorn.) It is further noted 
ill.' " n shortened io rockuhnt. 

•n of all the c^uotations 
wUi, 1 (itHiK, nhow that cock4hot and cock$fi.ut 

taken in cock-shoote (yine, as yt is tearmed, 
which is the twylight, when yt ys no strange 
thinge to take a hundred or sixe score in one 
woodd in twenty-four liourcs." It h a(ided 
that '* another MS. speaks of one wood ha\-ing 
13 cock shots," See ' Diet, of Birds.' p. 1044. 

I cannot help thinking that if gucssors 
had refrained from mixing up the matter 
with the verb to shut, absurdlv explained as 
"going to roost," there would never have 
arisen any difficulty as to the true sense of 
the terra. Much more might be said bv way 
<>f further proof ; but perhaps it is nbe(]leas. 
Waltir W. Skeat. 

1. For pitc rcnneth Fone in Kcntil hertc. 
This appears to have been Chaucer's favourite 
line— and well it might be. It recurs in 
three passages in the •Tales,' A 17G1, E 1986. 
F 470, and in the I'colQ^^'Ck Vft »0c«, ^ Vft-iMsoss. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no- 9. i. fm. is, raw. 

of Good Women,' 1. 503. It is intereating to 
note that it was probably one of his Ovidjan 
i-eminiscencea ; for the original, or something 
very like it, i8 to be found in ' Trist.,' III. 5, 
31-2 :— 

Qno nuis eiiitn major, mftgis est pUcabilia irt« ; 
Etjaciks motut menu f/tnerota rapit. 
2. Eek PUto seith, wbo-so that can him rede, 

The wordea mote be cosio to the ded«. 

•Prol.,' 11. 741-2. 

It has been pointed out by Morris that this 
saying of Plato is taken from Boethius, ' De 
Consolatione,' lib. iii. pr. 12, where Chaucer 
translates, "Thou hast lenied by tlie sentence 
of Plato, that nedea the wordea raoten ben 
cosynes to tho thinges of which thei speken." 
I do not know whether the "sentence" has 
yet been traced back to its original source 1 
m Plato. Tlie reference is to ' Cratylus,' ' 
435 c, where Socrates thus concludes a curious 
and fanciful discussion on the origin of lan- 
guage — </^oi fiiv ovv Kal awTgl apiiTKti /liv 
Kara to Si'vaTov oftoia (tvai ra ovouara rots 
■n-p'lyfJitta-Lv — but proceeds to add tliat there 
are difficulties in the way of a perfect affinity 
between words and things, and that the 
" vulgar method of convention '' must also 
bo called in. Needless to say that the appli- 
cation given to this theory by Chaucer, to 
justify his " calling a spade a spade," is quite 
foreign to Plato's argument. 
3. And Frenah she spak ful fairo and fetisly. 
After the scolo of Stratford atte Bowe, 
For Frensh of Paris was to hir unknowe. 

'Prol..' 11. 1-24-6. 
As is well known. Prof. Skeat has contended 
that this passage implies no unfavourable 
comparison between the French of Stratford 
aJid that of Paris, and that Chaucer 

"merely states ufaff. viz., that the Prioress spoke 
the TiBuikl Anglo-French of the English Court, of 
the English law courts, and of the English eccle- 

aiastica of the higher rank There is no proof 

that he Lhought more highly of the Parisian than of 
Wie Anglo- French," Ac. (note in Morris's edition). 
The same contention is maintained at greater 
length and with all Prof. Skeat's learning 
in his 'Principles of English Etymology." 
Is it too late to enter the lista in defence 
of Chaucer's " jape " against his most accom- 
plished editor, and to attempt to vimiicate 
tor the poet a bit of sly humour that would 
be entirely in harmony with tho tone of 
delicate irony running through the whole 
pansage (11. 118-62)1 

Prof. Skeat fully establishes the fact that 
Anglo-French was "important" (to use his 
own word). But the question is whether it 
was, from the literary and social p«iiut of view, 
regardetl by contemporarios of the better 
olasa M on & par with continental French. 

NoroJAn-French underwent in England an 
independent and isolated development, which 
could hardly fail to be one of steady dete- 
rioration. It became partially popularized ; 
as is known from an often-quoted passage 
from Hi gd en's 'Polychronicon ' as translated 
by Trevisa, French wa.s u.sed in the schools 
in Chaucer's youth : Higden complains of the 
"impairing of the birth-tongue" owing to 
school children having to "construe tneir 
lessons and things in ¥ rejich," and not only 
" gentlemen's sons be taught to speak French 
from the time that they be rocked in their 
cradle," but " uplandish men will liken them- 
selves to gentlemen for to be spoken of." We 
are reminded of Langland's " dykers and 
delvers that do their deeds ill and drive forth 
the long day with 'Dieu vous save, Dame 
Emme!'" 'frevisa adds that in the year 
1385, when he was writing, the chanfje from 
French to English in the schools, winch had 
begun about tlie middle of the century, was 
everywhere completed. As was inevitable in 
a population thus perforce, but imperfectly, 
bilingual, hybrid forms found their way into 
the less familiar dialect. There is also 
external evidence of the low esteem in which 
Anglo - French came to be held. Under 
Henry II. an English knight sent oyer to 
Normandy for some one to teach his son 
French ~ showing that A.-F. had lost its 
purity. Walter Map, in his 'De Nugia 
Curialiura,' also says that the French in 
England was regarded as old-fashioned and 
dialectic. These references, which are taken 
from Emerson's ' History of tlie Engliah 
Language,' might no doubt be added to from 
the literature and records of the period. It 
is true that there existed a considerable 
A.-F. literature, but of a somewhat crude 
character, as ia observable in Chaucer's 
adaptation of the tale of Const«nce from 
Nicolas Trivet, in spite of its quaint medireval 
charm. Meanwhile in France itself, though 
there wore still different dialects, tho "French 
of Paris," or "Central Frencli," as Skeat 
terms it, had acquired an overmastering 
literary predominance. Both with tho other 
dialects, by the acquisition of the Angevin 
provinces in the twelfth century, and with 
Central French, by constant intercourse, 
and owing to the French wars from 1337 
onwards, the Englifth Court and many of 
its subjects had become acquainted. Thia 
now French intlueuce culminated at the 
t^'ourt of Edward III., who as tho son of 
Isabella of France may well have 8]x>ken 
Pariman French him.self. though Ids officials 
would still use the Anglo-French jargon in 
public documenta. His wife, Phiiippa o£ 

lO"" s. I. Fra. 13, I9M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hainault, inu«t surely have spoken and 
written in continental French, not, aa Skeat 
says, in A.-F. She "formed the centre of a 
society cultivatinc the French language and 
poetry "(Ten Brink), prominent among whom 
was Jean Froisaart, wie privileged exponent 
of polite literature and Jove poetry (" beaux 
dicties et traitoa amoureux") at her Court. 
Now Chaucer, in view of his prolonged con- 
nexion with the Court and hia repeated 
vi-jita to Franco in peace and war, had every 
opportunity of hearing " French of Paris,'' 
and this, together with his constant readings 
and translations of the best French authors, 
can hardly have failed to impress upon him 
the superiority of their idiom as compared 
with the obsolescent Anglo-French of his day. 
To return from this digression to " Strat- 
ford atte Bo we": if the foregoing discussion 
may be held to proof that Anglo- 
Frencli was in Chaucer's day regarded as 
inferior, and if a sufficiently solid foundation 
has thus been established on which to base 
a joke, if joke there be, may we not now 
venture to detect a flavour of irony, or good- 
natured ridicule, in the very wording oi the 
passage itself? For oven though the ex- 
prea.sion "after the scole," &c., refers to an 
actual school— \nz., the Benedictine nunnery 
at Stratford-le-Bow, where we may suppose 
the Prioress to have been educateid, and of 
which .she wa.s now, perhaps, the Lady 
Superior— still the phrase has a ring about it 
which suggests something more than a state- 
ment of plain matter or fact. Wo think of 
the parisn clerk Absalom, in the ' Miller's 
Tale,' who dances '* after the scole of Oxen- 
forde" (A 3329). In fine, if Qower had 
written our passage we might have suspected 
a jest ; with Chaucer we may be pretty sure 
that one is intended. 

. 4. Are there any autobiographical touches 
to be found in the description of Chaucer's 
Pilgrims ? It has been thought that the 
"Clerk of Oxenford " i.s partly intended as a 
portrait of the poet himself, and we notice 
traits of resemblance in the Clerk's studious 
iiabits, hh modesty and taciturn reserve. 
Yet the iK)ints of di Terence are more striking : 
the speech "sowningo in moral vertu," tne 
severely academical library of "twenty bokes 
of Aristotle and his philosophye " (com- 
pare Chaucer's own '* sixty bokes, oldo and 

newe alle ful of storyes grote," Prologue 

t<5 'Legend of Good Women,' 1. 273), lastly 
the Clerk's leanness. But tlie sketch of the 
young S<iuiro oflfors nmny points that exactly 
lit in with what is known or surmised of 
Chaucer's youth. The S<iuire is "twenty 
n of age," and this, according to the most 

probable computation of Chaucer's birth-date, 
was about his age when he joined the expedi- 
tion to France in 1359, in the coarse of which 
he must have passed through the very pro- 
vinces of Flanders, Artois, and Picardy 
where the Squire had been "in chivachye." 
The latter hoped by his youthful exploits to 
" stand in hjs lady's grace," and Chaucer's 
first unfortunate love-affair began, according 
to his own account, immediately after his 
return from this expedition ("'a siknesse 
that I have suffred this eight yere," 'Book of 
the Duchease,' 1369). The Squire's stature is 
"of evene lengthe," and he is '* wonderly 
delivere, and greet of strengthe." In a 
description taken from a portrait of Chaucei* 
in early life, he is said to have been "of a 
fair and beautiful complexion, his lips full 
and red. his size of a just medium, and his 
port and air graceful and majestic." With 
the first part of this description w^e have a 
further parallel if the lines 

Erabrouded was he, as it were a mede 
Al ful of fresshe ilonrea, whyte aDd rede, 
are taken to refer not, according to the usual 
interpretation, to the embroidery on his coat, 
but to his "pink and white "complexion. In 
favour of this view it may be said (a) that 
the description of his clothes begins several 
lines lower down, "Short© was his gounej" 
ike. ; (b) that the line " He was as fresh as is 
the month of May," which intervenes, rather 
favours the allusion to complexion ; (c) that 
" embrouded " is used elsewhere of a meadow 
" that wa-s with tioares awote embrouded al," 
Prologue to 'L,,' II. 118-9, from which the 
transition is easy tothecomparison suggested ; 
(d) that such comparison is further lK)rne out 
by the following Chaucerian passages : — 
For right as she [NalurcJ can pcyute a lilie wiiyt 

And retid a rose, right with swich pcynture 
She peyated hath tliia noble creature. 


Emelye, that fairer was to aeno 

Than ia the lilie upon his stalke greene. 

And fressher than the May with tloures newe, 

For with the rose colour strof hir bewp, Sic, 

A 1037. 
The Squire's accomplishments seem to 
point in the same direction. Singing and 
"fluting," jousting and dancing— this much 
might be expected of any young squire ; but 
when we are told of this squire that he could 
"aonges make and well endyte," wa seem to 
trace a reference to Chaucer's own "com- 
plaints " and his early love-poetry, much of 
which is probably now lost, tne 

Many an ymime for your hulydayea 
That hightcn baladoa, roundels, virelayei, 

which he tells us in the 'Legendo'he Uwi 
once composed, and thft " <i.-^\jejaek *sA ^ksvv^ja 


NOTES AND QUERIES. uo^ s. i. fo. is. isot. 

glade" made for Venus's sake "in tho floures 
of hi« youth," with wliich songs, as Gower 
has it, "the land fulfilled is overal." No less 
appropriate a trait is it that, besides hia other 
graces and accomplish men ts, the Squire is 
"courteous, lowly, and serviceable''; so that 
it is altogether a tempting assumption that 
we have here a portrait, sufficiently dinguised 
to preserve artistic illusion, of Chaucer when 
Le was a " lusty bachelor " " as fresh as is the 
month of May." W. J. GooDKicn. 

(For tho Prioress's French gee the discussion Id 
T"" S. ix. 3(6, 414, 497 : x. 57. 98, 298, 392.] 

Peg Woffington's Letteb. (See 3"^ S. xii. 
430 j — As Woftington autographs are among 
tho rarest known, one hesitates before pro- 
nouncing the mysterious letter given at the 
above reference a forgery, but it needs to be 
pointed out that sundry statements made 
therein by the vivacious Peg fail to square 
with facts as wo know them. 

Remark the charming inconsistency of this 
epistle. Although the tone throughout is 
that of the ea.'^y familiarity subsisting be- 
tween equals and friends, it is address^ to 
" ily Pretty Little Oroonoko," and the 
writer concludes bv informing her "Dr Black 
boy " that she is nis "admirer and humble 
Serv^." One would be inclined from this to 
ontertain the painful suspicion that the easy- 
going actress had become enamoured of a 
negro lackey ; but the opening paragraph 
gives one pause, for Peg begins by telling her 
mysterious acquaintance that "Sir Thomas 
Robinson writes me word y'' you are very 
pretty» which has ixiised mi/ curioiiti/ toagreit 
pitchy and it ttiakes nie long to see you." 

If the Robinson referred to was "long Sir 

Thomas," ho must have communicated from 

abroad, as he was appointed Governor of 

Barbados in August, 1742, and not recalled 

until 1747. This "pretty little Oroonoko" 

might have been a black page sent by him as 

a present to the Duke of Kichmond ; but why 

Mistress Woffington should have troubled 

herself to discuss her personal affairs with 

"Master Thomas Robinson" passeth under- 

f standing. The whole reads like one of those 

[laughter-provoking epistles which used to 

[addle the brains of poor Lord Dundreary. 

One thing is certain. If Peg WofEngton 

,j-eally wrote this letter, Genests account of 

Itho Drury Lane season of 1^^3-4 is both 

linaccunito and incomplete. The letter is 

dated "Saturday, Xbr 18th, 1743. a slip, as 

18 December in that year fell on a bunday. 

Assuming that tho I7th was meant, one notes 

the intimation, " I play the part of W Harry 

Wildair to night," but Oenest has no note of 
her in that r6le save on the I4tli and 19th of 
the month. Nor does he give us any clue 
whereby we can identify " the acting poet- 
aster" who was then at Goodwood, but who, 
a little time previously, had made his first 
appearance on the stage in a.ssocialion with 
Peg, and who, not long after, played Carlos 
in *Love makes a Man.' Who was this 
mysterious ddhutant, whose "gracefull luotion 
of his hands and arms " was due to his 
early experience in '' spreading plaistcrs when 
he was aprentice"? Delano played Carlos 
at Drury Lane on 15 November, 1743, but he 
was far from a novice. Can the allusion have 
been to Foot«, who appeared at Drury Lane 
early that season, quick on the heeN of hia 
ddbut at the Haymarket ? Beyond Delane 
and Theoptiilus Cibber there were no other 
male accessions to the company that season, if 
Qenest is to be believed. 

Swiny was of course Owen MacSwiney, 
erstwhilenianagerof the Italian Ojiera-Uouse, 
and for some years Mrs. Wollingttjn's guide, 
philosopher, and friend. He was old enough 
to have been her father, and rewarded her 
complacency by leaving her all the worldly 
gooos he died possessed of. The a]lu>iion to 
MacSwiney militates against the supposition 
tliat tho letter is a forgery, for none save 
those who had made a profound study of 
Mrs. Woffington's life could have been aware 
of the great influence exercised over her by 
the witty old Irishman. And your average 
literary forger's knowledge is at best but 

If this letter is still extant it would be 
interesting to compare it with any other 
Woffington autograph that may exist, par- 
ticularly with the signature to her will ; but 
as that seems to have been made when she 
was paralyzed, it might not prove very 
trustworthy. F. F. L. 

"Onk-nikth Chttrch."— The discovery of 
the solitary " centralone " of Cistercian priories 
was a novel development in monkish archi- 
tecture. There has crept into the literature 
of Anglo-Judaism an equally amusing, if less 
picturesque, freak in ecclesiastical edifices. 
Add. MS. 29,808 contains two lisU of Jews 
resident in London about 1G60, and these 
were for the first time published in ettmao 
by Mr. Lucien Wolf in 'The Jewry of the 
Restoration • a valuable paper reAd before 
the Jewish Historical Society of England in 
1902. Several of the Jews resided in " Chre- 
church" Lane, and in the first list the address 
of five is given as being "at Mr. Linger a 
plumers in i Church." That Jew« should, or 


10* S. I. Fkb, 13. 1904.] 


indeed would, be li^'in^ in the whole or any 
fraction of a church is inherently improbalile, 
and it really is not suggested by the MS. 
The scribe's hand is crabbed, his orthography 
free ; and iu this place he so contrived to 
write "as;'" (=against) that to the eyen of 
the learned centuries later it took on an 
arithiueticul Before Mr. Wolfs paper 
assume^ it.'i final form it would be an arl van- 
tage if a further attempt were made to secure 
literal accuracy in these lists. Were this 
done, "Wvalt the broker" would probably 
become "Whitt,^ numerous small omissions 
and misrcadings would be corrected, and the 
rotundity of " Bilennan the round cooper" 
would liave to be sacrificed to fidelity : he 
was only Belermau the wine cooper. 

A. T. Wright. 
22, ChftDcery Lane. 

"B.vcK AND SIDE GO BARE." — I observe 
from the notice of Mr. Hutchison's 'Songs 
of the Vine' {utile, p. 09) that the credit of 
writing this famous song "is withdrawn from 
Bishop Still." I know not to whom it is now 
attributed, but it has been absurdly given to 
one Tom Twisleton, of Rurnsall, in Mr. J. 
Horsfall Turner's ' Yorkshire Anthology ' 
(Binulcy, 1901). Some lines entitled ' Hua- 
band and Wife,' pp. 31C, 317, open thus :— 

Wife. Wharivver hev ye been to, yo luaapln owd 

Drinking Soscj. 
Air. " YorkBhire ale ia my deliKht." 
I cau not «at but little meat, 
My »loinach ia not good ; 
But snro 1 thjnis that I con drink 
»v iih him that wears a hood— 
and so forth. As Tom Twisleton published 
a book in 1867 he must have been a nine- 
teenth-century delight, and if author of these 
lines, certainly sent them on before him. 

St. Swithin. 

[It 18 as8i|;ned to Wiliiom StevenBon, n native of 
Parham, and Fellow of Christ's College, Cani- 
bridtfc, wl»o died ISTil. We roKret that Mr. Htituhi- 
Bon's name wua jmnted *' Hiituhinau»."J 

" 11 ooLK JAN."— This has already been ox- 

plaitied in the«o columns (»"' S. ii. 227, 3IG ; 

vii. 48, 114). My object now is merely to 

point out how aptly it illustrates the way 

two distinct classes of Irish surnames get 

CDiifinod ill English. One largo class ends 

in Gaelic in .vt/n, in Englisi) in win, and 

.offers no liidicuUy of pronunciation — ox- 

Umples, IbuMriiirftfi, Flnnnitrrin, Mulligan, 

[Egan, rir. •: :io. OZ/mna- 

jain,0/ . MacAoJM- 

jain, Jfiirr.or/iijtint, I / /i,.<,f,u,i. Tjie other 

sla.18 ends in Gaelic in chain, in Engliuli in 

'■either ghan or -han. We have, for iustonce, 

(1) Callaehan, Monaghan ; (2) Kemahan, 
Lenehan, Hoolihan ; in G&fMc^O'CeaUnckaiTi, 
O'Mannachain, Cenrnac/iain, O'Lcunachain^ 
O'hU'illiicftitin. Whichever orthography is 
preferred, the sound in correct English a.sage 
shoulil always be-/4rtn— e.j^., Callagnan should 
bo called Callahan ; but unfortunately thoro 
is an iucrea.sing tendency among English 
spejvkers to pronounce this termination -fjan, 
thus levelling Huallaghan or Hoolihun under 
tlie same its Brauuigau, Flannigan» 
Mulligan, with which it bad originally no 

Hoolifjarif by the way, has become part 
and parcel of the Russian language. In a 
recent numl>er of a Russian comic journal, 
the Shut (i.e., Jester), I notice a reference to 
the dangers of a certain quarter of Sl. Peters- 
burg, owing to its gangs of /I'^K^i'yrtTjj" (plural). 
Ja.s. Flatt, Jun. 

*'Chi8W1ck nightingalbs." — In a letter 
writt«n by Josiah Wedgwood to his friend 
Bentley, on 10 Sept., 1778, the following 
passage occurs: "As blith and gay as so 
many Chiswick nightingales." I believe I 
have heard of the species before, and con- 
sidering the low position of Chiswick ("geo- 
graphically," as Jeames Yellowplush would 
.say), I may as.sunie that the nightingales ia 
question had yellow bellies and croaked like 
uie "fen nightingales" in Lincolnshire. 

L. L. K, 

Moon Folk-lore. — The following invoca- 
tion, to be addressed to the first new mooa 
of the year, is known in North Lincolnshire ; 

New moon, new moon, 1 pray to thee 

This night my true love for to see, 

Neither iu his richea nor array, 

iliit iu his clothea that he wears every day. 

Another version of the third lino ia 
Neither in bis rich nor in his ray, 
which, if correct, may refer to *' ray " in tho 
sense of striped cloth, J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

DicKBNs : Original op Esther in * Bleak 
House.'— Under "Tea-Table Talk. By tha 
Hnstes.s," in the South Loiulon Ohscrvev and 
Camber well and Pcckhtim Tinxf* of Saturday, 
25 April, 100.3, is the following, which may 
be worth enshrining in *N. & Q.' : — 

"The other day there poesod quietly away in a 
sniniy corner of Nice a lady of eiKhiy-four, »ay» 
M..\.l'. Hor name was Mrs. Nash. She was & 
dauBhtor «.'f Mr. Elton, one of Cliarles Dickens* 
moat intimate friend!! ; but the fiict alwiil her that 
\«ill most iiitercBt readers of DickptiSH works is 
that »he wan iho originiil I'f Ksthcr iu 'Bleak 
House.' That niosr, unselfish and ihnrniintf cha- 
racter was named after Mrs. Nash, then F*<.b,.<iflt 
EUon, and those who \»«.V. Vt.-W6i>« "Ocv^ ?i.^>rf!vX*fc^i 


[10* 8. 1. FrB, la, 19M. 


more than cndoreod DiokeuB's opinion of her. He 
pronouDccd her to be the moat aOectionulo uud 
feU-sacriticing girl he bsd ever known." 

W. I. R. V. 

We must request correapondenta desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private iutereat 
to affix their names and addrewea to their queriea, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

" DiABEEAD."— lo Katharine M, Abbott's 
'Old Paths and Leeends of New England,' 
published in New York in 1903, occurs this 
sentence: "May Day [in Newport] ia even 
now celebrated, according to tlie Devonshire 
custom, with blue eggs and diabread.' 

What are " blue eggs," and especially what 
is " diabread " i Can any of your readers tell 
me about tiic Devonshiro custom above men- 
tioned 1 No one of whom I have inquired 
here seems to know about it. R. B— s. 

Newport, R.L 

"OtjrcE." — In Shropshire and Cheshire a 
wood-pigeon is thus known. The word is 
used both in the singular and the plural. 
Ad estate belonging to my mother's family is 
known as Quoisley, which— allowing for the 
broad local pronunciation, which turns i into 
oi — presumably means the meadow or place 
of tne wood-pigeons. Can any one suggest 
from what the word is derived ] So far as I 
can gather, it is only known about here. 


[Qnice \a a form of quUf, a name for the wood- 
pigeon [Colnmba jxUumbiix}, wliich, again, eeema 
connected with ciuhat. See Wright/s ' Dialect 

" Pannage and tollage."— Wliat precisely 
was " pannage and tollage " 1 II, K. H. 

[*' Rjjfht of pannage" is a right granted to owuora 
of pigs ordiDnrilv to go into the woods of the 
grantor to oat tne acorns or beeclt mast which 
tall to the ground. "Toll" (a more usual form 
than •• tollage '") is a sum of inonoy paid for the 
temporary u«o of land. See Ktroud's '.Fudioial 
Dictionary' (Swcot & Maxwell).] 

" Mv LoBD THE Sun."— I should be glad 
of the reference in the passage quotea on 
p. 227 of Henry Harland's ' My Friend Pros- 
pero':— "In the spirited phrase of Corvo, 
*here came my Lord the Sun.'" 

Nicholas Cbabbe. 

Napoleon at St. Helena.— In an an- 

E)n<lix to ' Les ExcommuniL's,' by M. C. de 
ussy (Paris, Duquosne, I8(J0), I find :— 
" A Saint* H<!<ltJne, Napol6ou, qui avail ri!|iou9s<S 
avec indignation lea agcuta du Cabincl Anglais lui 

la paux <! la coiultlion iraStoliy h ratko- 
Frruirr, rnanifestait le ddsir de voir uu 
t - ., ao sa religion," 

Can any one refer me to authorities for the 
corroboration or refutation of this remark- 
able utAtement 1 C, Poyntz Hte^vajit. 

Edward Yoi'no, "the painter of ill- 
luck."— At the end of the ' PrZ-cis de la Vie 
d'Young.' on p. 12 of a booklet known as the 
"Abrt'gd des tEuvres d'Voung, Traduction 
de le Tourneur, a Basle de I'lroprimerie de 
Guillaume Haas fiis, 1796 " (lil pages, followed 
by one containing a 'Table des ilatieres,' 
whicli is not nuniberefl), one readx, " On Ta 
suriJommt' ; le jxinttc du nia/heur.' Is it 
known who first applied this description to 
the author of ' Night Thoughts ' ? The little 
lx)ok in question is not to be found in the 
Cibliotheque Nationale at Paris ; but there 
is a copy in the Taylorian Library in Oxford. 
No specific mention of it is made in the 
account of the author in Michaud's 'Bio- 
graphie LTniverselle,' vol. xlii. pp. 51-2, 
out it is there stated that " Les * Nuits'ont ett? 
reimpriraees souvent dans de petits formats." 
The author t^ok part in a translation of 
Shakespore which offended Voltaire; and 
added to French literature some versions of 
other well-known English books. 

E. S. DoDosoK. 

William R. H. Brown.— I should be glad 
if any reader could give me information a«i 
to the birthplace and ancestry of the late 
William Robert Henry Brown, who was at 
one time Oovernor of Newgate, and for 
over twenty years Warden or Governor of 
the old Fleet Prison. He is buried in 
St. Giles's Church, Cripplegate. 


Fredetiick Kempland was admitted to 
Westminster School on Kj September, 1785. 
Can any correspondent of *N. vt Q.' oblige 
me witn particulars of his parentage and 
career? G. F. R. B. 

Epitaph bv SnAKEsPEARE.— In alittle book 
of epigrams and epitaphs that was lent me 
by a friend, I noticed that one of the latter 
was attributed to Siiakespeare. I had in- 
tended to make a particular note of it, but I 
retarnod the book without doing so. S[)eak- 
ing from memory, I believe the two staitzas 
composing the epitaph are taken from a 
tablet in West Drayton Church. I'orliftps 
some readers will kindly confirm tiii?. and 
say something as to the history of tho lines, 
and whether there is any external evidence 
in support of the alleged authorship. Cor- 
taiuly the internal evidencf— j r.. iho style — 



10»k 8. L Fkb. 13, loot.] 


appears to me almost of itsolf to warrant the 
conclusion drawn by the cditof. 

U(jux>iiu£ Inoledy. 
Heacbam, Norfolk. 

General Cqajcles Stewart's Portrait.— 
I want to identify tho original of a portrait 
by Iloraney of the Hon. Major - General 
Charlea Stewart. Is lie the man who com- 
manded the 1st Battalion .50th Regiment at 
Waicheren antl in the Peninsula? If so, 
v/AH he in command at MaidaT 

Wellington College. 

Dbatb-sequence in Sussex.— Aq unusual 
cumber of deatlis occurred in a small 
Sussex village last year, the last of which 
happened on a recent .Saturday night, A 
villager thereupon presaged another death 
•within the month, hecause the corpse would 
of necessity lie unburied "over a Sunday," 
and slio justifie*! her prediction by referring 
to the laHt two deaths, the later of which 
followed the earlier within the month, 
the earlier one also having "lain over the 
Sunday." Is this idea recorded from other 
counties ? Red Cross. 

FoscA RINDS. — Can any one give me the 
origin, or probable origin, of this extra- 
Oroinary Christian name? It was borne by 
one Foscarinus Turtliffe, wlio died at or near 
Plymouth in the year 1764-5. The family of 
jTurtliflb appears to have been settled in 
rfioutii Devon for two or three liundred years, 
but the name would seem to be quite extinct 
in Devon or oven England. 

Arthur Stephens Dyer, 
28, Leamington Road Villas, W. 

Football on Sqrove Tuesday. — Will 
some North-Country folk-lori^t supply me 
with a description of the Slirove Tuesday 
football played at Workington, in Cumber- 
land { Tnere is a brief account of it (but 
from what source is not mentioned) in an 
article on 'Quaint Survivals of Ancient 
Custom^,' published in the W^imlmr Mmjiuine, 
Decetnber, 1W3, As, howex'er, I have reanon 
to think that one of these " survivals *' has 
been obiolete for some time, I am not .sure 
|i»rhether the report of the Workington game 
can be accepted as quite correct. G. W. 

William Hawkins, D.D, dikd 17 July, 
1691. — I should be gral-efiil f<ir particulars or 
the parentage of this prebendary of Win- 
chester (}athe<lral, who married Izaak Wal- 
ton'--- diuivctiter Anne ; and also for precise 
i' loujia to the date and ])laee of the 

fij , which, according to Anderdon's 

' Life of Ken," occurred in 1676. There are 
references to this Dr. Hawkins at 9"' S. vi. 
371 : vii. 477. Was he identical with the 
William Hawkins, gent., of Christ Church, 
Oxford, matric. Nov., 1660, M.A. June, 1656. 
D.D. (Lambeth) May, 1664, who is mentionea 
in Foster's | Alumni Oxon.' 1 If not, where 
and when did he obtain his doctor's degree 1 

lTu>T)RKD CouRT-s. — Have the Hundred 
Courts any legal existence at the present 
time] If they have, what are their duties? 
If they have not, when were they suppressed i 

Benj. Waxker. 

Gravelly Hill, Erdington. 

'TuE Children of the Abbey.'— Who was 
the author of thivS novel? and when and where 
was it first printed ? J. M. C. 

IThe author was Mr«. Regina Maria Rocbe. * The 
Children of the Abbey' waa published iu 1708, the 
year after Mrs. Radclifie's ' Mysteries of Udohilio.' 

Honour of Tutbury. — What was the 
Honour of Tutbury, and how came it to have 
any jurisdiction over the Hundred of Hem- 
lingiord in North Warwickshire ? 

Benj. Walker. 

Gravelly Hill, Erdington. 

Trial of Queen Caroline.— Can any one 
tell me where a full account of the trial of 
Queen Caroline can be found ? Helqa. 

[' Tho Trial at large of Her Majesty Caroline ' wm 
issued in 1820.] 

Royal Family. — Wliat is the .surname of 
the reigning dynasty of England now ? la 
it still Guelph, or " Wottiu," which is, I am 
told, the family name of the Saxo Coburg 
house ? Hkloa. 

[See S<^ S. ii. 108, 217 ; iv. 351 ; v. 215, 257.] 

Reion of Terror.— On 8 Maj;, 1794, the 
scientist Lavoisier was executed with twenty- 
seven of the Farmers-General. Where may 
their names be found? Xylogk.vpher. 

Marlborough and Shakespeare. — To 
what source h due the statement that Marl- 
borough avowetl knowing no other history 
than wliat he had learnt from Shakesjware? 
And on what occasion did the duke make this 
statement? ARTHUR Limdenstead. 


Potts Fajjily.— Can any of your readers 
Kive mo information as to the family of 
Mary Potts, of London, who in 1774 married 
Robert Day, judge of the King's Bench. 
Irelantl, Ornttan'H lifelong friend ? Their 
only child Elizabeth married Sir Edward 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo^ s. i. fkb. is, 

Denny, third baronet of Tralee Castle, Judge 
Day, in his will, leaves several crayon por- 
traits of the Pott?i family to the Ven. Dr. 
Pott («/(•), Archdeacon of London, " to be 
disposed of by him amongst the descendants 
of our late brother-in-law, Sarooel Potts, 
Esq." (llev.) H. L. L. Dennv. 

8, Queen Street, Londonderry. 

D0WDAL1/3 * Traditiosaby A>'bcik)tes of 
Bhakespeark.' — These were collected in War- 
wickshire in 1693, were edited bv J. P. Collier, 
and published by Thomas Ro<Jd in 1838. In 
the advertisement it is stated that the letter 
in which the anecdotes were coramunieated 
to a Mr. Edward Southwell "came into the 
bands of the publisher on the dispersion of 
the papers of the family of Lord De Cliflbrd, 
which were sold by auction in the year 1834." 
Is the original MS. now in existence 1 

J. W. G. 

Sicily. — I am anxious to work up the 
history of the two Sicilies ; I am far in the 
country, and unable to consult library cata- 
logues, which must be the excuse for my 
ignorance. I have Freeman's works, the big 
and the little ; Amari's two books ; Mrs. 
St, John's 'Court of Anna Carafa ' ; Do 
Reumont's 'Carafas of Maddaloni ' ; 'The 
Normans in Sicily' (author's name has 
escaped roe) ; Warburton's ' Rollo and his 
Bace ' J and the two recent books by Messrs. 
Marion Crawford and Douglas Sladen. 
These hardly cover all the ground, and are 
certainly, except the Freeman books, not 
exhaustive. Can any reader of ' N. Js Q.' 
expand my list for me 1 

Rowland Thuknam. 

Nordrach-upon-MeDdip, BriBtol. 

(9'" S. xii. 507.) 
TnK facts concerning the cha.suhle, or two 
chasubles, founr] in the Warrington Parish 
Church are far from clear. The late William 
Bearaont, iTi his book called 'Warrington 
Church N'ole^. The Parish Churcli of 
St. Elfin, Warrington, and the other Churches 
of the Parish' (Warrington, 1878), gives 
either two accounts of one event, or else 
accounts of two events without clearly 
differentiating the one from the other. He 
says (p. 120) that in 182 4 Mr. Rickraan, the 
architect, sunpectin^ that one of the but 
tresses on the north iido of the chancel, whicli 
was wider than the others, coutAined a stair- 
case, opened it, and found in it 

"a winding stair, which had 1' ' ' — - "TPt below, 
to A doorway opening high ' Aall of tho 

cbaucel above, and iirobably i-.j .i>d loft." 

On the steps 

"wtts found a richly embroidered chn?-'' '•■ — -t 
which were embroidcted the fiffurea < 1 

with the sword, .St. Jamee the Leeawi 1 >, 

and .St. KI}>hoj(c with his lun^-hftndled axe." 

" The vestment wa.s ultimately piven to the 
R<<vercnd Dr. Molyncux, the Roman Catliolic prioat 
at Wnrrington, and is now pnrt of the furniture of 
the Roman Catholic ehfttiel there." 

Be&mont says, however, earlier in his book 
(p. 61), that in tho year 1830 

" a blocked-up doorway near the place of the rood 
screen was reopened, an<l a waa exposed 
leading uji to the rood loft, and another staircue 
leading down into the crypt. Upon one of the steps 
of the latter, there lay a parcel carefully made up, 
which on being opened v/ns found to contain a 
chaauble, the work of the latter end of the fifteenth 
or tho beginning of the sixteenth century. It waa 
eurioualy enibmidored on the back and front, but 
excej>t for the diapering or grounding, which wa» 
excellent, the work was poor. Il had two orjihreyi 
witii niches, in whitili were figures wrought in 
coloured silks after the mode of the 'opus 1 ' 
rinni,' or feather stitch, of which the Kol<fen t i 

of the diaperiDR, owing to their having been v. 

round with the pure metal, looked as bright «s on 

the day when they were first put in. (In fhe )>ark 

woa the cross in the shape of a Y with II1 '-i, 

each with a golden chahce standing by 1 » 

the Saviour's blood, two lily plants . . ItJ 

flowers shooting up, one 00 each aide fmm the. l"otH 

of the cross. The figures of A Iwl, Abraham , Mel-^ 

chisedeck, and two of the 

nibble uprm tho chasuble ; I- p| 

figure of a man in annour l>eBti i _ 1 

his shoulder, not fto easy to be recogn^ 

ver>' fancifully, as I think, has been suiii 

meant for Thomas of Lancaster, who wits ucjuauedJ 

in 1.-G2." 

A foot-note refers to Archer ological JomtuU^ 
1870, No. 100, p. 135. (Robert Atherton Raw- 
storne was rector 1807-32.) 

These two accounts do not agree together. 
At first sight they would appear to point to 
two discovories of stairways, and the fiiuling 
of a chasuble on each occasion. But in a 
communication made by the late Dr. James 
Ken'irick (another local antiquary) to the 
Wan'tngton Ex<im.imr (date uncertain, but 
.subsequent to 1870), he gives 1824 as the dat© 
of the finding of "a parcel containing a rich 
sacerdotal vestment, whicli, for the payment 
of a few shillings, was handed over to tho 
Rev. Mr. Molyneux, of Warrington"' (Mr. or 
Dr. Molyneux— pronounced Mullinix— waa 
tho prioHt of St. Alban's Roman Catholic 
Church, or chapel, which was until some 
thirty years ago the niily Romiiu Catholic 
church in Warrington). Ivendrick goes on to, 
speak of the chasuble, after having boei _ 
repttire<ij being eventually exhibited in l-'^7(i' 

io«' s. I. Fet.. 13, 1904.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



to the merabers of the Royal Archieological 
Institute, " under the auspices of the Verv 
Revereud Canon Rock, tne great Englisn 
authority on textile fabrics ana enibroifiery." 
Canon Rock's remarks are given ; he speaks 
o£ *' this eueharistic garment," not of " tnese." 
He refers to the finding of a carefully wrapt- 
up parcel containing a chasuble as having 
occurred about forty years ago (that would be 
about 1830), and of its having been given by 
the incumbent to the Catholic prieat. Thus 
Kendrick speaks of a sale for a few shillings, 
but gives Canon Rock's statement of a gift. 
Canon Rock's description of the chasuble ia 
80 similar to Beamont's (p. 61), even to the 
extent of saying that there were tiirce angela 
with chalices to receive the Saviour's blood, 
whereas there are two only, that it i^ pretty 
evident that one copied his description from 
the other. 

Excepting for the two dates, 1824 and 1830, 
given by Beamont, everything points to his 
Baving intended to describe one chasuble 
only. There is, however, in the Aui}>leforth 
Jourtud (St. William's Press, &[arket Weigh- 
tou^, vol. i. part ii., December, 1895, p. 185, an 
article by the Rev. J. S. Codv, O.S.B., mainly 
about two chasubles, "found a few years ago 

in the ^yarrington Parish Churcli, and 

now in the possession of the Ampleforth 

Bene<Jictine Fathers in that town." The 
writer gives 1824 as the date of the dincovery 
of the "double flight of stairs within the 
buttress on the north aide." Ho says that on 
the steps leading to the crypt "the vest- 
ments were found carefully wrapped up." 
He speaks of Rawstorne as being the rector 
at that time, and says that he made no 
difficulty in handing the vestments over to 
Dr. Molyneux, O.S.B., the priestof St. Alban's. 
"for a certain sum of money." A good deal 
of the article i.s taken up with interesting 
extracts from ancient inventories which may 
possibly include amongst the possessions of 
tho Warrington Churcli the very chasubles 
of which he writes. Further, he says that 

"local trttiliticm tells ua how the Rector, on dia- 
covering thoni, seoiug that he haii nu uw) tor them, 
offered iheiu to his frioixl Dr. Molyneux. lie, 
shrewd miiti. would not accept them aa a ijift, le«t 
thoy might be iif|erward« reclaiai«(l, but bought 
them for a few shilling*." 

He then proce<»ds, after he has previously i 
said that tho CMnbroidery on both chasubles I 
is very similar, and is of like workmanship, 
to describe apparently one only, of which as 
to tho crowi on the oack an illustration is 
I do not give his description, which is 
unly (F think) quutc<I from tho other! 

writers whom I have mentionefl, nor do I 
give his identification of saints, for the same 
reason, and also for tlie reason that in most 
of the cases it appears in all the writers to be 
more or less guesswork. Mr. Cody speaks of 
two chasubles, but descriljes one, and that 
the one which Beamont describes in hia two 
accounts, for in each of the two he ends with 
the figure with the axe. Mr. Cody, however, 
ia exact in noticing the mistake as to the 
three angels inateatf of the actual two. On 
the other baud, he speaks of some sixty-five 
years past a.s "a few years ago." 

I should still be inclined to think it certain 
that only one chasuble had been found on 
the stairs in 1824, which is tho date given by 
Dr. Kendrick as that of the discovery of the 
old .staircase (see a communication made by 
him to the Manchester CouHer, 1839-40), but 
for the fact that by the courtesy of Father 
Whittle, O.S.B., the present priest of St. Al- 
ban's, I have been shown two chasubles. He 
knew Dr. Molyneux well, and insists that 
both chasubles came from the parish church. 
According to him, they wore oflfered to Dr. 
Molyneux by the Hon. and Rev. Horace Powya 
(rector 1832-54, afterwards Bishop of Sodor 
and Man) as a gift. Dr. Molyneux, how- 
ever, insisted on making a payment;jro/o;T7ja, 
viz., half-a-crown. It has oeen assorted that 
the chasubles were found by Rector Powys 
in an oak chest. That may be so, but 
it in no way upsets the account given 
by Beamont that they, or it, had been 
found on the old staircase in Rawstorne'a 
time, when Beamont was a young man. 
It is very likely that it. or they, were 
put into an oak chest in Rawstorne's time, 
and found again in Powys's time. It has 
been asserted that it is cert^jin that the 
transfer to Molyneux was a gift, and not a 
sale, the proof of which is that a sou of 
Rector Powys remembers not only the 
oak che^t in which they were found, but also 
that his father gave the chasubles to Father 
Molyneux. The date a,ssigned by the 
present rector (1835) for the finding of the 
chasubles would make that evidence very 

Poor hearsay evidence, seing that Rector 
bwysdid not marry till 1833. If the story 
that Molyneux paid half-a-crown for thorn 
^tfo forma vt the true story, it is not at all 
improbable that the vendor would afterwards 
speak of the transfer as a gift. As sliowing 
what confusion there is in the matter, I 
may mention that I have a recollection or 
being t^ld by some one (by whom I do not 
remember) thivt liector Powys, having found 
a vestment in tlie vestry, and being short of 
money for some building schema cokvbrslVrA. 


[lO*"* S. I. Feb. 13, l«M. 


with tite church or schools, sold it to the 
Bxjman Catholics. Such memories are worth 
next to nothing. 

Let me describe the chasublea very shortly 
indeed. In doin^ so I am not going to 
attempt to identify all, or nearly all, of the 
saints, tfee. I take first the chasuble which 
is probably that which was found in or about 
1824, if there was only one. On the back 
is a large cross. The crimson velvet on 
which it now lies is modern. At the 
top of the cross is a dove, below that the 
letters INRI, and below that Christ on 
the cross. In the right arm of the framing 
cross (the actual right) is an angel with 
two chalices, catching the blood spurting 
from the right hand and the side. In the 
other arm la an angel with one chalice, catch- 
ing the blood from the hand. At the right 
Blue of the foot of the crucifix is, I suppose, 
the Virgin Mary, on the other presumably 
St. John. Below the foot is a saint (1), and 
below the saint a man in armour with a long 
axe. On the pillar on the front of this 
chasuble are, at the top, a saint (?). then a 
saint, and thirdly a man, perhaps a bishop. 

Now as to the other chasuble, about which 
I may say in passing that it is so similar in 
design to No. 1 that it appears to me to be 
possible that it was not found in the parish 
church, but was acquired later from some- 
where else because of its likeness to No. 1, 
and then came to be believed to have been 
its companion in the parcel. On its back 
(modern damask or brocade) is the framing 
cros.s. The dove, the initial letters, the 
crucihx, the two angels with chalices, are in 
like positions. Tliere are no figures by the 
foot of the crucifix. Below is a figure with a 
chalice disconnected from the crucifix. Below 
that is the upper part of a saint with a book. 
On the pillar on the front are tlu-eo figures : 
at the top a saint, then a figure holding the 
tables of the Law {therefore I suppose Moses), 
and at the bottom a saint. 

Id collecting the materials for what I have 
wntten I have referred to Beamont's own 
cop-y of his book, in whicli are entries made 
by him after itM publication, and to a small 
commonplace book concerning the historv of 
Warrington made up by Kendrick. lUxey 
are both in the Warrington Library. 

I havQomittftfl to say that, in his communi- 
cation on \yarrington printed in the Jfnn- 
Chester C'niner much earlier than that which 
appeared in the Warn'n'jton Ejcaviiner, Ken- 
drick gives an account of the discovery of the 
staircase, but says nothing of any chasuble. 
1 regret that I cannot give an absolutely 
(jertain hiijtory. I need scarcely say that 

there was no local newspaper during the 
time included in the various dates assigned 
to the discovery and transfer of the chasuble 
or chasubles. Robebt PiEaPOiNT. 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

Raleigh's Head (10"> S. L 49).— It would 
be interesting to know from what source 
Mrs. Sinclair derived her information lliat 
after the execution of Sir W. Ralegh in Old 
Palace Yard his head was " placed on Weat- 
rainster Hall." Had this been carried into 
effect it would scarcely have escaped the 
notice of contemporary historians and bio- 
graphers. The earliest account of the pro- 
ceedings that took place after the beheadal 
is thus narrated by W. Oldys in his 'Life of 
Ralegh,' published in 1736 :— 

" His head was atruck off at two blows, his bodv 
never shrinking or ntovtng. His head was shewea 
on ea^h side of the scafibid, and then put into a rod 
leather baft, and, with his velvet night-gown thrown 
over it, was afterwards conveyed away in a mourn- 
ing coaoli of his lady's His head was Iodk pre- 
served in a cose by his widow, for abe survived oini 

twenty-nine yeara and after her death, it wu 

kept also by nor son Carew. with whom it is wid 
to nave been buried" (ccxxs). 

^Ve have the testimony of Bp. G. Goodman 
as to the head having been preserved for 
many years, as in his 'Court of James I.' (ed. 
Brewer, 1839) he notes, " I know whei^ his 
skull is kept to this day and I have kissed 
it"(i. 69). 

Owing to the circumstance that Uarew 
Ralegh at one time poaseased an estate in the 
parish of West Horsley, Surrey, which he 
sold a few years before his death, many 
writers have been led to believe that his 
remains were interred in the church there, 
his father's head being deposite<l in the same 
grave. That this is incorrect is proved partly 
by the absence of any entry in the ourial 
register of West Horsley Church, but prin- 
cipally by the fact of his burial being thus 
recorded in the register of St. Margaret's 
Church, Westminster: " 16(j0-7, Jan, 1, Carey 
Rawlegh, Esq., kild. m. chancel." 

Tliis seems to indicate that his remains 
were placed in or alongside the grave of liia 
father. According to tradition the head of 
the latter was deposited with them, and 
probably in this case tradition is correct; 
certain is it that we possess no definite in- 
formation respecting it. 


Salterton, Devon. 

John TimUs, in 'The Romance of London, 
Historical Sketches^ itc.,' p. 68, in a chapter 
devoted to the 'Execution of Sir Walter 
Raleigh,' says :— 


10^ 8. I. Fkb. 13, 1901.] 


"C*yley adds The he»d. after being shown on 

either side of tho scaiTold. was put iulo a leather 
bag, over which Sir Walters gown waa thrown, and 
the whole couveyed away in a mourning coach by 
Xiftdy Raleigh. It was iireserveil by her in a case 
'during the twenty-nine years which she survived 
her husband, ana afterwards with no lea-s piety 
by their aifectiunate (tun Carew, wilh whom it is 
supposed to have been buried at West Horalcy, in 

TlitH latter statement we know to be wrong, 
for the regi.ster of St. Margai-et'a Church, 
Westminster, records the burial of Carew 
ileigh on 1 January, 1CC6 ; and as it would 
)pear that he had charge of the precious relic 
(ter hi$ mother's dcatn, it is not, after all, 
inlikel)' that the head was, by his desire, 
interred with his own remains in his father's 
grave in that church forty-eight years after his 
father's execution. If this be so, I think that 
Mu. E.1STKRBROOK will 866 that the paragraph 
about which he writes is substantially correct, 
although it is not very clear as to the way in 
■which the tratHtion is "handed down from 
[rector to rector," and it is certainly a stretch 
of imagination to speak of a period of close 
on half a century as "a few years after- 

I have .seen the editor of tho St. MarrKireC a 
Parish Mafjazine, by whom I am informed 
that his reason for not inserting the letter 
which he received was that ho did not con- 
sider the matter one that could be dealt with 
in its pages. W. E. Harland-Oxley. 

C2, The Almshouses. Rochester Row, SAV. 

pRivy Council undkr James I. (9"' S. xii* 
367, 4ir»).— James, writing from ilolyrood, 
27 March, 1603, continued the Council in 
'• their olHces and charges," and in a second 
letter, dated 28 March, reappointed the Privy 
Councillors (Nichols's ' Progresses of James I.,' 
vol. i. p. 121). 

On 28 March the Privy Council in London 
wrote to Lord Eure and the other Commis- 
sioners at Brearae, announcing the death of 
Elizabeth, and stating that in thorn " there 
is or remaineth no further authority than by 
provisional care to apply our best endt^ivours 
for the keeping of toe realm in tranquilh'ty 
and peace." The letter bears tiie signatures 
of tfn^ following councillors : John Cant., 
Tho. Egertoii, C.S, T. Buckhurst, Notingham, 
Northumberland, Oilb. Shrewaburj'. Will. 
Derby, E. Worcestoi-, Ro. Sussex, J. Lincoloe, 
Qa. Kildare, Ckuricard, T. Howard, Ric. 
London, Tho La Warre, Gray, T. Darcy, Ed. 
Cromwell, Ito. Kiohe, G. Chaudoia, William 
Compton, W. Knowle«, Jo. Stanhope, Jo. 
Fortoscue, Ro. Cecill. See Nichols, vol. i, 
pp. 41-43, and Rymer'u 'Fivdero,' vol. xvi. 
p. 493. 

On 3 May, when James arrived at Theo- 
balds on his way to London, he made the 
following Scotchmen members of the Council ; 
Duke of Lennox, Earl of Mar, Lord Home, 
Sir George Hume, Sir James Elijhingaton, 
and liord Kiuloss ; and of tho English 
nobility. Lord Henry Howard, Thomas, Lord 
Howard, and Loixi Montioy (Nichols, vol. i. 
pp. 108-13). Nichols and llymer will furnish 
other information. J. A. J. HouaoEN- 

St. Patrick at Orvieto (10»^ S. i. 48). — 
St. Patrick was at Rome in 431, but I do not 
know that he was ever in contact with 
Orvieto. The well to which F. C. W. refers 
was sunk in 152H bj* Pope Clement VIL, and 
Benvenuto Cellini designed a medal with a 
reverse referring to the event. It represented 
Moses striking the rock, and was inscribed 
*' Ut bibat populus." On tickets of admission 
to view St. Patrick's Well it is stated : 
" Questo pozzo ^ detto di S, Patrizio par 
analogia alia caverua dello atesso nome che 
trovasi in Irlanda." 

A note (p. 160) in Roscoe's translation of 
Cellini's * Memoirs ' gives a better descrip- 
tion of the work ttian I could otherwise 
furnish : — 

"It was cut throuch tho solid rock to the depth 
of l?ti.'i feet, and 25 ells wide. It ha« two flights of 
hangine steps, one above the other, to a.^oend aod 
descona, executed in eucli a nmuner that even 
boasts of bnrden may enter ; and by 248 convenient 
steps they arrive at a bridge, placed over a spring, 
where the water is laden. And thus, without 
retuminp back, they arrive at the other stairs, 
which rise above the tirst, and by these return 
from the well by a passage different to the one they 

St. Swithut. 

Tho well of St. Patrick at Orvieto is, I 
imagine, not called after St. Patrick the 
Apostle of the Irish, but takes its name from 
one of the other St. Patricks. August Pott- 
hast's catalogue of saints in his * Riljliotheca 
Uistorica Medii .Evi ' is tho best list of the 
kind with which I am acquainted. It con- 
tains four St. Patricks. 

Ebwabd Peacock. 

F. C. W. may find Wright's 'St. Patrick's 
Purgatory' (1844) of some service in deter- 
mining whether the well at Orvieto had 
more than a merely nominal connexion with 
the saint. Its celebrity would be sufficiently 
accounted for by tho peculiarities of its con- 
struction and by its magnitude ; for spiral 
staircases and a width of 46 feet (or 43 
according Uy Bae<ieker)are somewhat unusual 
features of a well. The alternative assump- 
tion, that it is directly connected with 
St. Patrick, seems to imply that some well 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no* s. i. peb. 13. \m. 

at Orvieto was reputed to be tho portal of 

Purgatory. In that case a reference or 

allusion to the fact might be confi'lently 

expected in Dante, who, in all likelihcxx], 

was acquainted with an early form of the 

^t Patrick legend. The absence of euch an 

lusion, which would have been penned a 

>uple of centuries l:)efore the youtiger 

lAntonio di Sangallo l»eKan operations, 

[favoura another view, Alexander VI. ia 

^stated to have abolished tho revenuea arising 

from tho pilgrimages to the islet in the 

Donegal Lough Dorg in 1497. Taken in 

conjunction with this, and with the widely 

received account of St. Patrick's journey 

through Purgatory, the Orvieto dedication 

certainly looks like an attempt to give the 

Iri^h legend a new local habitation, and 

incidentally, I suppose, to orvietanize the 

pagan king whom St. Patrick *o adroitly 

conveyed to warmer regions than he himself 

cared to visit, J. DoRMKit. 

FiTZJiAMON (lO*** S. L 47).— Q. H. W. asks 
whether Hamo or Hamon was a common 
Norman Christian name. It was not among 
the most popular, but cannot be said to have 
been uncommon. I have met with it pretty 
often. The following three examples occur 
in Mr. I. H. Jeayes's 'Catalogue of the 
Berkeley Charters.' There are probably 
others in the same volume: Charter executed 
at Bristol in 1153, witnessed by ''Willelmus 
filius Ilamonis" (2) ; quitclaim of the time of 
Richard I., witnessed by Hamo de Valounes 
(21) ; grant of the time of Henry III., wit- 
nessea by Hamo Peverel (111). 

Edward Peacock. 

The following extract from a pedigree of 
Alen by Sir William Hawkins, Ulster, 1785. 
quoted in a paper of mine on tho Alen» of 
St. Wolstan's in the Kildaro Archruological 
Society's Jnnriinl, July, 1903, may be of use 
to G. II. W. :- 

" The (IfneakifO' of the Alens of Saiot WoNtnnV, 
of tho l^iiiivil l>e»cpiit of 3ir .John Alen 
who canic into Kii>;lan(l with Williii-i 
tjueror, DuUe of Nornianily, oricinully 
and doriviiiK hiu Pedigree from llio Duku^ ot Xor 

niandy. As pr. account of Sir Thonma Hawley. 
principal Herald and King of Arm* of England in 
the eighth year of liio reign of Kidr Henry the 
Eighth, in tiie Annale of Kiifjland. Sir .John Aleu 
Wfti nejihew to Robert P'itzliammon and Kichard 
de (irunville.and was witli ihcm at thc<.ircikt Battle 

of Hastinj^ ill Sussex The'"' "■"'•■>■"■ ''"-"wards 

bestowed riu Rldiard do (.^^^ lipfif 

Beddifoid, with other largo p ' von- 

shire lie did also inherit )i is la n 

Normandy. His broilier Filzham 1 

in France, where ho was sent l>y K... - .■ . . -^ 
hi« Chief (ieiiend, >V jilsn njion Sir John Alen, thf 
Conqueror bestow 'd for his great »ervicea large 

pouMwionfl in the counties of Norfolk, Ckjriiwall, 
and Westmoreland in fee." , _ , „ 

H. L. L. Dbnky. 

MlLKMTONES (10"' S. i. 7).— Oar milestone 
has undoubteilly descended to us from the 
milliarium which the Romans placed along 
the lidos of their princi[>al road<i, in tlie 
manner still customary in thw country, and 
with the rospectivo distances from the city 
inscribed upon them, reckoned at intervals 
of a thousand paces (our mile) apart, Tho 
custom, says Rich, was first introduced by 
C. Gracchus— I.e., the Roman custom. Rich, 
in his 'Greek and Roman Antiquities,' gives 
an illustration representing an ori^ginal 
Roman milestone, which stood in 1873 on 
the Capitol, but originally marked the first 
mile from Rome, as indicatefl hy the 
numeral I. on tho lop of it. It is in the 
form of a column. PImy says the miles ou 
the Roman roads were distinguished by a 
pillar, or a nt-one. set up at the end of each 
of them, and marked with one or more figures 
denoting how far it was from the golden 
milestone, the millvjirium aurcum, which was 
erected by Augustus at the top of the Roman 
Forum (see Tacitus, ' Hist .' bk. i. ch. xxvii.) 
to mark the point at wliich all the gre»t 
military roads ultimately couvergetl. For 
accounts of Roman milestones see vol. viii- 
of Arch<Tolrjgia (178.'*), p. Sh : Montfaucon's 
'Antiquit*- Expliquee; /Ij-cAcfw^'f/fa, vol. xxvii, 
p. 404 ; and the Anti(/uari/, Sept., 1883, p. 13a 
About fifty-six Anglo-Roman milestouea 
have been recorded— some withlegibleinscrip- 
tions. One of the latest was at Lincoln in 
the year 1879. which is of tho time of Vic- 
toririus. None has, as yet, been found earlier 
than Hadrian, or later than Constantine the 
Younger (ad. 33G}. See the Rev. PreV>en(lftry 
Scarth on tho 'Roman Milliaria' found in 
Britain, Arch. Joum., vol. xxxiv, pp. 30&-4O5, 
and his 'Roman Britain,' pp. ll»-23. 

Something similar, in tho way of a lana- 
. mark, to the gilded pillar in Rome seems to 
1 have formerly exint^d in the City of London. 
Although there does not seem to be any 
direct evidence that tho Standard in Cornhiil 
occupied the site of a Roiniin landmark of 
this nature, yet diHtancos were measured 
from the Standard, which served the samQ 
purpose as the milliarium aureum, and severa 
of our suburban milestones were Mill iu- 
scril>ed in Cunningham's t.imp with tho 
numbers of miles "from the Standard in 
Cornhiil." There was a Standard in Cornhiil 
as early as 2 Henry V, (' Lomlon Cliii>nicle,' 
e<l. by Sir N. H. Nicolas, p. HD). Th^' Ifoman 
mili'stoiies did not, however, invavl 
the (iistances from the Pillar, for s W 


iv" 8. 1, pct, 13, 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



been found in situ, which prove that such 
distances were sometimes computed from the 
gates of tho city ; and by a law of Tiberius, 
'Rei Agruria* Auctorea Legcsquo VariK' 
(Amst., 1674, 4t<i), pp. 340-8, the Roiuau 
8arveyoi"s were also authorized to use sepul- 
chres for purposes of boundary arui for 
points and intersections of geometric lines 
(see Tiyinf. Lond. and Midd. Arch. An., 
vol. iv. part i. p. 01). 

Pennant considered that the stone in Pan- 
nier Alley, which lately hafl a narrow escape 
from the olutchea of an Araericao, had the 
appearance in his time of being an original 
Roman sepulchral stone, an opinion which is 
of much interest when it is associated with 
the fact that there is— or was, a.s it is said to 
have been buried in situ at the tirae the 
Marble Arch was ro-erectetl from Buckingham 
Palace at Tyburnia— a similar one at Cum- 
berland Gale, Hyde Park, where soldiers 
were shot for desertion in time of war. Now 
this stone and that in Pannier Alley are 
stated to be exactly equidistant from the 
Roman sarcophagu!* of late years unearthed 
in Westminster Abbey precincts, the three 
thus forming a triangle, and I believe there 
was a similar significance attached to thedi.s- 
covery of the Roman sarcophagus at Lower 
Clapton (see pamphlet by Mr. B. Clarke). 
The tablet recordinc: the site of Uicka Hall 
states that that Sessions House .sto<xl 1 mile 
1 furlong an'.l l."i yards from the Standard in 
CornhiU. " Mile-huts," to supersede the mile- 
stone, were sugcestftl by tne compilers of 
Rees's 'Cyclopaxria,' v, ' ililcstone.' 

J. HoLDEN Mac Michael. 

161, Uacnmersmith Rund. 

The inference that few English highways 
ire provided with milestones in 1743 finds 
)me support in Macaulay's graphic descrip- 
tion of the deplorable state oi the roads hiilf 
a century or -so earlier. Milestones, in fact, 
imply thorouglifares kept in serviceable con- 
dition ; to a succession of quagmires they are 
but ironical acces-sories r and a succession of 
quagmires is what our immediate forefathers 
too frequently dignified by the name of a 
rood. Vet for fifteen centuries there had 
existo<l monuments sllowill^ how the grejitest 
road-builders of antiquity anprecialed the 
OK-'iviii. ,1 way— Iladrian'n Wall, studded with 
pi . for example. That the Roman 

pi; Is were accuiately divided by mile- 

stones is carffully reconled by the vuluininous 
Gibbon ; nt»d indeed, the inHcriptionsou these 
miliari'X have proved of great value to the 
classical topographer. As to who first erected 
them, Uuruy, referring to Plutarch and 
figuring two restorations, says : '^ L'usago 

de ce^ bornes doit otre beaucoup plus ancien 
que Gracchus, qui pour lavoir t'tabli" 
(' Hist. de3 Romaina,' i. l.^I ; iv. 16). Rut it is 
a far cry from the milestones on the Croydon 
road to their predecessors on the stately 
Appian Way. J. Dokbcer. 

Milestones in England appear to have 
come into modern use with tho Turnpike 
Acta in the early part of the eighteenth 
century. In an Act relating to the Great 
Post Road from London to Che,ster (1744) 
the trustees aro empowered to measure tho 
roads and erect " milestones." So says a 
correspondent at 9'''' S. v. 499 ; while another 
stated that the first milestones erected in 
England wei'e set up between Cambridge 
and Loudon in 1729. 

EvGRARD Home Coleman. 

71. Brecknock RoaH. 

If Mr W. Moy TnoM.\3 looks up 'The 
Beauties of England and Wale-s,' he will find 
several allusions to Roman milestones. Two 
occur in the volume dealing with Northum- 
berland, published in 1813. Writing on Little 
Cheaters, or the Bowers, the author says ou 
p. 122, vol. xii. part i. : — 

" At Coldloy-galc. where the Via VinciaJis crossea 
Barilon Burn, is a rnile pillar about seven feot hiKh, 
ril»<.'cd at the fi'Kit of a large tunnihi^ ; and a mile 
further up ihu Causeway, another broken in two." 
On p. 141 he states, under the heading of 
Redesdalo and Risinghara :— 

"This is tho modern name of a Roman station. 

......Oppt^ite this station lie nmny large atones 

Forty years ago, a mile iiillar w&s staiuIinK, a mile 
south of the station, and at the present time there 
is one uned as a itate-itoat, opposite the door of 
tho inn at U'oodbridne.' 

Chas. F. FoR8fi.\w, LL.D., F.R.Hi8t.S. 


Envelopes {U^ S, xii. 245, 397. 434, 490 ; 
10"* S. i. .''.7).— With the data .supplied by SiR 
Uerbeet Maxwell, Mr. Peet, Mr. Merkitt, 
and others, it is hardly necessary to produce 
further evidence to prove that envelopes, as 
we know them, wore in use for postal pur- 
poses long previous to 1840.^ With regard to 
"franking. I never mentioned its use by 
private persons. My statement was that I 
nad seftn<'niv/c</j<'»so endorsed for the purpose 

j of free po,stage since 1840. Lord Forte-scue's 
were so transmittetl through the Post Office 

I when he was Lord Lieutenant of the county. 

1 The Duke of Cambridge's private envelope, 
franked " Cambridge," was rec*'ivo<l by nie in 
1H90. free of postawe. I am well aware of the 

! modern habit of placing signatures upon the 
face of an envelope, but thi* of course does 

' not constitute a "free delivery." My state- 



no* a. I. Fra. 13, I$0<. 

uent that "stamped covers" were used in 
Australia previous to Rowland Hill's scheme 
— to be precise, in 1838— was culled from an 
interesting article on 'Stamp CollectiuBf/ 
written in October last by Mr. C. H. Bulli- 
vanU lu giving the name of Randolph as a 
Post-Master I merely quoted from Haydn's 
• Dictionary of Dates,' as could easily be seen 
by the context. A great amount of inforraa- 
tiao regarding ' Postage and Post Office ' 
may be found in the 'Dictionary of Cora- 
merce,' a copy of which I have, dat«d 1835, 
which quotes from Herodotus, lib. viii. c. 98 ; 
Bergier, ' Histoire des Grands Chemins,' 
lib. iv. c. 4 ; * Bouchand sur la Police des 
Romains,' pp. 136-61 ; Black, ' Commerce,' 
book i. c. viii, J Macpherson'a 'History of 
Commerce,' 1784, «be, TuouNE Georg£. 

My memory takes me back to 1830-40, and 
I saw a good deal of correspondence, private, 
official, and of M.P.s, My impression is that 
small envelopes were in use for invitations 
delivered by hand, and occasionally for official 
correspondence and for franks by .M.P.s., 
which were given to friends, anrl occasionally 
sold by impecunious members of Parliament. 
Their use for ordinary fxist-letter purposes 
was impossible, owing to the vigilance of the 
Post -Office authorities. Anything which 
appeared to contain a second piece of paper 
was char|;ed double postage. I rcmeraoer 
once folding up a letter in an unosuul way, 
which I thought clever, but the receiver was 
charged double postage for it in consequence. 

As regards the extra halfpenny upon Scotch 
letters, my impression is that this charge was 
to cover the tolls which had to be paid in 
Scotland, while in England mails passed all 
toll-bars free. Envelojjes only came into 
general use in 1840, when the penny post was 
introduced. O. 0. W. 

Mr. Housden is probably right in saying' 
"When ordinary private letters were first 
sent by post is a auestiou more easily asked 
than answere<l.'' ^«o doubt tlie practice of 
including private letters among those from 
and to tlie king or State, for which the post 
was originally instituted, was of slow growth ; 
hut Mr. Joyce, in his 'History of Uig Post 
Office^' conclusively siiows that the earliest 
postal reformer of real eminence, VVitherings, 
was the man who, in Charles I.'s reign, made 
of an irregular practice an organized system. 
After Witherings's three years' able manage- 
ment of the foreign posts, the king com- 
missioned him, in \G^C>, to put the inlan<i 
posts into better order. It was surely time, 
since the keepers of the post houses, as 
appears from tue petition of the unfortunate 

"99 poore men," had, so far Ijack as 1628, 
received no wages for nearly seven years, and 
some were in prison for debt. A detailed 
account of Witheriugs's plan will be found in 
Mr. Joyce's interesting pages. " Tlie t-crm 
'post," as he reminds us, "meant nothing 
more than the carrier or bearer of the letter. 
And again ; — 

" The term ' itosltmie,' in llm iiense of a charge 
upon a letter, is comiiiirnlivoly nuxicni. The torm 
i-i, itide<3ii, used in the .-Vtt uf llVIO, liul there it 
BiKniHea the hire of a horsu for Iravclliug; ' Kaeh 
horse 8 hire or po8t«K«.' " 

Mr. Hocsden may be interested to learn 
from the same authority that " tho Act of 
1764 is the first to use it"— i.e., the term 
" postage " as applied to letters— although I 
fear this information cannot do much to 
lessen the difficulty of answering the question 
as to when private letters first travelled in 
company with those of the State. 

Eleanor C. Smyth. 

MuNDY (9"" S. xii. 485 ; ID"" S. L31).— Ma. 
Percy Dkyden Mundy is surely in error 
when he asserts that Lord Edmund Howard, 
son of the second Duke of Norfolk, married 
Marcaret, daughter of Sir John .Mundy. 
Lord Mayor of Lomlon (1522-3). Lord 
Edmund Howard was, so far as I can dis- 
cover, only twice married ; firstly to Joyce 
Culpepper, by whom he was father of Queen 
Katharine Howard, and secondly to one 
Dorothy Troyes. Perhaps, however, Mb. 
MoNDY can advance some proof to the offec 
that the "Margaret Hawarde'' of Sir Job 
Mundy's will was Lord Edmund's wife. 

Gerald Brekan. 


PmDAK Family (f)"" S. xii. 44fi). — Your 
correspondent may perhaps find in Wesley's 
•Journal,' 20 July, 1774, fi July, 178H. aomo- 
thing to his purpose. " Mr. Pinner ' is almost 
certaitdj' Rooert, rather than John, of the 
two brothers set forth in the 'Alumni 
Oxonienses.' Tho volume of 'Lincolnshire 
Pedigrees ' (Harleian Soc., No. ."JO) containing 
letter P has not come to my hand. Sir Wm. 
Dugdale disallowed the baronetcy of the 
Pindars of [] J at his vihiiation of 1603 

(Wotton), But are these connected Pindars? 


Sir Paul Pindar, to whom Mi:. LE\n5 Lam- 
bert refers, was born at Wellingborough,! 
Northamplonshiro, in 1560 or 1566. HiaJ 
arms are given in N<irthiWi.p(onsltir< X'Ati and\ 
Qucfiei, vol. i. p. 160, as a chevron argent 
between three lions' heads erased ermine, 
crowned or. They are engraved, I believe, 

10* & I. F«.. 13. 1901] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



<-.r " - " -- n plate presented to Wei- 6"* S, 

li Churcu by Sir Paul iu 

lij.ji. 1 .j^-i.ji> w.iy>rraation mi^ht therefore 
be elicited concerning the Pindar family 
from Wellingborough ; from Puterborough, 
where the cathedral authorities possess Com- 

9"" S. iii. 203 ; and instances 
in the singular were given in the Ttm-e-i of 
31 October, 1903. Two questions need to be 
decided : (1) how many handa does the person 
kiss ? (2) has the official form of the fkhrase 

ever been current in the plural } A stray 

munion plate presented by Sir Paul in 1639 ; ' quotation proves nothing. 1 limit the inquiry 
or from the Bodleian Library, to which he to the official kissing of the sovereign':; hana. 

eent Arabic, Persian, and other \'aluable 
manuscripts in 1611. JoHX T. Pack. 

West Haddoa, Northamptonshire. 

Your correspondent will do well to look at 
the jjodigree of Pinder in Joseph Hunter's 
*Familia; ^linorum Gentium,' ii. 485 (Harl. 
8oc.). One of this family became the direct 
ancestor of the present Earl Beauchamp by 
marrying tlie heiress of the Lygons. The 
name Pinder was subsequently clianged for 
that of Lygou by Act of Parliament. 

W. C. B. 

Dr. Murray (vol. v. p. 714, col. 3, under 
* Kiss,' 6) says ^' to kiss the hand (bands) of a 
sovereign"— where by placing "hands "within 
brackets he seems to show uncertainty 
about the plural — and gives nine quotations, 
from l57o to 1854. Four of these are in the 
plural ; those of 1654 and lf;80 seem to be 
merely rhetorical, but thase of lT68and 1809 
are in the form used in the newspapers of 
to-day. W. C, B. 

There seems to me no difference between 

I the expression "kissed hands" and "kissed 

There are, I am told, no members of this ' liand," except that one is singular, the other 

family now surviving at Owston, but there I plurai, both being identical. 

are several Pinder? or Pindars (I have seen | J" * '^^^ Mortality, when the promise of a 

the name spelt both ways by people bearing commission is given to Sergeant Both well by 

it) in the neighbouring parishes of Ilaxey, Claverhouse, Scott obeervea :— 

£pworth, and Belton, C. C. B. I "Bothwell went throagh the salatatioD in the 

— ,, . 11, manner prescribed, but nut withuut evi>leiit marka 

1 Ijere is an extended description, in the of hauRhty reluctance, and when he had done mo, 

DmUj Advert wr of 26 April, 1742, of the said aloud, 'To kiM a lady's hand can nerer di«- 

-*- ■ > ■. - ({race a |rentl«inan ; but I would not kiss a nuui'ii, 

save the King's, lo bo made a generaL'" — Chap. xit. 
The probable date of this is 1679, when 
Charles II. was king. 

But, as a work of fiction may not be 
ontin_ the Front next the regarded as of primary authority, let me 
* handsome QU(,t^ another instance. It is from a poem in 
Latin sapphics called 'Villa Bromhamensis,' 
by Robert, Lord Trevor, afterwards created 
Viscount Ilamprlen, in 1776, by George III. ; 
Hoc nt excudi mde carmen ct jani 
Rusticofi factns roermt, eo ad aulam 
Dcvolo mendax, aabito vooantc 
Keg0 benigno. 

Ulitcti 'rTJosanprecatiu 

More !. im aoiilo MioictruiD) 

Ille Dii ^ lodit otculandam 

bpoute Duapt^. 

In *• Explanations." note« at the side of the 
poem, it IS obwrved, ''Sent for to (>»urt. 
N'ever canviwt Lord North, nor even nt.r-rivfd 
my son-in-lttw Lord Suffolk, then 
of State.— Kist the Kiri^'' i hanri, Jim 

.' :;Koltu, ALA. 

Novboame Rectory, v 

mansion house and it« appurtenances of 
" Thomas Pindar, Esq., deceas'd, 8ituat« at Totten- 
ham Hiirh-Oosii. l,eing a beautiful four-square 
^''' ' ■ ' " ' '■ , saahM; a Front every way, 
»" • r8, with an F'ntablalure all 

roi Tiont in the Fi 

Road, naiiiitii Willi the Four !j«astoni 
Citurt-Vard, with Iron Rails and Gates, with a 
Walk of Free Stone up to a Flight of seven Steps 
wi»h Iron Rails, which lead into the HaH," 4c. 

The mansion house, to judge from this para- 
graph, and a continuation of tho account in 
the news-sheet mentioned, must have been 
one of considerable importance in its time, 
and would afford a clue, possibly, to that 
branch of the Pindars whose representative 
appears to have occupied the houne. John le 
Rnder is mentioned in the ' Hotuli Litterarum 
Ulaumrum in Turri Londtoensi ' ; Henry lo 
Pynderin the Writs of Parliament ; and John 
le I'indere in ' Excorjita o Uotuiis f iniurn in 
Turri Londinensi* (%ee Bardsley's 'English 
Buniames,' 1881, p. 235). 


For ♦ Notes on the Pindar Family ' of 
London between 1592 and 1781. nee 7'" S. xii. 
26 ; anil of Chester, BarbaiJos, and else- 
where p. ib7. EvERAiiu Home Coleman. 
71. nrocknock Road. 

"KjNXEn irA.VD.H" (9«« a. xii. us).— This 
phruMi has alrcjidy been discussed iu 'N. J: Q.,' 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [lo- 8. i. fei. is. low. 

near the Oxford-Arms iu Warwick Lane. 
MDCCxuv, (Price One Sliilling and Six- 
pence.)" In it are plenty of examples of 
Pamela, e (/. : — 

This secret soon the fair Pamela found, 
Whose BeautT spreads annuniber'd Congneata rnoiii). 

C. i. I. 31. 
Here first Pamela drew tho vernal Air, 
The beauteous daughter of this bapjiy pair. 

C. i. 1. 7'y. 
No Maida attend, no ahining Toilet's Rrac'd, 
Pamela 's only by Pamela lac'd. C. iii. I. IT. 

It need scarcely be said that the Pamela of 
tho above-mentioned skit ia a verv different 
person from the Pamela of Samuel Richard- 
son's novel. Who was J W , Esq. 1 

Robert Pierpoint. 

Shakespeasb's "Vibtub of necessity" 
(10"" S. i. 8, 76, 110).— A few years ago a 
writer in the Emjlish Utnlorical JieineiOHt&ted* 
that the phrase "faoiens virtuteni de neceissi- 
tatem " wail used in the twelfth century by 
William of Tyre. I should have included 
this information in my observations at the 
second reference* but for the fact that the 
Review writer did not cite "chapter and 
verso." Perhaps one of your readers can 
supply this omission. Grimm's 'Deutsche* 
Worterbuch ' quotes {s.v. 'Noth') some old 
examples, one of which (not the earliest), 
dated 1545, is thus expressed in rime : — 

Wir miisacn doch ina ansern Sachea 
Usz dcr Nodt ein Tuget macben. 

With regard to Shakespeare's use of tlie 
proverb, the writer of an article in the 
liincfeenth Centvrv for Fobinjarv, entitled 
'A Forgotten Volume in Snakspeare's 
Library,' discourses of a rare book pul)li8he<l 
in 1681, t with a view to "showing that the 
great poet was in no small measure indebted' 
thereto. The N^uieteenth Centttrjj writer is of 
opinion that if 8liakespearo used the proverb 
at second hand he borrowed it from Pettie 
rather than from any other author, and 
quotes tho following from the 'Civile Con- 
versation ' (i. fi) : " Whereof foUowcth a 
vertue of iiecessite." Whatever the value of 
this opinion, it strengthens my Wlief that 
the proverb was as familiar to Shakespeare's 
English as to his foreign contemporaries, 

F. Adams. 

Sadler's Welt-s Play allpded to by 
WoRUswoiiTH (10'" S. i. 7, 70. oey— The ' New 
Burletta Spectacle, Edwanl and Susan,' was 
produced at Sadler's Wells Theatre on tho 

• Vol. ix. p. 7, note l.^ 

t "The Civile'' 
written first in 1 
French by Georg> 

in of M. Sl«euon Guazzo, 
uowo traoalated out of 

opening night of tho aeasoHj Easter Monday,. 
11 April, 1S03. It was wntleu by Charles 
DiUlm the younger (manager and part- 
proprielor of the house), and composed by W. 
Keeve, the scenery being painted by R. C 
Andrews. The principal characters were by 
"Mr. KinK (liia first .i here these fiv« 

years), Mr. Smith, .M ml, Irtte of the 

"Theatre Koyal. Covenl< ■ tirnt »|ii)eara«ce 

at this Theatre), and Siia. C- DiMin." 
The lyrics, \* ith descriptions of the scenerv, 
in many of my grandfather's Sadler's Wells 
pieces were printed, but I have not seen a 
copy of this one Some idea of tho maimer 
in which the Cumbrian Araidia was nroMcnted 
in it may be evolved from the further infor- 
mation advertised : — 

" In the coarse of the Piece nn inriiient«l Ballet 
(conqwsed by Mr. Kioi;) in which .Mr. King and 
Mad. St. Anmud, will dance a !'*» Deux, oe- 
conipanied on the Harp. Mr. L- Bolognii and .Mr. 
Banks will dance a Ooniio Pns fViiT. aoronipumed 
on the Union Pipes, by Mr. '" ' ' ?t 

at)pcarau(;e in London) ;au<i '' 

Mr. Jackiion, lute of CovenV ly 

nine years of ajie, will dunce a iimnpHKj .«»th a 
Skipping Rope (her first appcttfance in Fublio)." 

It was also announced that, 
" shortly after the oi>ening, the Proprietor* mean 
to give a benefit, ine profits of which wdl be 
appropriated towards the f<ii)iscriplion for the 
Beauty of Battermcre, particulars advertised in 
a few days." 

Of the result of this benefit (if it took place) 
I have no record. The two pi iiicipal part* 
were played by Townsond and Mrs. Dibdin, 
the former introducing a new song (by 
Dibdin and Reeve) called 'Tho Mammota 
and Bonaparte.' 
In his ' Memoirs ' the author said :— 
"The pieces which 1 wrote for our opening con* 
sistcd of 'New Brooms; or, the Firm Chonaed'; 
'Kdward luid Snwin ; or, f '' ' " '•^r* 

mere,' an oiterutic piece in ' » 

fact which bad but rccentlv "« 

the seduction, by frauduleuU nianii'tte. *.'f the 
dauKhter of the keeper of tho Char Inn, near the 
Lake of Buttermcre ; and for which tho |»erpetrator 
forfeited his life— in each of these tvTo pieies Towns- 
end played the principal character ; ' -Jack tho 
liiant Killer,' a seriouii pantomime, in which yovmg 
Menage performed Jack, and Sijtnor Belzom, who 
was remarkably tall, and an uncommonly line pro- 
portioned man, jilyycd the Giant, whose dwarf 
was most whimsically sustained by Mr rirunaldi, 
who performeil in every lino: 'Fire nr ir, 

a Hohdiiy Harleijuin ■ in which King ; le- 

quin : .Mr. ITnrtland, Pani'-l- •»> ■ M: Uli, 

Clown; nnd Mile. Su Picri mbine; with 

«^ B.illct, (.omponed by Air. unr. • and an 

Kxtraordiuary (Jymnasilii: j.vnihn um by Sicnr. 
Bclaoni, aunouneeil as ' the Saniaon. ' 
Of the scLMiery it is reoordeil that " wo 
exhibited as beautiful displays of Scenery 
as niiif T/tcatre in London" 'Etiwar-f n^l 

io««. s. L Fu.. 13. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Susau ' remained in the bills until tho l«vtt«r 
part of May, and, after being withdrawn, was 
restored. The bill for 27 June contained the 
pieves witnessed by Mary Lamb a week or 
two later, including that which she inaccu- 
rately stylet! ' Mary of Buttcrmere.' As the 
pei'formers during the evening included the 
incomparable Qrimaldi and that remark 
able man Belzoni, afterwards famous an a 
traveller, it is more comprehensible that 
Charles Lamb and Miss Kick man laughed 
than that Southey and Rickman slept. 
Perliaps they had paid too much attention 
to the " white or red foreign unadulterated 
wine," which was supplied at 1«. a pint to 
patrous of the house. 


*' P. P., Cleuk of the Parish " (10^" S. i. 
€8).— There is a full account of him, with 
many extracts, including one from Carlyle, 
in a bo<jk of roferenco which i<j not sufficiently 
uyicd, Wheeler's ' Noted Names of Fiction ' 
(Bohn, IbTO), p. 299. Pope introduces him 

Pin ' Martinus Scriblerua.' W. C. B. 

The work to which Carlyle refers is 
•Memoirs of P. P., Clerk of this Parish.' It 
is given at length in El win and Courthopo's 
edition of Pope (x. 435-44). It h one of 
the ' Martinus Scriblerus ' publications, and 
there is little doubt that it was written by 
Pope, with some small assistance from Gay. 
That its purpose was to ridicule Burnet's 
'History of my Own Times 'is confirmed by 
Pope's denial of the fact in the Prolegomena 
to the ' Danciad ' {op. cit., iv. 64). 

Da-vid Salmon. 
[Reiiliea also from Mr. Hulden MacMiouael, 
Hr. 1). B. MosKLEV, and W. T.] 

Snowball (9**» S. x. 307, 4."j3).— Mn. Snow- 
!all will tiud much information by perusing 
the rogisten-i of By ton and Whickham. These 
Arc printed and published. 


Sr. BRnxjET'fl Bower (10'»' S. i. 27, 70).— 
Samuel Pegge, writing about 1735, states : — 

" But ttfl to St. Bridget's Bower, I havo enquired 
■oi the aged iJr. Brett and Mr. Bull, and cannot 
lenrn thut fh«r» ia niiy one remarkable hill in this 
civ " ' 1 [ incline to believe that the 

l.\ I liiila that passes east and 

y\> i)[ the county above Boxley, 

HuUiugbuuruti, iHc., u lue&nt by this expreasion." 

K. J. Fynmohe. 

EmxPB ON Sir John Seymour (10"' S. i. 
67). — Probably *' iici-iti:itetito" is meant for 
jferipiitetiri ; th' cription is probably 

this: "Ago [■ ici, dum intuearis 

ciu«rcs dctaocti, tuortis en iiacellu!* brcvi 
fortassis tuie." F. P. 

Inscription on Statue of James IL (lO'-'> 
S. i. 07).— I am glad to learn from tho query 
contributed by R. S. that this statue has 
at last been set up a^aiu in London. Its 
original position in Whitehall Gardens was a 
little out of the way, and it was carried 
thence in 189t> to a site in the garden 
fronting Qwydyr House, Whitehall. In the 
Coronation year it was apparently displaced 
in order to make room for a stand from 
which to view the procession. The question 
of its ultimate fate has since been discussed 
several times in the press. 

The following copy of the inscription on 
the pedestal was taken by me in October, 
1888 :— 








anno mdclxxxvi. 

John T. Page. 
The inscription has evidently been shoru 
of its greater part, and the last word altered. 
It is given in full in ' Maguie Britanniie 
Notitia : or, the Present State of Great 
Britain, by John Charaberlaync, 1723, p. 258. 
The statue then had a jjedestal of raarble. 


French Miniature Painter (lO'''' S. i. 86). 
—Madame Vigt^o Le Brun, the celebrat^a 
French portrait painter, whose exquisite por- 
trait of Madame Rdcamier is well known, 
was born in Paris in 1756. Her great 
speciality being portrait^], she is doubtless 
the painter required. Matilda Pollard. 

Bello Vue, Ben^o. 

I fancy that the reference is to Madame 
Lobrun, previously Mile. Vig^e, of whom an 
account will be found in Bouillet's 'Diet. 
d'Histoire et de G«5ographie,' 

Edward L.\tham, 

A reference to Bryan's ' Dictionaij of 
Painters and Engravers' (G. Bell »fc Sons, 
1899) yields the following French painters of 
the eighteenth or the first half of tho nine- 
teenth century whose names begin with 
Vig : E. L. Viget», known as Vigi?o Le Brun ; 
Louis Vigee, her father ; J. L. H. Vigcr ; 
Jean Vignaud ; E. de Vigne ; F. do Vigne ; 
P. R. Vigneron ; and IT. I. J. do Vignon. 

E. Rlmbault Dibdin. 

Ash : Place-name (0^'' S.-xii, lOd, 211, 291, 
373 ; 10"' S. i. 72, 113).— I may point out that 
in Devonsliire alone at tho time of Doavcs*k«^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. iw a. i. flb. i3, 19o*. 

there were no fewer than aeven places bear- 
ing the name of Ash, viz.. Ash Walter, now 
known aa Ash water ; Asnreigny: Ralph's 
Ash, now Roseash (these are parishes) ; and 
Ash in Petrockstow, Brad worthy, South 
Taw ton, and Braunton. And besides the 
simple Ash, the name appears in combination 
in Ashcombo, Ashford, and Ashleigh. 

Oswald J. Reichbl. 
Lympstotie, Devon. 

"Bisk" (9"> S. xii. 180, 375). — In 'The 
Book of the Table' is this derivation : — 

"Bisque— bisct, old French for wood - pigeon ; 
derived from l>oiM, whose root is the Low LAlin 
ho-ictu, whence the English bosk, bxifik, busli, &iid 
the French bisque, bois, buis, and buissou." 

As the stock of crayfish soup appe-ars origin- 
ally — whatever ma^ be the case now in the 
exquisite *' Potage a la Bisque " served at the 
Caie de la Paix, Paris — to have been made of 

Sigeon stowed down, the soup seems to have 
erived its name therefrom. Hbi/^a. 

Anatomie Vivante (9'" S. xii. 49, 157).— 
Mr. Holden MacMichael says tliat "a 
writer in the Daili/ Teler/rap/i of 31 December, 

1902, seems to be in error in sayinR that 

the 'Anatomic Vivante' was exhibited at the 
Egyptian Hall "; but in ' Old and New Lou- 
don ' (Cosseli <fe Co., 1890, vol. iv, p, 257) it is 
stated : "Here [Egyptian Hall], in 1825, was 
exhibited a curious phenomenon known as 
'the Living Skeleton,' or 'the Anatomio 
Vivante,' of whom a short account will be 
found in Hone's ' Every-Day Book.' " 

Edwabd Latham. 
_fSALEr OK Salop (9"' S. xii. 448; 10"> S. i. 
9"). — A similar question, with replies, will be 
found in 7"' S. vi. 468 and vii. 34. To what 
has been already said let me add that salep 
is not always obtained from the orchid- tuber. 
Tho late Dr. Aitchison, who accompanied 
the Afghan Delimitation Commission during 
1884, showed — see 'Annals of Botany,' iii. 
(1889), p. 154— that the source of badslia, or 
royal salep, is a species of Allium— probably 
A. maclmnii. I. B. B. 


Ihirlu Ihi{/i>*h J'rinltd fiooki in the Univrrmtt/ 
lAfmxry, Cambfidffe ( 1475 to 1640). 3 vols. (Cam- 
bridge, University Press.) 
This important contribution to bibliographical 
knowledge grew, as the compiler tells uc, out of an 
earlier ami a diflerent Bcheinv. It was accotiitiliahed 
in epiteof innumerable dithcultiea, not the least of 
which were the limitations of the lil »' and 

the gaps inevitable iti tlie UniviT (ion, 

whion are frankly stated to be enun .. A» the 

labour progressed its scope enlarged, and new 
matter was constantly introduced into the text. 
There are few con^'"'-'""*'""' workers who will not 
gre«t with a 8ym]> . ii the statement that 

only at the conoluM *ork "did it b«girt to 

be apparent on what luieo rejearch was desirable." 
Part 1. conaiste of incunabula, which are divided 
into books printed at Westminster, Oxford, St, , 
Albans, and London, with others printed abroad a| 
Bruges, Cologne, Veni<?««, Antwerp. Tjouvain, Pari^l 
Rouen, Baslv, ' " aown.l 

But Hmall in ;i, th< 

catalogue ocouj ,. . ,., . ! .. idodd^ 

of the entire wurk. Muni of the early buokti are, more- 
over, imjicrfcct, and some of them are mere frag- 
mentf). Of the' Curial ' of Alain Chartior, translated, 
by William Caxlon, there ia thus but a single leaf, 
and of 'The Four Sons of Ayniou' there are bub' 
four leaves. Some of the works are unique : and we 
are not dreaming of disi>aragiug the im|K>rtancc of 
tho collection or its interest, tnough many curious 
lessons might be drawn from its shortcomingvf 
The incunabula printed abroad consist largely of 
Breviaries and Mii^sale. Much labour has necessarily 
been expended upon the volumes. We wonder tf it 
is ungracious \.q wish that a little more hail beeti 
bestowed, and that an index of authors had been 
su)>plied at the end, so that we might discover in 
an mstant what works are or arc not included iaj 
the collection. We might then^\ithout dillicultyl 
find out what books, if any, of distinguiiihed writers • 
—or, indood, of nlunini of the University— it may 
lM)98esa. In a glance through, which docs not pro- 
tend to be more than cursory, we have come upon 
no mention of Shakosj>eare or Milton. Chaucer, 
Lydgate, and Gower often occur ; but it would be 
a task of diiliculty to ascertain what editions of 
Chancers works are to be found. Gower's 'Con- 
fessio Amantis'is traced by turning to Bcrthelet, by 
whom tho only accessible cditicni is issued, and 
Barclay aiipears under Cawood, ' Stultifora Navis.' 
On the other hand, much information not elsewhere 
easily accessible is given in the shape of printers' 
niarkB,exactsituatioD of their premine, and the like. 
All bibliographers will desire to posseaa the threo 
volumes. To those, if there are any such, who 
nroposc to continue the invaluable labours of the 
lirunets, Qu6rardp, Barbiers, Lowndeses, Ac, they 
will be of immense value. It is, how' ' ■ 

thatbibliographicallaboursoo anox; 
unreniunerative, and though the v 
which wc refer are out of date lu iuxard* lliu 
information they supply, vre see no jirobabiltty of 
their being brought up to the present lime. We are 
not sure, even, that some great works of tho past are 
suitable to modem requircmentB. Works such as 
the ))rc8ont nmst, however, always have value, and 
cannot easily be out of date. They constitute to tho 
worker a species of im^moirts pour ttn'ir, in whioh 
respect their value cannot easily be overestimated. •• 

Ohl Time Alclu'iK'h, Kiur>nira\i, and. y^rif/hhourhooil. 

By Charles Gordon. ( P'ielier Unwin. ) ^ 

It is natural that advantage should be taken nf tfie ^ 
great alterations in progress lictween the Strand 
and Holborn to write a volume concerning the dis- i 
tricta now in course of being swept away, Mr. 
Charles (Jordon. to whom is due a ' History of tho 
Old Bailey and Now-a',e,' i.= lii,4 ii> <lio field, 
and htts issued tb m an 
account of tho movi "d a 

record of the histori".,.. ..i i...-. .-„•- ided. 



As the work is liberally illustrated, it forms an menb of ecclesiastical atitinuities which was still 

interesting souvcuir of spots which all living waiting for its Inatorian. For the tokeu to which 

Londoners recall, nod an indispensable portion of Mr. Khiella has devoted his reseachos is not the 

every librory dealinji largely with what arc called private coinage of small denomination with which 

Londiniaoa. Concerned as it is with lenislation 
regarding the new streets to be erected, with 
condiiious of competition, and with the comjienea- 
tinn to l>c accorded to the owners of property, such 
as the < iaiety Theatre and the Morniiifj PoM, the 
early part, though importwit, is of limited iutereat. 
Much of the text is made up of reports of pro- 
ceedings of the County Council and of the in- 
effectual ottempt to induce that body to recon- 
sider a portion of its scheme. 

Not until tlie fiflii chapter is reached do we come 
upon the philological and historical portion of tlie 
work, upon the reasons for the selection of the 
nameAldwycb and the desciiplion of Danish and 

81, oonceniing the village ,,,,.,.,, . 

known later as Aldewych, and of V m de Aldewych, 
connccliutr it with the Hostiital of St. Gile.s, is 
QVioled. We hoar much of the practice of nailing 
the skins of Danes upou the doors of churches, 'i'he 
roayiwlcs of later times, around which Nell fjwyn 
may have danced, are depicted ; and there is an 
account of the procession of the ".Scald Miserable 
Masons" on 27 August, 1742, or, preferably, on 
7 April of the same year. Very many antiquarian 
subjects are discussed in a gossiping fa-shion. 
Fiotion is also employed, and a curious proof uf 
the influence of Diukena is furnished in the inser- 
Uoa of long descriptive i)assage8 from his jwn. 

On Saying Gtacc. By H. L. Dixon, M.A. (Parker 

Mb. Dixon baa put together a very complete and 
scholarly little treatise on the origin and growth of 
the pionn custom in which acknowledgment is made 
of a HiHliT I'ower who provides man with his 
daily sustunanue, and to whom, consequently, a 
meed of grntitade is due. In a catena of passages 
from claisitai writersand the Fathom of the Church 
be traces the historical development of the institu- 
tion from remote antiquity, quotinf; a remark of 
Atheniens that " none but K[iicurean8 began their 

eftls without some act of religion." Even that 
kward people the Ainfia, accordinij to Mr. 
tchelor (whose name, by the way, is missjjelt by 
Mr. Dixon), have a rude form of gr»ce, in which 
they thnnk the Divine Nourisher for the food of 
ni ' : ire about to (Mirtake. The formula of 
tk I >er of college graces are given, which a 

lilL I ouble on the part of the author would 

have m*de conii>lete. We miss, for example, the 
ancient form in uso at Trinity College, Dublin, 

wli^ T t - ' rhlance to that used at 

CI rhere seems to be a 

let _ liise "libare paternam 

Jovi " ikn utt«d by ^Ir. Dix^n (p. 73). 

ff>. <i...„ nf thf Tohv. By Robert Shiells, 

1 (Oliphaat & Co.) 

It ' 'V day Itecome more ditficiilt to fiud a 

BubJttt for II bfHjk whirh is not • ite and 

haoKneyed. The time is eomvng w ■ cialist 

in cntomob"," ' ■ "ill h»v« i.i .n-i cotn- 

pr«hensive i not to tin i..i!. . but to 

tfaa log or I'l ' rof Ihfttiivi ,.l|..i. Mr. 

li«Ua hu di^covcteil tor htmaett a minute depart- 

tho enterprising tradesman formerly used to adver- 
tise his firm, but the little leaden tablet or medal 
which Hcottish ndnisters Uived to issue to their 
parishioners as a paFisport authoriKing their admis- 
sion to the Holy Table. This old-lime observance, 
once distinctive of the Preabytcrian Sabbath, is 
now rapidly becoming extinct, and it has been the 
author^ laudable ambition to make a collection of 
these Ki/mhoia or Communion vouchers, and then, 
as a natural sequence, to write their " story.' 
Sooth to say, these leaden dumps have little to 
recommend them as works of art. They are rnde 
and inartistic, and .South Kensington would not be 
the poorer if none of them survived. The prevail- 
ing design consists merely of a date and the initials 
of the minister. They have not even the charru of 
antiquity to ret^ommend them, as they date chiefly 
from the eighteenth century, and the very earliest 
only go back to the first quarter nf tiie seventeenth. 
There is mention, however, of their being struck at 
St. Andrews in 1-590. and the Huguenots made use 
of these Communion checks in 1559. Mr. Sbiells 
coniectnres that they may have come down by 
Catholic tradition from the le.i-ftra of the Romans, 
something similar being used for admission of the 
faithful to \he A}/ap^. But the difficulty remains 
that no trace of such material symbols can bo 
fontul iluriii;; the lifleen intervening centuricH, It 
must be added that the writer pads out his small 
lK)ok V>y much digressive and irrelevant matter. 
He is (luite mistaken in his derivation of Fr. vtrreau 
from Lftt. mertri, as if it denoted a token given to 
the deserving! There is a careless mispritit of 
XpKTTOv on p. 144. 

Sliifli ami Shipping. Edited by Francis Milloun, 

We have here, with coloured illustrations of flags, 
signals, &c., and with abundant other illustrations, 
a useful and pretty little volume, supplyinfj lands- 
men with all the information they are likely to 
require concerning ships and shipx>ing at home and 
abroad. This is, in phrase now classic, "ex- 
tensive and peculiar." Much of it is derived from 

Thk Congregational Historical .Society has sent 
us its TmiutaciioiiM for January ; also a hitherto 
lost treatise by Robert Browne, "the father of 
Congregationalism," ' A New Years Guift,' " in the 
form of a letter to his uncle Mr. Flower." To this 
Mr. Champlin Burrage has written an introduction, 
in which he states that in 1874 the manu.script 
was AC(]uirod by the British Museum. Mr. Crippen 
considers it to Lio the most important contribution 
to early Nonconformist history that has come to 
light f.mce Dr. Dexter'a reenviTy (about Itf/o) of 
the 'True ond Short Declaration.' The contenta 
of the Ti-aitHoction^ show some good work dune. 
There i~ '• • 'i of CongregniionnliBin in K*mp- 
Bhire b rownon, with a map showing Ibo 

plac;c8 \'. Msters were ejoctrd ltW!()-"2. Mr. 

Edward Unulcatt coniribulcs '' d 

the IndulKcnceof 1(17'-'.' Mr W. 1 ' < 

extracts nom the diary of Dr. I i \ 

1749 to l'S.\ This contnins reluiemes l<j tho 
Cromwell familv. Wbiteliold, and the AUicv«i^. 
On Thumday, tho Stli ol lf«sfeTXkwrj, Vv^^Vj-^^wsoflk 



[10^ & L Feb. 13. lOM. 

Mrilea, "This day, aa I was sitting in my study 
with a volhime of >Ir. BiiJiter's before me, I folt a 
violent concusaion of the house, aa if it would have 
tuiiil'it'd iiisUuilly about my head. The motion wm 

hciivy uitd uiiiveiiMil 1 find the shock waa felt 

throu|!;li')Ut the cities of London and Westminster, 
And many proufa 1 huvc siiicu learnt of its violence 
and tenor. ' On the 8th of Marcli ho was awakened 
by " a shnck uf an Ciii thquake " " severer than that 
A month eince." "How awful," he writes, "are 
these llnnitions of the Divine Anger." ilr. J. 
Kuthcrford sniiplios a history of Congregation- 
&liam ill lUrniiughaiii from 1042, when its earliest 
ir»cee began to appear, the first permanent con- 
sregation being organized in 1687. The mectin^- 
Iionse was much injured hj the Jacobite riots in 
ITl."). and lotaliy destroyed in the Priestley riots of 
1701. This is now represented by the Old Meeting- 
House Church in lirialol Street, built in 1885. The 
hibtory of Carr's Litne Church ia alto uiveu. " Carr's 
Lune is said to be a corruption of "God's Cart 
liivue," derived from the shed in which before 
the Kefornialion a car was kept that was u»ed 
ia Corpus Chrinti proccssioue. This churt;h ia 
noted for the two eminent men who have 
been ita miiiiaters— John Angell James, author 
of 'The Anxious Enquirer' and some fifty other 
books; and Robert William Dale, well remembered 
for hJ9 work on 'The Aiouomcnt.' This gained for 
Liii) the honorary dog rto of D.D. from Yale College, 
which, like his prcdocessor. he declined to use, 
while he accepted a diploma of LL.D. from 
Glasgow in lS8:i, although on the litle-paj[$e of the 
memoir by his son he is plain Robert William Dale. 
In Birmingham " his leadership was universally 
recognized, not only in religious efTort, but in 
education, politics, and social enterprises. 

TiiK litliipUDT/ for Jajinary, editedby J. Roniilly 
Allen (Bemrose k Sons), contains an article * About 
Almanacs,' by W. Ileneage Leifgo. lUuatratioiie of 
btaffordshire clog almanacs are given. " A favourite 
almanac in the times of the Stuarts and the 
Georges was Rider's. Among other precepts it 

In gardening never this rule forget. 
To sowe dry and set wot." 
'Poor Robin,' 1710, receives a full doscriiition. 
Among other maxims we tind " In January, though 
the nights be long and candles be chargeable, yet 
long lying in Bed is an evil auality, becau4e they 
roust rise by times who would cozen the Devil. 
Mr. I^ege concludes his article in the words of 
" Poor Kobin " : "1 bid my oourteoun Reader heartily 
farewell ; and to my Currish Critical Reader, 
farewell and be hanged, that's twice fiod b'w'y. 
The origin of the ' Pen-annular Brooch' is treated of 
by Edward Lovett. The editor in a note sayn, 
"The testimony of archeology shows conclusively 
that the ' safety pin ' is the earliest typo of brooch. 
At all events, it was in use in the Mvcen%an period 
eay 1500 to 2()(X) b.c. The pen-annular broocn only 
makes its appearance about 700 to 800 a.d." Mr. 
Richard Qnsck gives 'A Chat about SpOfius,' and 
refers to " some spoons made in Russia of a ;ieculiar 
kind of cloisonnil' on&niel, the effect of which is very 
beautiful." In this article the objects selected for 
illustration are all in the Horuiman Museum. 
Some crosses at Hornby and Melling in Lons- 
dale axe descril>ed by Mr. W. G. Collingwood, who 
made a tour with Mr. W. 0. Roper, and he says he 
'"has made few more delightiul excursions both for 

scenery and remains." This district is compan 
tively little known, for it is out of the range o£ 
the county ftr'i' ■"■^■"■" "I "■■ i'>M<»». Oiarlotte 
Mason writes • i ',':van, Cornwall, 

famed for its i uid old bench- 

ends. Ill the ' >ioi>_-3 uii , ' Mr. Romilly 

Allen contributes one on on Pins founa 

at Lincoln,' There is .i w of old Kew 

Bridge, whii^h was opened in IT^^O, being pulled 
down in 1SD9 to make way fur the King Ed- 
ward \'Il. bridge. 

With much regret we hear of the death, at 
Darley Abbey, Derby, of the Rev. Cdnoii Ainger, a 
valued friend and correspondent. Bom in London, 
9 February, 1837, the son of Alfred Ainger, orchi- 
tect, Alfred Ainger, M.A., LL.D., Cinou Resi- 
dentiary of Bristol, Master of the Temple, and 
Chaplain in Ordinary to the King, was educated at 
King's College, l^oridon, and Trinity Hnll, Cn'n- 
bridgo, of will ' ' ' . 

18()0-4. curaU" 

ant master Shi: _ , „ :■ 

at the Temple Church iri>fti ItitJO in IH93. ili- u«ve lo 
the press ' Sermons preoclted iti I he Temple Cliurch,* 
and was editor of ti ' ' ' iinb. of whom he 

wrote o memoir. II form and white 

hair made him a > . ^uro in London. 

society, in which he wii« gientJy and justly prizeoL^ 
Canon Ainger's gentleness, urbanity, and oourteajrl 
were pleasantly oonapiouous features in a delight- 
ful personality. 

We miiaC call tpecial attention to the foUowini 
noiiceis : — 

Om all communications must be wriltt<n the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

Wk cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications aorre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply he written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the sigimture of the writer and 
such address aa he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, iimmediatcly after the exact 
neading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondenta who rciwat 
queries are requested to head the second com 
ninnication " Duplicate." 

H. G. HopK ("Immurement Alive').— Your reply 
shall a]ipcar next week, 

E. J.— See the General Indexes to ' N. ti Q.' 

CoRRiOEXDA.— Index lo O"" S, xii,, p. 5'23, col. 2. 
omit "Barnes, his sonnets, 274": p. «>45, top oi 
col. 2, for " R. (A. P.)" read /f. {A. /',). 


Editorial com municat ions should be addr , 

to "The Editor of '^'oles and yocries '"— AdvWN • 
tiscments and Busincos Letters to "The Pob- 
lisher "— at the Office, Bream's Building*, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

We l>eg leave to state that we decline toretnm 
communicatiouB which, for any roaaon, we do not 
print; and to this rule we can make no exeeptioir. 





Last Week's ATHENiEUM contains Articles on 




NBW NOVELS:— Tbrongh Sorrow's Gates; Remembrance ; The Dule Tree of Oassillia ; ▲ Criminal 
CrcE3U8 ; Les Amours do Li Ta Tchou. 


ODR LlBRAliV TABLE:— Lord Aveboiy's Essays and Addrewes; Memoirs of Mrs. I'lckericg; A Life 
of Chamberlain; A History of Modern England ; The Pilgrim's Progress, Illustrated by Cruik- 
abank ; Religious Freedom io America; Catalogue of Parliamentary Papers ; Johu Bull's Adven- 
tores in the Fiscal Woaderland ; Free Trade and the Empire ; Almaoacb des Goarmanda ; 
B«pnnt.s ; The British Journal of Peycbology. 



8CIENCE:— Bacteriology of Milk; Dr. Bauer on Precious Stones; Britiah Mammals; Geographical 

Notes ; Societies ; Meetings Next Week ; Gossip. 
FINE ARTS :— Architecture ; The Old Masters at Batlington House ; The Burlington Fine- Arts Clob ; 

Samuel Phillips Jackson ; Roman Britain in 1903 ; Portraits of Albrecht Diirer the Elder; Sales; 

MUSIC:— Royal Choral Society; M. Ysaye's Concert; Symphony Concert ; Popular Concert* ; Eichter 

Concert ; Gossip ; Performances Next Week. 
DRAMA ;— ' Love in a Cottage ' ; ' Tho Philanthropists * ; Gossip. 

The ATHEN-fflUM for January 30 contains Articles on 





OUB LIBRARY TABLE :— The Life of the German Emperor ; The Army of tho Indian Moghuls ; The 
Sea Services of the Empire ; Ships and Shipping ; Le Soldat Imp6rial ; ReminiBcences and 
Table-l'alk of Rogers ; The Arcadian Calendar ; Kings' Letters ; The Life of Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald; Letters of a Grandfather ; The Homes and Haonls ot Lather; Caleb Williams and 
Hawthorne's New England Romances, 



SCIENCE :—Thacher'8 Life of Columbus; Antiiropological Notes; Societies; Meetings Next Week; 

FINE ARTS:— Authentic Portraits of Mary, Queen of fcote; The Old Masters at Burlington Boose; 

'Our Roman Highways'; Sale ; Gossip. 
UUSIC : — Popular Concurts ; Bach Choir; Performances Next Week ; Gooiip. 
DRAMA:— 'The Duke of Killicrankia'; Gossip. 

JOHN C. FRANCIS, Athenseam Office. Bream's Buildings, Cbancory Lane, K,C. 

And of all Newaagenta. 

NOTES ASD QUERIES. n»*8.i.Pn,ij,ieo(. 


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10"" s. L Feb. 20. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


LONDOA', SATLIWAY, FKBRUAlli' tO, 190.'.. 


VOTKS :-' Merry Thoughtc In t. 8wt Plaoe,' Ul— Dlbllo- 
grkpby of PublliblDR >iict Booliielllng, 14V— The Plough- 
nag knd other MeMure*, U:i— W. St«pbent, President of 
Georgia, 114— CbAplikin to tb« RHInburgb OiirrUon— Foe : 
a Siippp««<i Poem— ' Chamljers't CycU>niFdi« of Bngliah 
Lit«r»tare,' 115 — Bpigrikiu on Rvynulat — ■■ Siuaaby " — 
AJtMram* on Plus X.— Klolianl Kirxpai.rick and O. J. Fox 
—'The Oxford Bnglltb Dictiouary,' U«. 

QUBBIBS :— Bibur's Memolrt— W«tsrof Jwilouity— St»nf(ih 
Ooggerel, 147— Book Oullrctork— Sundial Motlo— Enrl of 
Bgremont- Ferdliianilo OoT^e* of Eye — "An Austrisn 
army"— Audyn Kamlty-W. M. Kfdd— Kelanoboly— Rue 
and Tugcan Pnwiibrokerf, 148— " Drug iii tbe market "— 
OUverlng: Oe Mninleville — "King of Patterdale" — 
Knte^t Tt^mpUr— Mouaatery of Mo<iat Oraoe le Bbor'— 
Bt. DunaUii, 14^. 

BBPLIBS ;— Addison'* Daughter, 149 -' Ad.lrM* to Poverty," 
161— Werdi'ii Aldiey - Oomber Kamily— Selon — Bagibaw — 
Halley'it -met — laimureincnt Alive, loJ — John Lewis, 
Fortrmlt Painter— " Miow," IM -Tickling Trout— " Fide, 
a«d cut v!dr." li'il— Aylmor Armi- Ftajlng AUve-Arnii 
WaDte<, i.Vi-F.ell-n»me», Weit Hartdon — Rev. S. Flaber 
— Penrith— William Hartley -"Gimerro"— Glowworm or 
Firefly, Ijfl-Crownc In Tower of Church— Cardlnali and 
CrliUKiu Kf>l>ci— St. Mnry Axe: St. Michael Ir tjuprne, 
157— "Going tlin r.nind" : " ttdundbouse "— Curved Stone 
— Hetic.1 of St. (iregory the Orent-SIr Henry Chauncy — 
Frost and itt Pormi — UIgbl Hon. B. Souliuwell, 1S8 — 
Imaginary SaUitf, IA9. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Bell'i ' LWrei and Legendi of the 
Bnglltb Ilt>li'>|>« and Kings '— .Siiiol^iiury'a ' John DrydrU ' 
— 'BoglUh JiUlorieal Review "—• Kdlni'urgh Bevlew.' 

BoUoat to Corretpondenlt. 

An expansion, by Col. Le Strange, of Love- 
lace's *To Altliji-'-i rroui Prison,' copied into a 
note-book, in 1049, by Thomas Plume, under- 
graduate of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
may be worth preserving in the pages of 

^JuBKV Tiioi'iiiiTS IN- A Sad Pi.ace. 
Be*t on. jiroud billows ! Boreas, blow I 
•Swell, curled Mavoa, lugh mi Jove's roof! 
Your indrililieB will show 
That' innocence is t«nipe«t-i>roof ; 

Though Biiriy Nereus trowD, my ihoughta are 

Then strike, aOlicllons ! for your wonnds are 

That which the world miscalls a jail, 

A »Por«t closel !^ to Hie* ; 

Wliilslagi""' my bail; 

And )ni>ocei. 

Lockif, « ' lie, togethenuelt, 

Make tne u<> |>ii<!.(iuei', but au anohoret. 

1, whiUl 1 wish'd to b« njtir'd, 

Ii(lo this privatu room am turn'd, 

As if thf>ir \vi>rft niPi had o<>Hf!))ir»>d 

The S.I ■ 'irud: 

Ai. iio wonld drown a dsb, 

1 uiij -. - 1 what I wish. 

The Cynick hngs his poverty ; 

The iielicttii, iier vrilderness ; 

.\nd lis the Indian's pride to be 

Naked on frozen Caucasus.* 

Contetitment cannot smart. fStoioks (we see) 
Make torments easy to their Apathy. 

The manacles upon my arme 

1, as my sweetheart's bracelets, wear : 

And then, to keep my ancles warme, 

I ha^e some iron shackles there. 

The walls are but my garrison. This cell. 
Which men call jayll, doth prove my CitladelL 

So he that slrooko at Jason's life, 

ThinkiDC t' have made his purpose sure. 

By a malicious-friendly kuife 

Did only wouud him to a cure. 

Malice wants witt, I see ; for, what is meant 
Mischief, oft-times proves favour by eveul. 

I 'm in this Cabinet lock'd up. 

Like some rich priyxVd margarito ; 

Or, like some irreat Mogul, or Pojie, 

I 'me cloysterd from I he publique sight. 
Retirdncss is a peece of majesty, 
And (proud SultAn) [I] seem as great as Ihee. 

Here »in for want of food must sterve 
Where tempting objects are not seen ; 
And these strong walls doe onely serve 
To keep sin out, and keep niee in. 

Malice of late 's j;rowne charitable, sure. 

I 'm not committed, but am kept secure. 

When oDce my Prince oilliction hath, 
Proa|>erity doth treason seem : 
And then, to smooth so rough a path. 
I can learn patience from him. 

N<iw not-to-snifcr shcwes no loyall heart. 

When kings want ease, subjects must learn to 

Wliat though I cannot see my Ki:ig, 

Hither in 's person or his coyn : 

Vet contemplation is a thing 

Which renders that (which is not) mine. 

My king from mee what adamant can part, 
Whom I doe wear engraved on my heart? 

My soul is free as th' ambient aire. 

Although my baser part's inimur'd. 

While royall thoughts doe yet re[fair 

My company is solitude. 

And, though reWUion doe my body bind. 
My king can only captii'ate my mind. 

Have you not aeen the nightingale, 

A pilgrim coopd up in a cage. 

How she doth sing her wonted tale 

In that, her narrow hermitage t 

Even such her chanting melody doth prove, 
That all hor barrs are trees, her cage a grovo. 

I am that bird, whom they combine 
Thus to deprive of liberty. 
So, though they doe my cor|»s confine, 
Vet (niaugre hate) my soul is free ; 

And, though immurdd, I can chirp and sing 
Disgrace to rebels, glory to my king. 
Made by Colonell le Strange, imprisoned by tho 

Andebw Clakk, 
* The Scythiaoa were all face^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. cio'" s. l fct. 20. i9m. 



(See antt, p. 81.) 

Carlile, Richard, nOOlBl.l— The Life and Character 

of Riohard Oarlile. By George Jacob Holyoake. 

London. HAS. 

The Battlo of the Presfl, as told in the Story 
of the Life of Richard Carlile. By hie Daaghter, 
Theophila Carlile Campliell. London, 1899. 
Caspar, C. N.— Directory of the Antinuarian Book- 
sellers and Dealer* in Second-hana Books in the 

United States a Listof L'>ibIio)^rfl7)hie.s, Trade 

Catalogues, &o. Milwaukee, Wis., l^iSj. 

Directory of the American l>ook, News, and 
Stationery Trade, Wholesale and HetaiL Mil- 
waukee, Wip., 1889. 
Cassell, John, 1817-65.— The Life of John Ca«»elL 
By O. Holdeii Pike. Crown 8vo, London, 1894. 
uookaeller. April and May, 1865. 
Publishers Circular, 13 January, 18^. 

The l<^rst Part of the Catalogue of English 
Printed Books, which conccmeth such matters 
of divinitie as have bin either written in our 
owne tongue, or translated out of anie other 
language; and have bin published to the (jlory 
of God, and oditication of^ the Church of Christ 
in England. Gathered into alphabet, and such 
method as it in, by Andrew Maunneli, Book- 
seller. London, printed by John VV'indet for 
Andrew Mannaell, dwelling in Lothburic, 1595. 
Msunsoll's Csl.iloauo whh llio Hret cvor isnuwl In 
En((l<Ln<1, nod thcroion? ilcsonci to lie iiol«l Ihtc. The 
HYttoinatio euumorBlioii nf oitBlogiicx in rtoiilrTcnl snper- 
duoua by tlio recent tiuMirAtiuri of Mr. firowoH's 'Throe 
Conturic'g o( BngUsb B<Mk-triKlo IMi>llDgni(>by.' 1W>3. Sec 

The Term CataloKiiea, 1668-1700. With a 
Number for Easter Tenn, 1711. A Contempo- 
rary Bibliography of English Literature in the 
R^igna of Charles II., James II., William and 
Mary, and Anne. Edited from the very rare 

guarterly Lists of New Books and Keprint^s of 
ivinity. History, Science, Law, Medicine, 
Music, Trade, &c , issued by the Booksellers, 
kc, of London. By Edward Arber, F.S.A. 
.3 vols , 4to. Vol. I.. ie08-82 ; Vol. II., 1683-a6 ; 
Vol. III., I(i97-1709 and 1711. Privately 
printed, London, 190.3. 

A collection of Trade Catalogues referring to 
Bales of books and copyrights, ranging from 
1701 to 1768, f;iviug details of pricea and 
purchaserii, is in too po&^easiou of Mesara. 
Longniane & Co. An account of theee will be 
found in ' N. & Q.,' 7"' S. ix. 301. 

Catuach, James, ITffi- 1841. —The Life and Times of 
James Catnach (lato of Seven Dials), Ballad 
Monger. By Charles Hiudley. With 230 
Woodcuts, of which 42 are by Bewick. 8vo, 
London, 1878. 

The History of the Catnach Press, at Berwick- 
upon-Tweed, Alnwick, and Newcaatle-on-Tyne, 
in Nortliumberland, and Seven Dials, London. 
By Charles Hindlcy. With many liluslrationa. 
4to, Loudon, 1886. 

Cave. Edward, 1691-1754. - The Life of Edward 

Cave. By Samuel Johnson. (iinflouan'it 

Jfafftaint, February, 1754, and reprinted with 

Johnson's 'Works. 

Cuvo'ji Llfo will lio found In Ji»Iiii»orr» ' {.IvM of the 

fiugUeli Poets' and ' Llvw ot Sundry Btaltu<nt Ptnoiu,' 


TIllV CNllllnii, crown bvo, Londnn, 1631. See bIbo KieholVa 
'llli'mry .\t»tvliiff».' vol. V. 

Dfwnpll mivs; " Ca^■l• wa* rcrlnliity n niftn of r-iH>>to 

qiialltloi, «U'l wa» I'lulneiif '•' ■ M, 

owu bt«ini'>iw, wlijph, don !. 

But he was ptv'iiIlBrlT • '-f 

Johimoii, wlio ' oio i.iM.iiMicr, 

wliliout iiuy 'i- '^iiMiUicoi, Ufts 
Ta»t\t' an intcii - 

Caxton, William, UJlJ-Ul. 

The Old Printer and (he Modem PrcM. By 
Charles Knight. Crown 8vo, I^ndoo, 1854. 

Life and Typography uf William Caxton. By 
William BUd«)s. London. 1801-.3. 

Chambers, William, 1800-8.3 ; Kobort. ISlG-?!. 

Memoir of llobert Chambers, with Autobio- 
'aphic Reminiscences of William Chambers, 
trown 8\'o, 1S7'2. 12th Edition, witli .Supple- 
mentary Chapter, 1884. 
Nil in<<nt ion Ifi niiulp tn this liook of tbi.> fact Ihmt Itnlicrt 
ChnmlM^r-i »n« the iiutlior of ' Tixi Vraltges ol thi" Nfitnrnj 
HI ■ "• rition' <1M«), Mid IVllllain Clm ■ ■ ,.,| 

llv <•' with btia. An occtmnt of i n> 

nil . u (if tliif oner fnniiiiii liook i> ^ m 

Ml. -\.o\iiiii.i lixjlaiid'c iMtrvliiction to tlio twi iim t-diioti, 


tJoc Jiuncs Payn's 'Some Literary nocMllixtions,' IS^, 
for a cliaptpr on the two bruthori. Pnyn nriYT ivinocal<<l 
his rlUIIke of William Cbamliers. and It 'i<i iinder$tcMjd tbaA 
tho Sir IVtor KIbliort of ' For Cash Only ' Is to »ii)no 
e^tcut a ]xirtnut ot liim. 

The Story of a Long and Bnsy Life. By 
William Chambers. Crowu 8vo, Edinburgh, 

Lives of Illustrious and Distinguished Scots- 
men, from the Earliest Period to the Present 
Time. By Robert Chambers. With Portraits. 
4 vols. 8vo, Glasgow, 1833-5. 

Supplement (and continuation to 1855]. By 
the Ivev. Thomas Thomson. 8vo, Glasgow, 1855. 

Chambers's Pincvdopicdia. Vol. II. Now Edition. 
Royal 8vo, Edinburgh, 1888. 
Sec article " UiHik-triule,' l>y llolicrt Cochrane. 

Chapman, John. 1822 94. 

Cheap Books and how to get them : being a 
reprint from the Wf.'Umimtfr litiiKtv, April, 
1852, of the article 'The Commerce of Litera- 
ture,' together with a brief account of tlic 
origin and progress of the recent agitation for 
free trade in books. 8vo, London, 18.^*2. 

The Bookselling System. 8vo, Jjoudon, 1852. 

A Rejwrt of the Proceedings of a Meeting 
(consistmg chiefly of Authors) held May 4lh, 
185'J. at the House of Mr. John Chapman, for 
the Purpose nf hastening the Removal of the 
Trade Restrictions on the Commerce of Litera- 
ture. 8vo, London, 185"2. 
Soc aleo ' Lltu o( Ooorgo Eliot,' vol. f. p. »^'. 

Childs, George William, 1829-93.— The Recollections 
of G. W. Childs. l'2mo, Philadelphia, 1890. 

A Biographical .Sketch of G. W. Childs. By 
James Parton. Philadelphia, 1870. 

Clarke, Adam, 1760-1832.— A Bibliographical Dic- 
tionary, containing a chronological account, 
alphabetically arranged, of the most curious, 
scarce, useful, and important Books, which 
have been published in Latin, Gwck, Coptic, 
Hebrew, &c., from the Infancy of Printing to 
the Beginning of the Nineteenth Ccnturv. " •'•^ 
Biographical Anecdotes of Authors, Printers, 
and Publishers. G vols, and supplement '2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1802-6. 

io"> 8. 1. fkb. 20, im.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Ciegg, Janiea (Editor).— The InternBtional Direc- 
tory of Booksellers, and Bibliophile's Manual. 
Including Liats of the Public Libraries of the 
World, Publishers, Book Collectors, Learned 
Societies, and Institutes, also BiblioKraphies of 
Book and Library Catalogues, Concordances, 
Book-2>late8, &.c. Crown 8vo, Rochdale, 1903. 
obbetl. William, 1762-1835.— The Life of William 

Cobbett. By his Son. London, 1837. 
CoMiett waf in business as n bookseller In Phllntlclphla ; 

alsoln Fall Mull at Die ilgu o( "The Crown, the Bllilo, and 

tiicM(ti«. " 

Collet, Collet Dobson.— History of the Taxes on 
Knowledge. 2 vols. London, 1899. 

Colman. George, the Younger, I762-18:)6. — Eccen- 
tricities ^r Edinburgh (containing a |)oeni 
entitled ' Lamentation to tjcolch Booksellers '). 
8vo, 1816. 

ConsUble, Archibald, 1774-1827.— Arcbil>ald Con 
stable and hia Literary Correspondents. By his 
Son, Thontas Constable. 3 vols. 8vo, Ldin- 
burgh, 1873. 

Cornhill Magazine. 

Publishing before the Age of IMnting. Jan- 
uary. 186L 

Bookselling in the Thirteenth Century. 
April, \e&i. 
Ami nee t.n. GporgC Smith. 

Cost^ The, of Production. (Society of Authors.) 

Crown Sro, London, I89I. 
Cottle, Joseph, 1770 - lfi53. — Reminiscences of 

Coleridge, Soulhey, &c. Post Svo, London, 

Cottle wits & booksoUiT In Bristol Iram 170I to nW!. 

Creech, William, 1745-1815. — Edinburgh FoRitive 
Pieces. New Edition, with Memoir. Edinburgh, 
A f«nio«i> RlliilMirKli Bo<.>k«>Ilw. PiililUlin) for Duriiii, 
Blair. Dug*''' Stpwart . ami Bealtlc— Lord Proroit. 1811-13. 
Creech, William, Robert Burns' Best Friend. 
By the Kcv. J C. Currick, B.D.. Minister of 
Ncwbnttle. Fcap. Svo, Dalkeith, 1903. 
Critic, The (Weekly Newspaper),— Mr. F. Rspinos^e 
contributed a series of articles on various pub- 
lishing houses as follows (see hia 'Literary 
Reminiscences,' chap. XX.. liiKl):— 
Charles Knight. May (two articles), 1860. 
Longman, Houoe of. 3t March, 7. ''I April, 

John Murray, House of. 7, 14, 21, 28 Jan., 

Blackwood, House of. 7, 14, H, 28 July, 
4, 11 Aug., I860. 
Curio, The, an Illuetratod Monthly Magazine.— 
4to, New York. 1887 8. 

The (ireat It^ioksullers of tho World. By 
Max Maury. Berr • ' '^ ".ritoh, of London ; 
Ludwigliosenthal. : iH^masc^aeMur- 

rd, of Paris; >1' neran, of London; 

Bonaventure, of New York. With 2 Por- 
Eminent Publishing Houses, by O. Hcdeler. 

Cttrll, Edmund, IH7.>-I747. 

Tho Curll PttjuTs. By W. J. Thorns, 
Sr« 'M, ft g..' l>n<l H. II. tl(. W. U. x., Hiid prlvntvlv 

)'(tlu.«'j4 T.ltcrnrv Cnrrf««iifiri("ir'n.H' 17'H'<M. 
Tlii. l.v(;nill 

HMpectiiiK ■ '"^"t 

I«T«uiis. Si'o 'N. Jt Q.," tItU S. xl. 381-2, for Curll'* BiOIio* 
(;riipliy liy W. Uoln'rt«, 

Curwen, Henry, 1S45-92.— A History of Booksellers, 
tho Old and the New. With Portraits. Crown 
Svo, London, 1873. 
Ctirwcii wn* ivlUor of Iho Timtx of India. See ' N. JL U ' 
Ot U S. vl, Hsu, fCJB, ;«7«. 45^, 

Wm. H. Pekt. 
{To be cmUinutd.) 



(Seeo»»<f, p. 101.) 

3. Among the words by which the Englisb 
hide, h'lgid, hlinsc, or hlwacipe, was translated 
into LatiD waa famta. Now just as cniiccafa- 
is derived from canica, a ploush, and is the 
ploughland, so casata is derivea from c««a, a 
houHe, and is the houseland.* It is plain 
that our four me&surea come from a pair of 
oxen, a rod, a plough, and a house. And i£ 
the first three are measures of much larger 
areas, ao the fourth may have been. There- 
may have been a lesser, as well as a greater,, 
casate, the lesser casate being an acre and 
the measure of a hide. In Domesday Book 
a biahop is descrilxnl as holding at Latesberid 
in Buckiughamshifo " one hide less five feet."t 
This cannot be square feet, and it must refer 
to the breadth of the acre or messuage 
which measured the hide. It will be aeea 
in the note below that a placia of land 
is said to have a length ot half an acre 
and 4 feet. If the carucate refers to the 
breadth of a full-sized team, the casate may 
very well have referred to the breadth of a. 
fuU-sized homestead, the breadth of such a 
homestead being regarded as the breadth oS 
an acre.j: 

We can rear an acre of 4,S00 square yards 
( = a juger and a half) from a rod of lii feet, 

* One of the words by which hlwi«e is represented 
in Latin is familia, family, household. See on this 
point the 'Crawford Charters,' ed. by Napier and 
Stevenson, p. 127- 

t "Tenet episcopus Lisiacensis de episcopo 
Baincensii j hidam v pedes minus." If the messnaee 
of the hide is taken as 60 feet in breadth, the hide 
van diminiahcd by one-twelfth, or ten acres, and 
the messuage w-as also dimiuished by one-twelfth. 
The Word hUcisc _ is found in place-names, as in 
Huish Eniscopi, bishop's hide. 

^ We nave evidence that tofts or messuages wer& 
half an acre, &c., in breatith. In a charter dat«d 
circa 1206 we have ; '* Unnm toftum in Ledeston*' 
latitudinis dimidie acre cum crofto ejusdem latitu- 
dinis f|ui jacet juxta toftum mouni versus aolem, et 
unnm placiam juvta cundcm toftum versus north, 
Utiui(lii)iH dnaruiTi rcduruni et dimidie. et lonKi- _. 
ludinis dimidie acre et ipiatuor pedum."— 'Ponte- ^ 
tract Chartular>',' p. 28."). The perlictUa Uirn- 
(rood) was also used as a linear measure.— /{>i(/.« 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io» s. l i^ so, iom. 

by taking the base or width of the acre as 
^ feet, and its length as 720 feet, in which 
case the length would be 12 times the breadth. 
This would give us a bovateor half- rood of 
-COO square yards, a virgate or rood of 1,200 
square yards, a carucate or half-acre of 2,400 
square yards, and a casate of 4,800 square 
yards. An acre of 4,800 square yards would 
-conform to Roman land measures, and to 
the areas of niediteval buildings which I 
have described.* And, as I have 8hown,+ 
an acre of 4,840 square yards can be 
obtained by adding the area of the mes- 
suage to that of the arable land held 
therewith. A virgate of 30 acres, for 
instance, consisting of 4,800 square yards to 
the acre, would contain 144.000 square yards, 
and its messuage would be a rood of 1,200 
square yards. Bat if we add the 1,200 yards 
to the 144,000 yards, and divide the sum by 
JO, we get an acre of 4,840 square yards. In 
doing so we have merely added the area of 
tlie lesser virgate to that of the greater. In 
other words, we have_ added the area of the 
messuage to that of its appurtenant arable 
holding. When tlie messuage was at last 
added to the arable land of which it was the 
measure, it was no longer possible to raise 
the acre frona a rod of 15 feet. But when 
tlie acre was increased by that addition from 
4,800 to 4,840 square yards, it could be raised 
•from a rod of IGi feet. The present statute 
acre is raised from such a rod, and is 40 rods 
in length and 4 in breadth. 

I am not asking the reader to conclude that 
a messuage at any time took the shape of a 
strip of land 720 feet in length and 7^ feet 
in breadth (600 square yai-ds). Such a strip 
would have been of no use as a homestead. 
But a plot of land of 600 square yards can 
take otner shapes, as GO feet by 90 feet. And 
so the lesser bovate, «fcc., could be thrown, 
when intended for homesteads, into other 
shapes than long strips. These units of the 
acre would then cease to be known as 
bovates, virgates, carucates, and casates in 
the orif^inal senses of those words. They 
would simply be messuages or " measures," 
each with its duo proportion of arable lands 
in the open fields. 

I have lately met with a piece of evidenoo 
■which finally establishes my theory that the 
rmessuago was a measure of the arable laud 
held therewith. It seems that in 1297 a 
■certain Adam de Neut<jn had two bovates 
•<=a virgate). He sold one of them to 
William Attebarre, and the other to Hobert 
Daneys. Daneys complained that he had 

not got his proper share, and the dispute 
referred to the arbitration of neighbo 
who ordered the messuage originally bolc^ 
ing to the virgate to be divided l>et"ween tiio 
two purchasers " according to the quantity of 
their land." The words of the award are aa 
follows : — 

" Robert Daneys comptniui of Williatn At t«barre, 
and sayk that when he buu^ht a bovateof land from 
Adam de Ncuton, William Attebarre, who had 
previously bought another bovate, gave him the 
worse part of the said two bovatee and t.xik the 
be«t part. The defendant says that when he bought 
his land Adam certified him where the pnid bovate 
lav in thefieliia, and he took uo ° l. They 

refer to an inquisition of theneiu; , Henry 

del Bothem, Adaiu (Jerbot, Ph ., .Id, ana 

others, who find for the plaintid. The said mea- 
BuaM [»k] ia to be divided between them accordin(( 
to tne quantity of their land, and the land likewise 
according to what belongs to their bovatee."* 
The two men got equal messuage? and 
equal bovates, and therefore the lesser was a 
measure of the greater quantity. 

This rule of proportion was extended to 
other territorial interests. The quantity of 
wood which the servile tenant neede<J for 
building his house, and for maintaining the 
fire on his hearth,+ and also the extent of 
his right to use the common paaturea,t 
depended on the size of the mesi^uage whicn 
measured his holding. S. 0. Addy. 

3. Westboume ftoad, Sheffield. 

William Stephens, Pkesiden'tokGeoroia, 
— In the account given in the 'D. N.B.,' liv. 
182, of William Stephens, M.P. for Newport, 
Isle of Wight, 1702-22, who, after suffering 
vicissitudes of fortune, became President of 
the colony of Georgia in America, 1743-50, 
it is stated that he graduated B.A. at (Jara> 
bridge in 1C84, and M.A. in 168a If this 
statement were correct, he would have 
obtained university degrees at a remarkably 
early age, seeing that he was born on 
27 January, 1671, 0,S, It is, however, in- 

• Q** S. xi. 121. 

t 0"' S. vL 3W. 

• 'Wake6cld Court Rolls,' i, 261. One ooold 
wish that the on{;inal Latin, instead of a tran*- 
liition, hod been ijiven. In the 'Coucher Book of 
Whalley,* p. 32.'>, we have, "Duas partes unia« 
messuagii ot unius bovato terre." Taking th© 
bovate aa lu acres, this means 400 square yards of 
messua^ and 10 acres of arable land, tlie proportion 
of messuage to arable land bcin^ as 1 to VH). 8nch 
apjiortionments are fre<4uent. 

f By an undated charter William, constable of 
Flamborough, confirmed to Richard Fitz-.Vfain 
" necessaria ana ad wdificandura et cotiiburendum 
quantum pertinet ad unam bov&tain terra.' quam 
tenet de me in Holme."—' Coucher Huok of 8clby/ 
ii. 3fi. In one place iiasturaKe for 12 sheep is said 
to bclonK to half a bovate.— /<>«/., L 188. 

J Jlid.^ i. 23a 



io'«.s.i.feb.2o.i9o*.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


correct. Stephens (whose father was Sir ITriO/l ('The Castle-Builders,' and the Cenf/e- 
William Stephens, Kt., Lieutenant-Governor matis Marjazine, xxi. 91). In his will, dated 
of the Isle of Wight) was a commoner at 24 Aug., 1748, he mentions four of his 
Winchester College, and his name appears brothers, viz., Thomas, Newdigate, Edward^ 
on the school rolls of 1GB4-8 (Holgate's I and Richard (wlio was perhaps tlien dead), 
'Winchester Long Rolls, 1653-1721 '). 1 am and his two sisters, Mary Stephens and Mrs. 

indebted to the frovost of King's College, 
Cambridge, for the information, derived from 
the records of that college, that Stephens 
matriculated as a fellow-commoner there 
on 14 December, 1G89, and was in residence 
in 1600 and 1691, but never proceeded to any 
degree. He was admitted to the Middle 
Temple on 25 November, 1601 (Hutchinson's 

Ball, the widow of Benedict Ball. The will 
was proved on 21 June. \lf>\ (P.C.C, lOO 
Busby), by his brother Thomas, who was, I 
suppose, the author of ' The Castle- Builders.' 
Tnis family of Stephens was for several 
generations counectca with Winchester by 
tenancy of college property at Barton, in 
the Isle of Wight. Tliomas Stephens, elected 

'Notable Middle Templars')- According to i scholar in 1667, and Edward Stephens, elected 

'The Castle-Builders; or, the History of 
William Stephens, of the Isle of Wight, Esc[.' 
(second e<]itinn, 1759), a copy of which is in 
tho British Museum, he was sent to Cam- 

"not from any Dislike to Oxford, bat that he 
might not be too near William, the Son of Dr. 
Pittis, his (Joasin and ijuhool-fellow, who waa of 
New College, end of more Wit and Learning than 

Accounts of this Dr. Thomas Pittis and his 
son William, who waa elected a Winchester 
scholar in 1687 (Kirby), will be found in the 
'D.N.B.,'xlv. 386. 

William Stephens had ayounger brother, 
Richard, a commoner at Winchester 1604-7 
(Holgate), who went to Queen's College. 
Oxford, in 1608, and became Fellow of All 
Souls;, M.A, 1705, M.D. 1714 (Foster). He 
practised as a physician at Winchester, 
"grew unwieldy, being so corpulent as to 
load the chariot he rod© in," and died in or 
about 17.'J5, while staying in Ireland with 
his friend Dr. Charles Cobb, then Bishop 
of Kildare ('D.NB,' xi. 142; 'The Castle- 
Builders '). He left two daughters, Susannah 
and Ann Stephens, who lived at Milton, 

If 'The Castle-Builders' may be trusted, 
its author, Thomas Stephens, was not the 
eldest of the seven sons of the President of 
Georgia, as stated in the ' Dictionary.' The 
eldest son waa William Stephens, who was 
also a coraftaoner at Winchester (Long Rolls, 
1712, 1714). He too wont to Queen's College, 
Oxfi»il "iitTiculating in March, 1715/16, and 
w;i udi follow of All Souls', D.C.L. 

17:, .r;. Ho practi-sed at the Bar, to 

whiclj he was called by the Middle Temple 
in 1723 ; but becoming a clergyman in 1736, 
he was curate successively at Cleve, Somerset; 
Locking, Berks ; and Hasely, Oxfordshire. 
On 7_ Nov., 1746. he was instituted vicar of 
Barking; Essex, and held the living until 

in 1672, were sons of William Stephens, 
D.C.L., judge of the Court of Admiralty in 
Commonwealth times, who was grandfather 
of the President of Georgia. Tliomas, the 
elder of these two scholars, became Fellow 
of New College, Oxford, and died there on 
17 March, 1681/2 (Wood's 'Colleges and 
Halls,' by Gutch, 217, 2.33). I should be 
grateful for further information about his 
younger brother Edward, who matriculated 
at Hart Hall, Oxford, on 23 November, 1677 
(Foster's 'AlumoiOxon.'). H. C. 

Chaplain to the Edinbubgh Gakrison.— 
This ancient othce has been revived by the 
King, who has appointed thereto the Rev. 
Thewlore Marshall, D.D. The Daily Tele- 
graph of tho 13th inst. contains the following 
interesting particulars : — 

"The first chaplain to the Castle was one TurRot, 
the biographer of Margaret, Qnecn of Malcolm 
Canmore, who died in lf)9"i. The ollice seems to 
have been maintained till the Rovolutioo in l(3SS-9, 
after which there does not apjyear to bo anjj men- 
tion made of it. Since the Revolution the minister 
of tho High Kirk has been regarded as hon. chaplain 
to the C^tle, and hence it is that the military 
service contiDues to be held in St. Giles's Cathe- 

N. S. S. 

Poe: a Sitpposkd Pokm.— In a review on 
p. lis j'ou refer to the publication of "a 
poem hitherto unpublished of Poe" in this 
month's Foriniyhthi. My letter in the Duili/ 
Chronicle of the 4th inst. proves it is not 
an unknown or new poem, and that it is 
not by E. A. Poe. John H. Ingram. 

[Mr. Ingram is a first-rate authority on Poo's 
works, and his repudiation may be taken as final 
and decisive.] 

'Chambkes's Cyclopedia ok English 
LiTERATURK.'— In Connexion with occasional 
notes on the * Canadian Hoat Song ' which 
have appeared in 'N. & Q' during tho last 
eighteen months, the following extract from 

bin death, in bis father's Ufetiioe, on 87 Jan., | the article on John Qalt lu twek \.\axx<iwNOca5CR 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t">^ s. l fes. ao. isoi. 

of ' Chambers's Cycloptedia of English Litera- 
ture' poasesgea some interest. The writer 
thus coacludes : — 

"fiftlt's poema are of no imporUnce, unless, 
indeod, he prove to b© the nutnor of a fantous 
'Canadian Boat Song' imbued with the 'Celtic 
spirit ' which woe printed in the 'Nodes Am- 
broaianee' in /ilarkwcocl for 1829 as 'received from 
ft friend in Canada.' Ab the Mesnrs, Blackwood 
have recently (1902) suggested, (ialt was at that 
time writing tliem from Canada. But this par- 
iicalar poem (lonK absurdlv attributed to Hugh, 
twelfth Earl of Egiiiiton. 1739-1819) is so unlike 
Gait's other verso that direct evidence would bo 
required to prove it his. The poem has often been 
quoted, almost always inaccurately, and was re- 
written (not for the better) by Sir John Skellon in 
Black-wood in 1889. Tho original first verse ran :— 

From the lone sheiling on the distant island,'" Jtc. 
The writer in the ' Cyclopasdia ' is unfortunate 
in his quotation. Tiie stanza he cites is the 
second in the original version; "shieling^' 
appears in the original, and the impressive, 
poetic epithet " misty," nob " distant." 

John Geigor. 
[See y S. ix. 483 ; X. 61 ; xi. 57. 134, 198 ; xii. 364.] 

Epiobam on Reynolds. — The following 
epigram upon Sir Joahua Reynolds was 
quoted in a letter in tho Times of 30 January : 
Laudat Romanns Rapliaelem, (Jrtccus Apellem, 
Plympton Keynolden jacldt, utriquo parem. 

Plympton was Reynolds's birthplace, The 
epigram is a paraphrase of one on Milton by 
Selvaggi : — 

Orfl?cia Mfflonidem jactet sibi Roma Maronem 
Anglia MiEtonnm jactat utriipie parem. 

Perhaps the formula is older than Milton's 
time. Dryden's line.<? on Milton are an am- 
plification of it. James K. Fergosson. 

" S.'^ss.^BY."— This zoological term, the name 
of an antelope, is one of the beat examples I 
know of the readiness with which English 
assimilates foreign elements. Its original 
form, in the Sechiiana language (spoken by 
the Bechuanas), was tsess^be, accented on the 
middle syllable. Old travellers wrote it 
safsny/^-, which w^as still only a denizen in 
our tongue, preserving the correct stress. 
fiaxMliif, which looks as if it must have been 
moulded upon wallaby, is fully naturalized, 
and transfers the stress to the first syllable. 
It is the standard orthography of our dic- 
tionaries, but not one of them shows any 
knowledge of its history. The 'Century 
Dictionary' merely describes it as "South 
African"— the * Eacyclopjedic ' still more 
vaguely, as " native name." It has often 
struck me as curious that, although the 
Bechuanas are British subjects, our lexico- 
graphers treat not only this, but all the 

rather numerous Sechaana loan-words in 
English, in the same loose way. The * N.E.D.' 
is the only one which give^ a proper explana- 
tion of, for ifistance, such heads as htaiiui^ 
heitloa, and kokoon, and may be trusted to 
deal in a similar scientific spirit with the rest, 
such as the UHie fly, and tne species of ante- 
lopes, nakong, palLih, takheitse, tola, tvmog<x, 
Ac. J- Platt, Jun. 

An.\geam» on Piu.s X.— My four anagram* 
on the name of Cardinal Sarto, now Bishop 
of Rome and Sovereign Pontiff, are perhaps 
not the best to bo discovered ; but no one 
else, so far as 1 know, has extracted or pub- 
lished them hitherto. 

1. Giuseppe Sarto = Pa8tor Pius, ege ! f.*., 
O Pius, suffer want as Shepherd (of the 
Church) ! 

2. Giuseppe Cardinalis Sarto = Supercare! 
ni das iMigos liti, i.*., Excessively beloved ! 
unless tiiou comroittest the world to strife. 

3. Pius Decimus Sarto = Edic Pastor 
iusaum ! i.e.. Pastor, speak out that which is 
commanded ! , 

4. losephe Cardinalis Sarto !=CaeIi Pas- 
toris es : hordina ! Thou belougest to the 
Shepherd of Heaven! maintain order! 
Ancient authority can, 1 believe, be found 
for hordina instead of ordina. 

A variant of the fourth is Caeli Pastor es : 
his ordina ! if., Thou art Heaven's Shepherd. 
Give orders for these (people) ! 

e. s. dodo.son. 

Richard Fitzpatbick and Charlbls James 
Fox. — The erroneous statement that Fitz 
patrick and Fox were at school together at 
Westminster is again repeated, « «. Fitz- 

Eatrick, in the 'Index and Epitome of the 
lict. of Nat. Biog..' p. 441. Fitzpatrick was 
a Westminster boy, but Fox was an Etonian. 

G. F. R. B. 

* The Oxford Enoush Dictionary.' — I 
should like to be allowed to put in a plea 
for the official recognition of this title. The 
bound volumes officially issued are not only 
denuded of all the interesting notes that, 
have been issued from time to time, but also 
of the covers to the parts. The result is that 
'O.E.D.' nowhere appears, either inside or 
on the outside. If one asks at a public library 
for the 'O.E.D.' the assistant librarian looks 
at you with a doubtful air, and savs. "Is 
that Dr. Murray's dictionary?" There is 
plenty of room for the addition of this title 
on the back of the volume, even supposing 
the word "New" is desired to be kept. I 
am aware that the utmost oonsideration was 
given to the selection of the title at the time 
the first fascicule was issued ; but then the 



ms, I. fkb. 30, 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Oxford University had only just token up 
the splendid part it now performs. '*New" 
htka long since become an auacbrouism. 

In niakingthis suggestion I am not desiring 
to deprive Dr. Murray of one iota of the 
credit he is entitled to for the great work 
lie has piloted with such signal success. It 
cannot be doubted that the ' Oxford English 
Dictionary' has contributed more to the 

fjeneral enucation of the world in the Eng- 
ish language than anything that has ever 
been done before. For the slaughter of hun- 
dreds of errors I think Dr. Murray is much 
more entitled to distinguishing honours than 
a general who (in the course of his duty) 
slaughters thousands of human beings. It 
18 not only his own contribution, but Be has 
so composed the machinery that we have 
every confidence that it will never be put 
out of gear until the great and vast work 
is ended. Kalph Thomas. 


We must reijuest oorresjMjndenta dcBiring in- 
fomutioD on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addrcaaea to their queries, 
in order that the uiswers may be addressed to them 

Babak's Memoirs.— Can your readers help 
in the search for a missing MS. T It is that 
copy of the Turki text of the Emperor 
Babar's memoirs which the Hon. Mount- 
stuarl Klphinstone lent to Dr. Leyden and 
to Mr. W. Erskine for their translations. 
There can bo no doubt that it was in the 
Advocates' Library of E/liuburgh in 1848. 
No trace of it can now be found there. 

If any of your reeulers have knowledge of 
the existence of a copy of the ' Babar-nama' 
^whii-h {■* variously entitled also the 'Turuk- 
1-babari ' and the * Waqiat-i babari '), they 
would confer a real service by giving news 
of it to ni8. Annette S. Bevbridoe. 

Pitfold, Shottenuill, Hoslemere, R.S.O. 

Water of— Will any of your 
correspondents kindly tell me if there is any 
fltory recorded in the West resembling the 
following t— 

"DurinK the period of Ta-Chi [TaiChi ? 2&V74 
A.D.]. Lin Peh-Yuh hud his wife from TwHn family 

characleriatically jealonn. One day he hajppened 

to iccito before her the celebrated poom on the 
"^ tddesB of Lo river, and to remark thereon. ' I 
}uld be snlifltied could I iiossoss such a beauty ua 
_ J wife.' To this she retorted, 'Why do you 
pniic the riv-er-f^oddesa so high in contradistinction 
lomyaeU? It will be very easy for me to turn to 
such by my death.' The same night she droM-ned 
hersrU ill the water now called Tufutsin (.Jwvlous 
Woman's Ford). A week of ter she appeared in her 

husband's dream and spoke to him, 'I am now 
turned to a water-goddess, with whom you were bo 
eaniest in your wish to aaeociate yourself,' which 
made him ever afteravoid fording tnat water. And 
after her drowning, every woman of any ])ereon»l 
excellence has to neglect nor dre^a and appearance 
in order to pajBS the tord in safety ; otherwise storms 
and waves would disturb it. But in case a woman 
is really ugly, she could ford it without causing the 
fury's jealousy; so even every ugly one now endea- 
vours to make a special display of her personal 
negligence to avoid being laughed at by the by- 
standers. Thence the local maxim, 'If you seek a 
beautiful woman in marriage, you should stand by 
the ford ; at the same instant any woman comes and 
stands near it, her beauty or ughness pronounces its 
own sentence truly.'" —Twan Ching-Shih, .'Yfl- 
yangtsah-tsu,' ninth century, Japanese edition, 
1097. torn. liv. (ol. 8. 

Terashima'a 'Wakan Sansai Ibzue,' 1713, 
torn. Ivii., quoting two Chinese works, says : 

" In Ping-Chau exists the so-called Spring of the 
Jealous \\ onmn, from which cloud and rain issue 
whenever any gaily dressed woman approaches it. 
Similarly to tnis, a Suring of Scoldmg is in the 
northern side of a church in Ngan-Faog-KiuD. 
Should a man utter clamours beside it, its w*ter 
would rise up to heights varying pro|K)rtionally to 

the degrees of his loudness [Turning to Japan] 

there stands close to the hot spring at Artma what 
;ieople call *Tho Second Wife's f>pring,' which, 
when upbraided with abusive words, suddenly be- 
comes enervescent as if in a violent passion : whence 
the name [because its fury resemules that of the 
first wife occasioned by her jealousy of the second 
wife]. Further, the province Saruga ban the so- 
called Old Woman's Pond. Legend speaks of a 
woman iiarlicularly iieevish and jealous ending her 
life in it, 8 August, 1593. Should one loudly exclaim 
io it, ' You are an ugly hag,' the water would sud- 
denly rise with bubbles— the louder the cry, the 
stronger the agitation ; which is popularly ascribed 
to the self-drowned woman's jealousy.'' 


Mount Nacbi, Kii, Japan. 

Sp-vnisii DoiJGEEEL.— Can I appeal to Mil. 
J. Platt, Jun., or any other reader of 
' N. ifc Q-,' as to tno meaning of the following 
lines? In the t^emanarw Fimoresm h'xpariol 
for 18rj7, p. 130, it is stated that there is a 
menhir, or stone pillar, about 12 ft. high, con- 
cerning which these lines are current in the 
neighbourhood : — 

Galica gilando, 

puso aqui eale tango, 

y Menga Menj^al 

le volvio a qui tar. 

Roughly or literally translated, it maj 
read : " Galica gilando placed hero this 
'tango,' and Menga Mental returned to take 
it away." "Tango " is a gipsy or rustic dance. 
With regard to Menga, tlie same jjeriodical 
(pp. 156, 172) describes a tumuluM accidentally 
discovered in 1832 during a quest for stones 
for road-mending on tlie ulain of Alava. 
I Near this is a kistvaen called the Cuft'^^. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no-^ s. i. fw. ^ im. 

de Menga or fie Mental. In Caballero'a 
' Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana ' Men- 
gala is given as the name of an In^iian deity. 


Book Collectoes.— Can any reader supjjly 
me with briefest biographical details relat- 
ing to two book collectors, (1) E. Kroencke, 
(2) F. O. Beggi ] C. 8. 

ScJin)iAL Motto. — Having had a copy made 
of an early fourteenth-century sundial^ I am 
anxious to put a n^otto oa it to suit the 
period. Will any one oblige me by letting 
me know if the following is correct in con- 
struction and spelling to suit the time of 
Barbour, the author of ' The Bnis ' t 

A . COVTII . I . SPEK . TUI8 . WAI.D . I . SAT 

BID . Nocirr . QvntLL . rncHT . wkrk . gvftTU.ES . 

TO . DAY . 

The Northern Anglo-Saxon of Barbour's work 
I understand is very perfect. 

L. J. Platt. 
The Birches, Stirling, N.B. 

Eakl of Egremoxt.— An article in the 
Hoi-ning Leader of 1 February on the Albany 
mentions incidentally that the Earl of Egre- 
mont (/.f,, George O Brien, third earl) never 
married. Can you or any of your readers I 
refer me to the flates of three or four issues 
of the Daily Western Times of Exeter, of ' 
about twenty years ago, which stated that ' 
he was twice married, or to any other sources ' 
of a simitar purport, or to the name of the 
lady by whom he is said to have been jilted, 
or to tno titles of works bearing on his public 
or private history ? This earlwas certainly 
followed in the titles by a fourth earl, whilst 
at the same time his three illegitimate sons 
unaccountably took the entailed estates. 
Though he was a prominent personality for 
the long period of his life of eighty -six years, 
and a munificent patron of the artists of his 
day, very scant records would appear to 
exist as to his life, to prove or disprove his 
relations with Lady Melbourne and the 
parentage of Inn children. Is it suggested 
that the Premier Lord Melbourne was his 

son t AKCH.^OLOGiaT. 

FERniNANDo Gorges or Eye— Can any 
one inform me of the relationship (if any) of 
Sir F. Gorges, **Lord Proprietor of Maine" 
^"> S. xii. 347), to Ferdinando Gorges of 
Barbadoes, but afterwards of Eye, co. Here- 
ford, who died in 1701, and is said to have 
descended from Sir Edward Gorges and 
Lady Anne, bis wife, daughter of first Duke 
of Norfolk ? Robertson's ' Mansions of Hore- 
fordshii-o' states that Ferdinando Gorges was 
son of Henry Gorges, of Buttercoml)e, co. 

Somerset. His daughter Barbara married 
Thomas, Earl of Coningsby. I should be 

flad of any information re the family of 
'erdinando Gorges. H. L L. D. 

"An Austrian ABsnr."— You refer, nute^ 
p. 120, to "An Austrian army awfully ar- 
rayed " as being first printea in Hendry's 
Miffetlany of March, 1 838. I very well remem- 
ber its appearance there— indeed, learned it 
there ; but among my memoranda I have : — 

" An Austrian army. ic. —Th is original ly appeared 
in the Trifltr (1807 or J817), » paper printed io 
College St., Weatminster, anrt was written by the 
Westrainsler School boys.— 'The Week.'" 

I presume this could be verified without 
much difficulty, and it would be matter of 
interest to me, and probably to others. 

G. C. W. 

AuDTS OR AcorN FAMn.v.— In Gaillim'a 
'Displaye of Heraldry,' 1633, and subsequent 
editions, it is stated that the arms "Argent, 
on a cross gules five lioncels salient, are borne 
by the family of Audyn (or Audin) of Dor- 
chester, in the county of Dorset." I should 
be glad to learn where further information 
concerning this family can be obtained. 

Qeohge A. AuDKX. 

William Holland Kipd was admitted to 
Westminster School on 2 July, 1781. I should 
be much obliged for any information con- 
cerning him. Q. F. R. B, 

Melancholy. — Mr. W. S. Lilly, in hia 
article in the Frtrtnightly Review, June, If 
p. 1002, quotes as an old saying : *' NuUui 
magnum ingenium sine melancliolia." Can'' 
any one tell me where it is known to occur 
for the first time ? Astartb. 

Roe and Tuscan Pawnbrokers, «8:r!.— Th« 
author of 'In a Tuscan Garden,* who kept 
a hardly won paradise in the ueighbourhc 
of FlorcnceT wrote : — 

" I have been quite unable to discover the reasc 
of the ijawobrokers' shops in this part of Tuscany 
bcine garnished, so to say, with little pots of rue. 
All through Tubcaov rue is considered very unlucky, 
and B ecarlet thread is always tied rounrl the planf 
in order to keep off the 'evil eye'; scarlet, mor 
than any other colour, beinc stniposed to be cffie 
cious for this purpose. Indeed, I liavo heard 
lambs' tails being decorated with a red ribbon I 
Imagine the face of an Eskdale ehei>herd if he sar 

the tails of his yearlini;B t^'*'' "P with red ribbons 
the connexion of rue, the ' Herb o' Urace,' will 


pawnbrokers' shops, rotuaios as great a mystery i 
the eating of figs on San I'ietro. now bo close at' 
hand. \V hat the apostle had to do with green Gga 
nooneseenis toknow; only that so t(^ fonimemorato 
him is the bounden duty T*'® 

invariable answer to an i^ointa 

is, that it La of two an/Jf/ji'-K-..'. » ,- i- ■ -'^- 



JCK*- 8. l-Feb. 20. im.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




I am aware that the cima di i-utu, modelleH 
in silver, was used as an amulet against the 
evil eye, aod that rue itself has long been 
held in high estimation as a remedy tor ilia 
wthin the body and without ; but 1 do not 
know why it should be in such eminent 
favour among the pawnbrokers of Tuscany. 
Can any correspondent of *N. «J: Q.' declare 
the reason ? Mr. El worthy says nothing, 
I think, about the efficacy of scarlet in 
counteracting fascination, but he points out 
instances in which varicoloured ribbons are 
used as a defence. One day as I was toiling 
in the sunshine up the hill to (Jortona I saw 
beautiful white calves ornamented with red 
ribbons being brought out of the city as if 
for some pa^an sacrifice. The trimmings 
were certainly picturesque, and probably they 
were also regarded as being prophylactic. I 
dare say the connexion between green figs 
and St. Peter's Day is nothing more esoteric 
than coincident ripeness. St. Swithin. 

*'Dkuo IX THE MARKET."— Regarding the 
word "drug" in this phrase, the 'H!e.D.' 
says it is questionable if it is the same word 
as the ordinary word "drug." In A. Boyer's 
' Royal Dictionary Abridged' (French-English 
and English-French), seventh edition, 1747, 
under 'Garde-boutique ' may be found : •' A 
slug, or a commodity that grows a slug, a 
coramodit.y that sticks by one"; and under 
*Slug,' "This commodity grows a slug (or 
Drug), cett^ jnarchandise n'e$t qu'utie drogue, 
e'est un gardtboutique." May it be that the 
two expressions were independent, and that 
some one with an imperfect ear or memory 
said "it is a drug in the market" instead of 
♦♦slug"? Both expressions are apfiropriate, 
but the two ideas are diflTerent. Sir Walter 
Scott in his 'Diary,' 8 December, 1825, says, 
" Poetry is a drug," but he does not say " in 
the market." U. V. W. 

CtAVBRnso: De Maxdevillk.— Were these 
families originally identical? The arras of 
Clavoring and De Mandeville are similar, 
Quarterly, or and eules. Was the village of 
Clavering in Essex held bv a De Mandeville ? 
And was the Moat Farm House the original 
manor] T. W. Carey. 


** Kino ok Patterdalk."— Says the Penrith 
guide-book : " Stybarmw Crag and Pass, 
where the * King of Patterdale ' successfully 
repelled a band of Scottish mosstroopers in 
the troublous times of Border warfare." Who 
was the " King of Patterdale " ? Having last 
summer visited the Crag, I am interested in 
this personage, if i^rsonage thoro be, since 

Canon Rawnsley thinks that he is purely 
mythical. 1 am, however, of opinion that 
he was some Penrith warrior enjoying a 
courtesy title equivalent to that of the L<)rd 
of Haddon Hall—" King of the Peak." 

J. B. McGo\'KElT. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

KniGHT Templar. — Would some reader 
kindly give the origin or meaning of the 
eight pminta in the cross of this order 7 



Records op Monastery of Mount Grace 
LE Ebor'.— Can any of your readers give me 
infbrmation as to where the records, if any, 
of the Carthusian (?) monastery of Mount 
Grace le Ebor' are to be seen ? 

H. C. Surtees, Lieut. -Col. 

St. Dunstan.— Was it at Glsistonburv or 
at Mayfield that this saint "pulled the Jevil 
by the nose " 1 M. A.OxoN. 

(lO'^ S. i. 88.) 

Bilton House was bought by Addison 
before his marriage for lO.'XX)/., the greater 
part of which was lent to him by his brother, 
Gulston Addison. It had been built in 1623, 
and belonged to the Boughton family, whose 
shield is carved on one of the wings. Addi- 
son bequeathed it to his wife, the Countess 
of Warwick, and after their daughter's death 
it passed to a relation, whose descendants, 
by name Bridgeman Simpson, still, I believe, 
possess it. The daughter, Charlotte Addison, 
was deficient in intellect. ^Many stories of 
hor oddity are traditional in the village. She 
was always fancying herself in love, and 
wished to leave the property to a Mr. Cave, 
whom she imagined to be enamoured of her. 
That she "could repeat the whole of her 
fatlier's works" no one probably will be found 
to Iwlieve. 

The house is Elizabethan, approached 
through a winding avenue of stately limes, 
earlier than Addison, who, however, planted 
in the grounds many Spanish oaks, which 
still remain. The interior abounds with in- 
teresting portiaits, chiefly by Vandyke, who 
was a kinsman of the Gulston family. They 
include one of the four equestrian pictures 01 
Charles I. ; a Countess of Warwick with sweet 
countenance and expression ; an Addison, 
older and coarser than the Magdalen GqU«;^ 




NOTES AND QUERIES. tio^ s. i. Fki*fl>. im 

portrait; a Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice, 
the first rakish and dissipated, the other 
faultlessly beautiful. lo the garden are 
ancient yew and holly hedges ; through the 
holly opens an iron gate, surmounted with a 
cipher of the initiaU J.A., CW. The re- 
ceipted bill for this gate, which cost 50/., is 
E reserved. In a corner is a covered seat, 
nown as Addison's scat. There is also a 
noble Philodelphus, and the finest deciduous 
cypress 1 have ever seen. A cabinet in the 
drawing-room holds a brass dog-collar, with 
the name Joseph Addison in scrollwork, a 
toy silver teapot belonging to Miss Addison, 
and a piece oi rich brocade, part of her dress. 
Sotnewhcre in the mansion is said to be a 
concealed closet, filled with Addisonian 

treasures and relics ; but no one has been able 
to discover it. W. T. 

There is a tradition in roy family that wej 
are descended from a brother, or perhai_ 
cousin, of the Spectator Addison. There is 
also an idea that many years ago, alx>ut the 
time ray great grandfather livecl, there was a 
split in tne Addition family, and that the 
branch to which I belong went to the south, 
and thereafter cut off all connexii)n with 
their relations in the north. Thia I cannot 
vouch for, as I have found it difficult to 
obtain trustworthy information as to the 
descent of my grandfather. I enclose pcxii- 
gree, and shall oe glad to receive further and 
earlier details : — 

Rev. John Addiaon^F'FraDces Lawson. 

Bev. Joseph Addison^pMaiy Aone Da{>rd. 

Bev. JohnA. Bev. Berkeley A. Rev. George A Gen. Thomas A.^EUcnGilleFpie, Gen. Edward A. 

C.B. I 

Lieut. Thomas E. K. Addison, Major Alexander Dnprv A. 
of the Buffs (died 1875). (Bojal Artillery). 


I find the following reference to Addison's 
daughter in 'Holland House,' by Princess 
Mane Lieclitenstein (1876) :— 

"Addison left bohind bim a danRhtor, who died 

unniarried in his house at Bilton in 1797 Like 

many aoother poor gentlewoman, she died a 
aninster, and, like many another poor spinster, 
ene was one against her will ; at least, we infer as 
much from a letter we found at the British Museum, 
■ifCned by (Mrs.) J. Corbet, and dated ' Burlington 
Street, May ye hrst, 17.'J9.' Mr. Kyet, a gentleman 
of embarrassed n)eau9, was an aspirant to Miss Addi- 
son's bond; and Mrs. Corbet says; ' I doubt 

Miss A— 'a temper will either give herself, or the 
trustees, or both, some further uneaaine«s, for I 
take her earncsluess for this match to proceed 
chiefly from her desire of marrying, she every day 
telling me thot Mr. K— 'a person is disagreeable to 
her, and ahe cannot be happy but M'lth a Man 
whom she thinks handsome and is in Love with. 
......She Bays her full determination is to lot ye 

Match go on, and if upon Mr. Kyet's visiting her at 
Bilton she cannot get rid of her aversion to his 
nerson, she will then give him her final denyal' 
(Egerton MS. No. 1974,1 135)." 

The writer of an article entitled 'Addi- 
Boniana' in the Minor, 23 July, 1836, has 
the following reference to Miss Addison :— 

"In 'An Historical Essay on Mr. Addison,' 
printed in 1783, but not published, the writer 
(Thomoa Tyors, Esq., son of Jonathan Tyore, the 
celebrated proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens) eays : 
'Addison's daughter by Lady Warwick is still olive 
and unmarried. She lives at Bilton, near Rugby, 

Ellen A. Aonie C. Capt Arthnr .Joseph 
Addison. Berkeley A. 

(Royal Irish Rifles;. 

J. A. 

and is almost old enough to be superannuated. Mr. 
Symonda (the Cambridge Professor of Modem Hf 
tory) saw her two summers ago, and aays si 
enjoys an income of more than 1,20(V. a_ yei 
Indeed, by all accounts she was uot a Minerva 
from the braiu of Jupiter: 

But careless now of fortune, fame, or fate, 
Perhaps forgets that Addison was great." 

The late Matthew Holbeche Bluxam, of 
Rugby, in a paper read before the Warwick- 
shire Naturalists and Archseologiste" Field 
Club in 1887, stated that his father had been 
acquainted with Miss Addison, and that 

" a Mrs. Cox, an old lady of Billon of the biboaring 
class, who died within tl»e last few years at Bilton, 
aged upwards of one hundred years, remembered 

Miss Charlotte Addison was buried in the 
chancel of Bilton parish church. 8he be- 

Sueathed her Bilton estate to the Hon. John 
■ridgeman - Simpson. Addison's library, 
which had remained intact from his death 
to that of his daughter, was brought under 
the hammer in 1799. On 27 May and three 
following days it was sold at Sotheby's, it 
consiflted of 1,856 lots, and realized 456/. 2*. QJ. 
The pictures were not dispersed until June, 
ISJ)8. They were sold at Christie's in thirty- 
five lots, and realized 4,OG7/, Qf. A picture 
of Miss Addison as a little girl was retained. 

John T. Page. 


jo'»B.i.^KB.2o.i9w.] NOTES AND QUERIES, 



See the ' Diet, Nat. Biog.,' L 130 (where it 
is said slie was " of rather defective in- 
tellect "), aud the references there supplied. 
See also the ' Parish Recisters of St. Ed- 
mund'si, Lombard Street,' by W. Brigg, B.A., 
1892, preface and p. 54. Addison's marriage 
t<x)k place on 9 Aagust, 1716, not on the 3rd, 
as in • D.N.B.,' i. 129, W. C. B. 

A great deal of interesting information 
concerning thi.s lady and her residence, Bilton 
Grange, near Bugby, may be found in 
Howitt's 'Homes and Uaunt-s of tlie British 
Poets' (fourth edition, 1858), published by 
Boutledge it Co. She died in 1797, at the 
age of eighty, was buried in the chancel of 
Bilton Church, and according to this autho- 
rity left all her property away from the 
Acfdison family, and to the Bridgemans. 

Mention is made of a p<irtrait existing in 
the house at that time of Addison by Kneller 
in light blue, as represented in the hall of 

8ueea's College, Oxford ; of her mother, the 
sunless of Warwick; of herself when a 
child, and many other fine portraits. As 
is well known, the house was once in the 
occopation of C. J. Apperley, the Nimrod of 
sporting literature. 

John Pickford, M.A. 
Newboume Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The accounts we have of this lady differ 
somewhat. See 'Annual Register,' xxxix. 
12, and ' N. &. Q..' 7^"" S. x. 434, 513. 

EvERARD Home Colkman. 

71, Breokuock Road. 

'Adurksh to Poverty': by Charlb.s 
LlxbI (K)'" S. i. 43) — I have been long 
familiar with the 'Address to Poverty,' tran- 
scribed by CoL. Prjdkadx from the ' Poetical 
Register' for 1806-7 (London, 1811, vol. vi. 
p. 264). The lines first appear in the opening 
number of the Alonthly Mayazine (February, 
1796), vol. i. p. 5'), where they are uigued L. 
and datetl 1 February, 1796, Their melan- 
choly cast is not unlike the tone of despond- 
ency which occasionally, though rarely, 
strikes us in Iamb's earliest letters to Cole- 
ridge (see, for instance, the letter dated 
10 Deoeraber, 179C — ' Letters," ed. Ainger, 
1888, vol. i. p. 55). Yet I do not believe 
them to be Lamb's. Certain other pieces, 
written in rhymed deeasyllables and signed 
L., but differuig from Lamb's known early 
verse in style and sentiment, are to be found 
in the poeta' page of this magazine in the 
years 1796-8. In the second number of the 
magazine there is a poem in this metre and 
witTi this signature, entitled 'The Prostitute' 

(dated 3 March, 1796), which might also con- 
ceivably be Lamb's :— 

The Prostitpte. 
As travlera through life'ii varv'd putha we go, 
VS''h&t sighta we pasa of wret-cbedness and woe 
Ah ! deep and many in the good mau's aigb 
O'er thy hard auflPringg, poor Humanity I 

What form is that which wanders up aud down? 
Some j)oor uufriended orphan of the town ! 
Heavy, indeedj bath rulhlesa sorrow prest 
Her cold baud ut her miserable breast ; 
Worn with diseaae, with not a friend to save, 
Or abed a tear of uity o'er ber prave ; 
Tlie sickly lustre leaves her faded eye ; 
Sbo sinks in need, in pain, and infamy ! 

Ah ! happier innocent ! on whoae chute cheek 
The spotless rose of virtue blushes meek ; 
Come shed, in mercy shed, a silent tear. 
O'er a lost sister's solitary bier ! 
She might have blooni'd like thee in vernal life ; 
She might have blooni'd. the fond endearing wife ; 
I'he tender daughter ;— out want's chilling dew 
Blasted each scene hope's faithless pencil drew ; 
No anxious friend sat weeping o'er her bed, 
Or oak'd a bloiaing on her wretched head. 

She never knew, tho' beauty mark'd her face, 
What beggars woman-kind of ev'ry grace ! 
Ne'er closp'd a mother's knees with fond delight. 
Or lisp'd to Heav'n her nray'r of peace at eight ! 
Alas ! her helpless childbood was couaign'd 
To the unfeeling mercy of mankind ! 

This second poem, which contains one line 
(1. 25) borrowed from Bowles ('Verses to the 
Philanthropic Society,' 1. 116), i.s repruited 
in a little volume entitled * Beauties of 
British Poetry,' edited by Sidney Melmoth, 
and published at Huddersfield in 1801. It 
also contains a phrase—" want's chilling dew " 
—which seems to bo suggested by Coleridge's 
• Lines on a Friend who died of a Frenzy 
Fever,' 1794 : — 

such cbill dew 
Wan Indolence on each young blossom sbe(L 

Had the 'Address to Poverty' and 'The 
Prostitute ' been Lloyd's, they would most 
likely have been collectea in one of his sub- 
sequent volume*!. On the whole, I incline 
to think they were written by Robert Lovell, 
Southey's brother-in-law and collaborator in 
the little volume entitled 'Poems by Robert 
Lovell and Robert Southey,' published at 
Bath in 1795. In this volume the poems 
contributed by Southey were signed " Biou," 
while those of Lovell were distinguished by 
the signature " Moschus." Lovell die<l, after 
a brief illness, in April, 1790, but he may 
have sent a number of verses to the magazine 
shortly before. 

Amongst the crowd of contemporary poet- 
asters were two other "La" — Capcl Lofft 
and the Rev. William Lipscomb. But tho 

Seoeral resemblance to Bowles of the 'Ad- 
resa' and 'The Prostitute' on the oae 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no*8.LFEBrto.i«)*. 

hand, and, on the other, of the poeioii by 
**Mo«chua" (Lovell) in the volame above 
mentioDed, aeetna to lend some plaaqibility 
to the %uj?gcstion 1 have already made, riz., 
that they were written by one and the same 
per»on, to wit, llobert Lovetl. 

R A. Potts. 

Webde!? Abbey (lO"- 8. i. C7, 111).— The 
charch of WerHen, restored in 1849, is on the 
site of a previuux one partly burned down 
in 875, anrj re-erocted in the tranHition style 
of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; it 
ha«i a fine side porch on the north, and an 
alturpiece at one of the side altars, painted 
bv Mifitroj), a native of a farm near Werden. 
The picture represents the Madonna and 
Child, and St. Ludgerua, founder of the 
abbey, a relic of whom, in a silver shrine, is 
on the high altar. The abbey possessed the 
superb Codex Argenteus, which was already 
renowned in the fourth century, and was 
written by the Goth Bishop Ulfilas. It was 
a translation of the Gospels, in silver charac- 
ters on violet -tinted parchment. In the 
Thirty Year.*' War it came to Prague, and 
fell into iSwediijh liaud:]. It is now in Upsala 

Perhaps further inforroation can be got 
from book» published at Diisseldorf by L. 
Schwann. John A. lUNDOLrn. 

Comber Family (10"* S. i. 47, 89).— Those 
who are interested in the Comber family 
should l)e acquainted with the 'Autobiography 
of Mrs. Alice Thornton,' vol. Ixii. of the Sur- 
tces Society's publications. W. C. B. 

Seion : AN Ancient Tradition ok Llan- 
PUMBAINT (O"* S. xii. 421).— The story of the 
five saints who, misinterpreting the divine 
wish, wont to the wrong place, where they 
wore stricken with sickness and other trou- 
bles, and afterwards went to the right place, 
where all succcorled with thorn, may bo com- 
pared witii an incident in the third hook of 
Ihe '/Kiieid.' Through misunderstancling 
the oraclo of Api)lKn /Kiioos, with hia fol- 
lowers, cstablisheri himself in Ci-ete, but wai 
attacked there by plague and other evils. 
lie then discovore<l hi.s mistake, and, leaving 
Crete, (lopartod f(jr Italy, tlio land to which 
Ajiollo hod intendtxi to direct him. 

E. Yart>i.ey. 

Baohhaw (10"' vS. i. 9).— Tn the Reference 
Department at the Rhellleld Free Public 
Library there is a " Ilii^tory, Gazetteer, and 
Directory of Dorby.shirc. By Samuel Bug- 
abaw. Printed for the author, by William 
Baxtnn, High Street, Shofht'ld, and sold by 
Samuul Bagshaw, Philadnlphio, Shertiold, 

1846 "; also a " HUtory, Gazetteer, and Direc- 
tory of Shropshire. By Samuel Bag?ihaw, 
Author of >similar Works for Derbyshire, 
Kent, Cheshire, ic. Printe<I for the author 
by Samuel Harrison, 5, High Street, Sheffield, 
and sold by Samuel Bagshaw, Wentworth 
Terrace, Sheffield, IS.-Jl." H. J. B. 

Neither the book mentioned by Me. 
Charles Smith nor the name of it« author 
occurs in the Catalogue of the Library of thajj 
British Museum. The name of Samuel Bag»j 
shaw will, however, be found in the following] 
directories of Sheffield : Edward Baines's, 
1822, as resident at 72, Shales Moor, earthen- 
ware dealer; William White's, 18.37, as resi- 
dent at 41, Westbar, draper ; and J. Pigot'a, 
1841, as resident at 64, Westbar, draper. 

Chas. F. Fobshaw, LL.D. 

Baltimore House, Br&dford. 

^>Ir. Sodthah also mentions Bagsbaw'a ' Shrop- 
shire Hiitory.*] 

Hallev's Comet (10*'' S, i. 86).— The late 
M. G. de Pontc'coulant exhaustively investi- 
$;ated the motions of Halley's comet from 
its last appearance in 1835, and concluded 
that the next return to perihelion would 
take place on 17 May, 1910. His investiga- 
tions are published in vol. Iviii. of tlia 
Comptes Hendus of the French Academj', tho 
place referred to by Me. McPikb. Pont«- 
coulant, who die«l in 1874, had previously 
calculated the position of the comet at the 
preceding return. His first determination 
was that the date of return to pcrihelioa 
would be 14 November, 1835. Rosenber^eri 
came to a similar conclusion. The perihehoo 
passage actually occurred about noon on the 
17th of that month : and the comet was first 
seen at Rome on the evening of 5 August 
about three and a half months before beinf 
at perihelion. W. T. Lnw. 


xii. 20, 1.31, 297, 37fi, 517 ; lO**- S. i. 50).—! 
desire to point out, with all due courtesy, 
that Sir Herbert Maxwell is not quito 
correct in his assumption that I referred to 
Bruntisfield or Warrender House as the 
principal locality of James Grant's historical 
romance 'The Scottish Cavalier.' The 
building in which the heroine of the story*^ 
Lilian Napier, Lady Clermistonlef. so my*' 
terionsly (tisappearo<l was Bruntisfield Castl* 
or " Wrychtis-nousia," which stoofl near th 
Burghrauir of Edinburgh. How the edific 
obtained the name of " Wrychtis-housis " 
now unknown ; but the Napiera appear 
have possessed the same from a very earl] 
period. The antique pile wa« one of th€ 


10^ a. I. fkb. 20. 1904.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



oldest baronial d wellings near the city, and 
by far the most picturesque, and was 
encrusted with armorial bearings, heraldic 
devices, inscriptions, (fee. One of the dates 
upon it was 1339 ; and an inscription ran 
"In Domino confido 1400." In the Herald. 
C April, 1793, anoticoof its purchase appeared 
for a site tor Gillespie's Hospital ; and in 
1800 its dcnaolitiou was achieved, but not, by 
the way, witliout a spirited remonstrance 
from the A'dinhutyh Magazine. The mansion 
in which the historian of 'The Douglas 
Family ' spent part of his childhood was 
erected later than the year 1645, and. as he 
has stated, "stands to this day." For an 
illustration of " Wrychtis-housis," and for 
one of Warrender House, see ' Old and New 
Edinburgh,' vol. iii. pp. 36 and 48. 

Hkney Gerald Hope. 
119, Elms Road. Ctapham. S.W. 

M. N. G. is unfortunate in referring to the 
Charlestown "event" in illustration of the 
opinion that " it does not seem impi-obable 
that escaped nuns w^ere buried alive." The 
facts of tne case afford a monitory lesson to 
swift witnesses in cases of immurement. 
''She was captured, taken back to the 
nunnery, and uemancis for her release were 
refused." "The nun was never afterwards 
hoard of." 

An Urauline nun. Sister Mary St. John, 
overwrought and nervous, mentally un- 
balanced, strayed away from the convent 
to a neighlMuring farmhouse : this was the 
escape. Iler brotlier, living in Iktston, was 
«ent for, and, in company with Bishop 
Fen wick, he brought her back to the 
convent : this was the capture. As to the 
demands for her release, the reply of Cardinal 
Wiseman, in the Connolly case in England, 
coald be made hero ; " The door is open, she 
can walk out if she wishers." 

"The nun was never afterwards heanl of." 
In this she differed from the " Escaped Nun " 
of our «3ay, who is often heard of. The 
Charlestown nun was heard of: 1. When the 
Selectmen of the town viyited the convent 
in a body, and were shown over the house 
and grounds by Sister Mary St. John. 2. On 
the night of the burning, when she accom- 
panied the girls in their llight from the mob. 
3. When the committee of twenty repre- 
sentative citizens of Boston investigated the 
"event," and declai'od in their report that as 
to the 

**s'- ! or necralion of Mins Harrison, 

it ' V for tho o<iTnmill#6 Uj rooApitu- 

lati ...,-.k<ly )>.••■■■■■■■ <i:-- ■,■•!,!: '• ''ip 

furtii'i > iniice ihiC • ; 

tUiv "•'I'll "ii( liy hr.r 1.0 ^n 

acquainted with htr ht/o}f the deMnution of the 
ronvmt, and hare rejteatedii/ wen and eanitfitiil 
with her nincc." (Itnlica thoirs.) 

4. At tho ancient Ursuline Convent of 
Quebec, where she lived after the catastrophe 
at Charlestown. Finallj', when she appeared 
as a witness at the trial of the rioters. 

This is a good illustration of the opinion 
that "nuns were immured alive." Authori- 
ties for 1, 3, 5, Bishop England's * Works,' 
vol. V. pp. 232-347, 'Documents relating to 
the Charlestown Convent'; for 2, 'The 
Burning of the Convent, as remembered by 
one of the Pupils,' Boston, Osgood & Co., 
1877 ; for 4, ' Records Am. Cath. 'Hist. Soc.,* 
vol. V. pp. 476-9. Edavard I. Devitt. 

Georgetown Ck)llege, Washington, D.C. 

John Lewis, Pokteait Painter (10'^'' S. i. 
87).— The portrait of Henry Brooke by Lewis 
is in my possession. It is unsigne<l, and was 
touched up by another hand about forty 
years ago. I ako have portraits of his father, 
Hev. William Brooke (paint«r unknown), and 
his brother Robert, painted by Robert him- 
self. Lewis probably painted the portrait 
when on a visit to Sheridan at Quilca, be- 
tween whom and the Brookes of Rantavan 
there was a cousinhood. The name 'The 
Farmer,' under Millers mezzotint, is derived 
from the * Farmer's Letters,' by Henry Brooke, 
who was better known as the author of tho 
novel ' The Fool of Quality.' According to 
an article in the Dublin Univei'sity Magazine, 
November, 1852, 'A Pilgrimage to Quilca,' 
Lewis was a London man. Can any genealo- 
axat give me any particulars of the Brooke- 
Sheridan relationship ] Henry Brooke. 

5, Falknor S^juure, Liverpool. 

"Moose" {•d^'^ 8. xii. 604).— The present 
writer has no knowledge of Indian languages, 
but he offers the following extracts in the 
hope that they will enable Mr. Pl\tt to 
reach a definite conclusion as to the deri- 
vation of "moose." It will be seen that 
Smith mentioned the moose earlier than 1624. 

" Moos, a beast bigj^er then a .Statcge."— 1616, 
Capt. J. Smith, * Description of N. England,' p. 29. 
(Smith reached the coaat of what ia now Maine in 

" There is also a certaine Beast, that the Nutiuea 
call a Mosse, ho is as big l>o<lied as an Oxe."— 1622, 
*A Briefe Relation of tite Discovery and Plan- 
tation of N. England,' ji. 26. {This pamphlet was 
reprinted in 162o bv Porchas in his ' Pil«rime«,' 
iv. I«.11, and in 18«) by J. P. B«ucter_in his '.Sir 
F. Ciorgos and his Province of Maine," i. 230, and 
roconnts events from as early as 10(17.) 

"Also here are aeuerall sorts of Deere, k a 

great Ueast called a Molke as bigKO as an Oxe."— 
1631). F. HiRginftoo, ' New • Englm')" ii,...i..i i,,„ ♦ 
it4b. (" Molke" has always b<.'. i, 

printer's error for " MooM " or iom , ) 

[10* S. I. Feb. 30. I90L 



" The beast called a Mooae, is Dot much unlike 
red Deare, this beast is u bi^^e as an Oxe." — 1634, 
W. Wood, 'New KnKlands ProsiKjct,' |i. 23. 

"They have likewise another sort of manteU, 
made of Mose Rktnnes, which beaat ia a large Deere 

BO bigge as a horse Firat, therefore, I will ei^cak 

of tno Elke, which the SalvagCB call a Mose : it is 
a very larpe Deare."— 1837, T. Morton, 'New 
EukUbm Cuhaan,' pp. lJ9, 74. 

" There are Beare«, Wolves, and Foxes, and 
many other wilde beuRts, as the Moose, a kiud of 
Deere, as bi|t as some Oxen, aiid Lvoni, as I have 
heard."— 1W2. T. Lechford, ' Plain Dealing,' j.. 111. 

These extracts sliow that the word "moose" 
was knowu as early as 161G, ami that it soon 
became establisiiheu ; but they throw do liKlit 
on its derivation further than the fact that 
it is Indian. Perhaps the following extracts 
will be of assistance to Mk. Platt : — 

"Mo^s-soo)f. Tht ffrtat Ort,or rather a red Decrc 

MoOao. The Hi-Hi of a j/nal Beaxt aa big aa an 

Ox, Bome call it a red Deere."— IW3, R. Wtllianu, 
•Key,'i»p. m, 112. 

"Orisnat, Elan, Mens. Orignal, jeuue & 

petit, JuaniVAiVA."— 1703, La HonUn, 'Petit Dic- 
lionaire de la Laoirue dea tSauvages' in 'Nouveaux 
Voyagea,' ii. '-W. 210. 

" The Mooie is a Creature, not only proper, but 
it is thought peculiar, to North America, ana one 
of the noQcst Creatures of the Forest ; the Ahori- 
fjinei* have givett hirn the Name of Moose, Moosuh 
in the Plural."— 1721, P. Dudley, in Philo-iophical 
Transactions (1723}, xxxi. lOo. 

"By way of amiiaenient, I wrote down a few 
AlQQiikin words, which 1 learnt from a Jesuit who 
has been a long time among the Algoithinx. They 

call the elk, moo>i\i (but so that tlie final » is 

barely jironounced)."- 17W, P. Kalm, 'Travels' 
(1770), iii. 204. J. R. Forstcr, the translator, adds 
in a note, " The famous mooie-'leer is accordingly 
nothing but an elk ; for no one can deny the deriva- 
tion of moo^'^-ftptr from mooitu." 

*' This town [Now Comer's Towi] is situated on 
the west side of the river Muskingum, which is a 

fretly large stream. The protter pronunciation in 
ndion is Moottkinynng, i.e., Elk Kyo River. In 

their language an elk being called moo* The 

wild beasts met with heic lOhio River], are bears, 

wolves, panthers, wildcats, foxes deer and elks, 

called by the Dclawarcs wioo*."— 1774, D. Jones. 
•Journal,' pp. 90, 111. 

"Mooae — Mouswah rKiiiBleneauxl — Mouse 
[Algonquin]."- 1801, A. Mackenzie, ' Examples of 
the Kniateiieaux and Algonquin Tongues,' in 
• Voyages,' p. cviii. 

, "Monse— The moose deer."— 1807, O. Herict. 
vocabulary of the Algonquin Tongue,' in 'Travela 
through the Canadas,' p. 587. 

"MooaB-Mooso-wa. '— 1820, D. W. Harmon, 
' iSt^cimens of the Cree or Knisteneux Tongue,' in 
'Journal of Voyages,' p. 3SS. 

" In America, where it is named Momoll by the 
Algonqnins, Mooie or MooKf: <Utr by the English, 
anil OWpiHo/ by the French, it is met with in the 
more northern parts of the United .States, and 
beyond the (Jreal I^okos."— ISi"), R. Harlan, 'Fauna 
Americana,' p. 232 

"The Moose This appellation is derived from 

Mwiv, the name giveu to the animal by the Algon- 

nuins."— I82G, J. D. Godouui, 'American Natural 
History.' i. 274. 

" The Moose Deer ia said to derive its present 
name from its Algonquin and Cree appellation of 
niongsna or moosoa." — 1829, J. Richaroaoo, ' Fauna 
boreali-Americana,' i. 2IC 

" Moote is an Algonkin word, found also oa 
»ioa<ru, niusu, miLura, moniicak, &c., said to mean 
'wood-eater.'"— 1803, E. Coues, 'Expeditions of 
Lewis and Clark,' iii. 1032 note. 

liy way of curiosity, the following raay be 
added. In 1712 an attempt was made toj 
send three moose to England as a present 
to Queen Anno, but the united efforts of the 
Governors of Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
and New York failed to accomplisli the feat, 
though two of the raooso were seen by 
Franklin, then a boy of six. Under date of 
2 February, 1708, we learn from the Gentle- 
vian's Magazine that "a male Elk was carried 
to Richmond as a present to his majesty " 
(xxxviii. 91). Could this have been the moose 
which S, Hearno stated (in his 'Journey,' 
17D5, p, 2<')7) was sent from Canada as a . 
present to George III.? In October of thoj 
same year a moose was exhibited and offered , 
for sale in Boston. Albekt M.vttuews. 

Boston, U.S. 

TiCKUNO TaooT (9"' S. xii. 505).— Not 
always does the adept wait to see "a tail 
sticking out from the roots." lie will oftea 
kneel on one of the large stones which inter- 
fere with the calm How of a trout beck, pass 
his hands gently round the submerged ed^e 
of it, and gently secure the fish which la 
harbouring underneath. Synonyms for such 
" tickling are " grappling '' or " groping " for 


St. SwiTiim. 

Archer, in Farquliar's ' Beaux' IStratagem,' 
Act III. scene ii., says : — 

'* I can play with a girl as an angler does with hia 
fish : he keeps it at the end of his line, runs it up 
the stream and down the stream, till at last he 
brings it to hand, tickles the trout, and so whips 
it into hie basket- 


I hope Mr. Ratcuffe will pardon me if 
I say tiiftt his description of the "tickling" 
of trout is unlike my experiences of it. Fity 
years ago I " tickled " many hundreds ; and, 
on your own property, it was in those days 
not thought sucn a sin as Ma. Ratcuffe 
asserts it now to be. There h no need to 
wade up stream, there is no need to look out 
for the fishes' " tails "' ; and if yoti " grabbed 
with both hands" you would be in imminent 
danger of losing your prey. 


"Fide, sed cui vide" (lo"" S. i. 8").— 
Jacob Astley, Royalist general, was created 




^baron in 1045 (Vincent's ' Diet, of Biog.'). It 
' leeoia to have been the custom in the early 
'history of the army to enj^rave the motto 
of the commander nf a regiment upon the 
swords, so that perhaps this general was a 
descendant of the ancient Astleys of Ever- 
leii^h, Wilts, whose motto is "Fide, sed cui 
vide." See Burke's 'General Armory ' and 
his 'Peerage.' J. Holdkn MacMich.\el. 

Aylmer Arms O'^ S. xii. 448).— The late 
Rev. C. H. M.\nning stated at 2"" S. x. 394 : 

*' Bishop Avlnier was born at Aylnier or Elmer 
Tiall, now a larnthouae at a short distance to the 
east of I he cinirch, in the jiariah of Tilney St. Lau- 
rence, Narfolk, between King's Lynn and Wig- 

In Blomefield's ' Norfolk ' (vol. i. p. 139) it 
is said : — 

"On a K^aveatone [in the oharch of Tivetshall 

Bt. Mftry, tl»e adjoining pariah] were Aylmer*!! 

^ Arms, vi£., Ar., on a cross iuKrailedsab. fiveboztknUs 

between f«>ur magpiies pro|)er; it lies in the chancel, 

but the efligies, anna, and inscription are Kone." 

EvEK.VRD Home Coleman. 
71, Brecknock Road. 

Flayino Alivk (9^'' S. xii. 429, 480 ; lO"' S. 
i. 13, 73). — The following paragraph relates 
an incident very similar to that mentioned 
by Ma Pierpoint. It is taken from 
D. W. Coller's 'People's History of' 
(MDCccLXi.), p. 555, but the church referred 
to is that of Copford :— 

"The church, with its tnaaslve walls, which 
formerly BU[);x>rted an arch over the whole of the 
building. it« circular east end, and ita old entrance 
door, will tempt the traveller lo turn towards the 
antiqae fabric. This door is ornamented with 
rude uourishea of rusty ironwork, which formerly 
fastened securbly to the wood beneath a thick 
BubstancQ outwardly resembling parchment— similar 
to that at the church at Hadstock. Tradition, 
which takes maternal charge of many a marvellooa 
taJe, connoctB the leatlier-likeand shn veiled coating 
with the system of savage retribution found in the 
code of justice in the olden time, but happily 
blotted from its pages in the present century. 
Some Dauea, aaith this authority, robbed the 
church— considered one of the moat heinous of 
crimes in the mediteval ases— and were subjected 

the fearful process of flaying alive, their skins, 

"fully j«r«served, being thus aflixed to the door 
t«mble memento of the wretches who had 

^ to niise their sacrilegioui hands against the 

DOOM of <iod. The peculiar character of the door 
■ftpeara to have first attracted notice on the restora- 
tion of the church in 1000 ; and 'an old man at 

Colchester Miid that in his young time he heard his 
master n '' ■ ' ' ,] read in an old history that 
the chill was robbed by Danes, and 

thviraki doors.' This js I ho founda- 

tion of Llui irailili.iu. Annious to test it. «-e pro- 
cured a pieoB of the skin, of which timeaud curious 
-i-isilcirn have now left scarcely a «hred. This we 
submitted to u scientific friend, skilled in anatomy, 
—'— -*ter softening and subjecting it l<i rigid 

examination, pronounced it to be 'port of the 
skin of a fair- haired human being'— thus coa- 
Hrming to a considerable extent the tale of torture 
which garrulous tradition has told to her wondering 

On reference to the account of Hadstock 
Church in the same book (p. .543) I find the 
following sentence : — 

" The north door of the church is ornamented 
with ancient ironwork, beneath which was a akin 
of enormous thickness, which appeared to have 
been tanned ; and this tradition representa as the 
skin of a Dane who was flayed alive for sacrilege id 
this church." 

John T. Page. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

My sons saw the Dane's skin on the church 

door of Copford a few years ago ; some of 

it is now preserved in the Colchester 

Museum. It is mentioned in ' The Family 

'Topographer,' by S. Tymma, vol. i. p. 22. 

R. J. Fynmore. 


There is a notable picture in the collection 
of the Bruges Academy (removed to another 
building near the Porte Sto. Catherine?), 
showing the Haying alivo of an iudge. 
Mr. Weale's guide to the Academy of Bruges 
or his • Bruges et ses Environs ' would give 
detailed particulars. JoHN A. Randolph. 

Arms Wanted (yJ' S. xii. 329).— The arraa 
of Edward, second Earl of Derwentwater, 
were : Quarterly of twenty-four, 1, Argent, a 
bend engrailed sable (Radcliffe) : 2. Argent, 
two bars gules, on a canton of the last a 
cinquefoil op (Derwentwater); 3, Gules, a 
fesse between three Catherine wheels or 
(Cartington) ; 4, Gules, a fesse between three 
hedgehogs argent (Claxton) ; 5, Argent, a gules between three garbs or (Tyndale) ; 
6, Ermine, on a fesse gules three annulets or 
(Barton) ; 7, Gules, three lions passant in 
bend argent between two bendlets gobony 
or and azure (Moryn, alias Morgan) ; 8, Per 
fesse gules and argent, six martlets counter- 
changed (Fenwick); 9, Or, a fesse vaire 
argent ana azure between three falcons vert 
(Horden) ; 10, Gules, on a cross argent five 

cross-crosslets of the field (Essendon) ; 11, 

on a bend three roses (Carnhow) ; 12, 

Argent, a fesse between three mullets sable 
(Barret) ; 13, Vert, a lion rampant or within 
a hordure engrailed (Heaton); 14, Argent, 
a bat, wings expanded, vert (Baxter) ; 16, 
Argent, a chevron between three martlets 
gules (Wallington) ; 16, Gules, on a bond 
argent three eagles displayed vert (Strother) j 
17, Azure, six annulets, 3, 2, and 1, or 
(MuBgrave) ; 18. Barry of eight or and gules, 
a quarter ermine (Kyal) ; 19, Argent, a 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io^3.i.feb. 

paunch gulea bezantee (Flamville) ; 20, 
'Quarterly, argent and gules, over all a stag's 
heaJ of the second, attired and pierced 
through the nose with an arrow or (Trewick) ; 
21, Sable, a maunch argent (Wharton); 22, 
Argent, three hair bottlea or (Harbottle) ; 

23, Argent, three ewers gulea (Montboucher) ; 

24, Gulos, a chevron between three escallops 
arg. (Charron). H. R, Leioutok. 

£&Bt Bolilon, CO. Durtiara. 

AMPTON (10"' S. i. 40, 94).— For his exceedingly 
kind and helpful reply I desire to offer to 
Mr. Edward I'eacock my hearty thanks. 
Although at present unable to teat all the 
points raisefl, 1 may refer to some of them. 

California. — This field was purchased in 
1851 by the trustees of the Benefit Society, 
and laid out in allotments for the use of their 
members. The Californian gold fever was 
then at its height, and so the field received 
the name uppermost in men's tuinda at that 
period. But it happens to lie rather a long 
word, and «o it has got reduced to the more 
diminutive and easy form of " Cally." Tlie 
field is now in my possession. 

Huckaback.— \ find a good many people 
call this "Ho-back," but it appears in certain 
•writings as " Huckaback," ana 1 believe this 
is quite correct. The field forms part of one 
of our local watersheds, but thero are no 
ponds or streams actually on the Kround. 

IIunrfenveth.—The ground gently slopes on 
all sides to some farm buildings m a corner 
of this field. 

Lord's Piece.— 1 cannot make out that this 
ever belonged to the Lord of the Manor, but 
it is close to West Haddon Hall. More pro- 
bably it refers to the surname Lord, which 
frequently occurs in our registers. 

Torjt //i7/.— This is one of the highest 
points in the parish. John T. Page. 

Weat Hadiloii, Northanifrtonshire. 

As a small rider to Mr. Peacoik's interest- 
ing article on place-names with the ghastly 
prefix or suffix "hell," I venture to give two 
instances of its use aa the sole name. Among 
the documents belonging to the Mayor and 
Corporation of Dorchester Is a fine old oak- 
covered, brass-bossed and clasped parchment 
book of records, *kc. Its title is ' Dorchester 
Domesday.' In it, at f. xx, is enrolled a 
deed about a but^a^e in IHuenlane, now 
Colliton Street. This burgage is described 
as being between a certain tenement and 
"olaceam Rob'i Gutton voc' hello" (date 
2 Hen. IV.). Again, at Weymouth there was 
an instance. In the ' Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Charters, Minute Books, ic, of the 

Borough of Weymouth and Melcombe Begin ' 
(Weymouth, Sherren, 1883), p. 04, wo Bud 
as follows. Among other presentments on 
12 Sept. and 2 Oct., 1620j there is one that 
a boat had been placed " m vice sive venella 
vocat: the E^st Lane ante domum vocat: 
Hell." Part of this house is still standing. 

H. J. MoULE. 

Rev. Samuel Fisher (9*'' S. xi. 8).- On 
10 March, 1650, Dr. John Beading publicly 
disputed with Samuel Fisher, an Anabaptist, 
in Folkestone Church. It was this Dr. 
Beading who presented a large Bible, with 
gold clasps, to Charles 11., when he landed 
at Dover, 26 May, 1060. See ' The Illustrated 
Guide to Sandgate, Folkestone, Hythe, >kc~,' 
r. 1862, p. 19. R. J. Fynmorb. 


Penrith (10^'' S. i. 29, 97).— I have seen 
the surname " Piercy." Not only do Alnwick 
people also pronounce Percy *' Pecrcy," but 
It is so pronounced throughout Northumber- 
land. R. B- r. 

{South Shields. 

William Hartley (10^ S. I 87). — The 
late J. Hartley, LL.D., barrister-at-law, of 
2, Temple Gardens, who ha<l a residence ia 
or near Leeds, wa.s, I believe, the son of a. 
Leeds manufacturer or merchant. Perhaps 
some member of his family might answer 
Mr. Arkle's question. I believe that the 
Rev. S. St. G. J. Hartley, vicar of Exton with 
Horn, killed in the Alps last year, was a soa 
of Dr. Hartley. Mistletoe. 

"Oimbrro" (10*^ S. i. 107).— I remember 
reading about this hybrid, the ofispring of a 
bull and a mare, some time ago, where I 
cannot now remember. It occurs in th& 
mountains of Savoy and Piedmout> and can 
only feed on rich grass land, as the front 
teeth do not meet, and this prevents it 
nibbling short Alpine grass. Sberroknb. 

A hybrid of the kind described by Baretti 
is a mere figment of the brain— a chimera 
(with softened ch) in fact. The gimerro or 
jumart is, in reality, a hinny, the correlative 
of a mule. Probably one of the antelopes, 
the gnu, the bubaline, or the nylgliau, gavo 
rise to the idea that a cow could be crossed 
with a horse. J. Dormer. 

Glowworm ob Firefly (10''' 8. L 47, 112). 
— The explanatory addition of "i.e., the 
glowworms'," at the latter reference is a 
curiou.s slip. It was the waxen thighs of 
humble-bees which ShakeBf>eare'a elves were 
commanded by Titania to crop. 


10*- a, I. Feb. 20, 1904] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


To the poems already enumerated may 
be added Wordsworth's ' Pilgrim's Dream ; 
or, the Star and the Glowworm,' also the 
closing lines of Gilbert White's ' Naturalist's 
Suramer-evemng Walk-' Chas. Gilluan. 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

Prhiul facie I should say that the glow- 
worm and the Rrefly are two totally distinct 
species of insect, though perhaps the latter 
term may be applied to the former. Let nie 

I quote tlie glee oy Bishop in the opera of 
'Guy Haiinering,' which all your readers 
must have heard : — 
The chougli and the crow to roost have gone. 
And the owl Bits on the tree ; 
The west-wind bowls with feeble moan 
Lik<i infant charity ; 
The tirelly ^'lances from the fen, 
The iciJ citar shods its ray, 
Uii rouse ye liieu, my uieriy. merry men, 
t It is our opening day. 
i John Pickfoed, M.A. 

Newbourne Kectorj', Woodbridge. 
Moore has written a poem 'To the Fire- 
fly '; and his ballad 'The Luke of the Dismal 
3wainp ' ends with those lines : — 
^^L But oft from the Indian hunters camp 

^^1 Thi:} lover and maid so true 

^H Are seen, at the hour of midnight damp, 

^H To cross the lake by a firefly lamp, 

^f And i>addle their white canoe. 

Longfellow in 'Hiawatha' has written as 

I follows : — 
All the air was white with moonlight, 
All the waler black with shadow. 
And around him the Sug^ema, 
The mosquitoes saog their war-song. 
And the fireflies, Wah-wah-taysce, 
Waved their toruhes to mislead him. 
Tennyson's comparison of stars with fire- 
I flies in 'Locksley Hall' will be familiar to 

most readers. Coleridge in 'The Nighlingalo ' 
has these lines : — 

Their bright, bright eyes, their eyes both bright 

and full, 
<<!:lifitening. while many a glowworm in the shade 
Lights up ner love-torcli. 

Byron in 'Manfred' has the following:— 

When the moon is on the wave, 
And the glowworm iu the grass. 

Johnson in his dictionary, under the word 
"glowworm," quotes both from Shakspearo 
and from Waller, E. Yardley. 

[Hoflides the translation from Vincent Bourne 
mentioned by I'kof. Skkat, ante. p. 112, Cowjier 
wrote ' TJie Nighlingalo and the CJ low worm.'] 

CnowKs IN TowKR OR Spire ok (Jhur<:7i 
(0"' S. xji. 48r, ; 10"' S. i. 17, 38). -A note- 
worthy example of a spire with a crown is 
Xhat of the steeple of Notre Dame, Bruges. 
JouM A. IIakdoltu. 

CiRDlNAUS AND Crimson Robes (9'" S. xii. 
48(i; lO'i-S. i. 71).— Mr. Wainkwrkjht says, 
"The red robes have been worn since 1464 : 
the purple is now only worn in Lent and 
Advent." Mr. Oliver, quoting from Mac- 
kenzie Walcott, says, " In 1290 Pope Boniface 
gave the cardinals a purple dress in imita- 
tion of the Roman Consuls." 

There appears to be confusion in the use 
of the wora "purple." It is used for dark 
blue, ranging from "gart«r blue" to the 
darkest indigo blue, or for reds, from crimson 
to dark blood-red, or again for a blending of 
blue and red, resulting in various tints, from 
a red plum colour to dark violet. Tlie old 
Roman or royal purple was, I think, a dark 
crimson, such as one may see in the robes of 
Venetian nobles depicted by Paul Veronese. 
Is not this the cardinal's purple? Violet 
would be worn by cardinals in Advent and 
Lent, but it should not be called purple. 

S. P. E. S. 

St. Mary Axs: St. Michael le Qiternb 
(9"' S. X. 425 ; xi. 110, 231 ; xii. 170, 253, 351, 
f)07; lO"' S. i. 89). — Mr. J. Holden Mac- 
Michael asks me to refer to a document 
relating to St. Michael le Querne— an early 
document preferably— in which that church 
is styled "St. Michael-inthe-C'orn-«irtrA«." 
I thought I had already done so when, in a 
former paper, I tiuoted from the archives of 
St. Paul's Cathedral an early document in 
which the church is described as "S. Michael 
ubi bladum venditur" Exactly the same 
description will be found in a very early will 
which is recoi-fled in Dr. Sharpe's 'Calendar 
of Rusting Wills. '"^ A place where corn is 
sold is a corn-market, and there is evidence 
to show that the corn-market was held in that 
part of the West Cheap in which St. Michael'*) 
Cluirch was situated. Some time later the 
cumbrous phrase "ubi bladum venditur" was 
shortened into "ad bladum," or, iu English, 
"atto Corn" — not "at corn," be it noten, but 
"at the Corn," t.f., the Corn-market. There 
is nothing unusual in thi.s abbreviation. The 
hill whicfi led up to the market was known 
as Corn Hill, not Corn-market Hill. Another 
thoroughfare further east is still known as 
The Poultry, that is, the place where poultry 
was sold, or the poultry - market. Orace- 
clmrch, one of the few London cliurches 
nientioaed in a pre-Conquest charter, is 
therein styled Qerscherche, or Grass-church, 
because it adjoined the grass-market. No 

• Being far away from my books just now. I am 
unable to give the exact reference, bat the will may 
bo found near the Iwgiuuing of the first volume of 
Ur. Thorpe's valuable work, [Vol. i. p. 3.1 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lO" 8. i. fkb. jo. ijw. 

amoant of ingenuity will turn Itladum, which 
means "corn," into a queme or hand-mill, 
and Mk. MacMicrakl may therefore abandon 
the belief that "Querno (a very late form, 
by-tbe-by) alludes to the sign of a miller or 

As regards St. Mary Axe, no one disputes 
the fact that in the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries the sign of the "Axe" was 
a comparatively common one, and Axe Yard 
and Axe Alley were very possibly named 
after it. But this fact is very ."^lightly 
relevant to the point at issue. In order to 
bring conviction to my mind, Mr. Mac- 
MlCHAEL must show that this sign existed 
at the date of the compilation of the Ilotuli 
Hundredorum, and must also give some 
explanation of the anomalous form "apud 
Axe." It \fi rash to argue about thirteenth- 
century facts from seventeenth-century data. 
This being the case, I ara afraid I can hardly 
admit the potentialitv of Mb. MacMichael's 
hypotlieses, while I tnink there is some pre- 
mmptivc proof of mine. My suggestion, at 
all events, fits in with the Latin descriptions 
of the church, while analogies may be found 
in the case of St. John's and St. Stephen's, 
Walbrook. W. F. Pkideai'X. 


"Going the round": *'RouNpnousE"(10*'' 
S. i. 9, 76).— The conjecture that gotng the 
rowid (u.sually plural) had iti origin in the 
watchman's rovjuJU is correct. It is interest- 
ing to note that there is in German a similar 
expression, die Jinnde qeken {fkun). This was 
borrowed from the f'rench fm're la ronde 
about the time of the Thirty Years' War, and 
first had reference to the watchman's going 
his rounds. In the United States a rounds- 
man is a policeman who inspects other police- 
men on their beats. 

Charles Bundy Wiuson. 

State University of Iowa, Iowa City. 

Uaiivsd Stone (10"> S. i. 10&).— It is im- 
possible to know what the stone may bo from 
the description given. If Mrs. Hustley 
will send me a photograph, good rubbing, 
or accurate drawing, I may be able to express 
some opinion about it. 

(Dr.) J. T. FowLEE, F.S.A. 


Reucs of St, Gkecobt the Great (lO** S. 
i. 106).— The sentence Me. Wainewuight 
quotes from my reply to Mrs. Clintox's 
query is almost verbatim from Gregorovius 
('Tombs of the Popes,' p. 17, Eng. trans., 
11K)3), wlio says: "In the year 729 his re- 
mains were transferred to the interior of the 
basilica, where Gregory lY. erected an altar 

in his honour. His tomb has perished, and 
his marble effigy in the Vatican crypt was 
never a part of the original monument, but 
served merely as a decoration of the Cilwriuui 
of Innocent VlII." Mr. Wainewrigut may 
be glad to know of the ' Tombs ' volume, 
whicli costs only a few shillings. 

C. 8. Wabd. 

Sir Henry CnAONcv (10''' S. i. 66).— A 
catalogue of the sale by auction of the effects 
of Charles Chauncy, M.D., F.R.S., and 
Nathaniel Chauncy, issued in 1790, is in the 
Corporation Library, Guildhall. It is divided 
into four parts, and contains : 1. A list of 
antique marble figures, busts, and bronzei ; 
2. A catalogue of their libraries ; 3. Their 
collection of natural history ; 4. An account 
of their prints, drawings, and miniatures. 
Prices and purchasers' names are appended 
in MS. Articles respecting this family have 
also appeared in 1" B. ix. ; 5'^ S. viii., ix. ; 
&^ S. iil., xi. EVERARD UOMB COLKMAN. 

71, BrtKknock Road. 

Frost and its Forms (10"' S. i. 67, IIC).— 
It may be well to note under the above 
heading that lightning sometimes, though I 
understand but rarely, produces fronulike 
patterns, such as are frequently seen on 
window-panes after a hard frost. 

On Sunday, 22 August, 1897, a severe 
thunderstorm occurred over this town. A 
house was struck, and among other damage, 
done therein, a chimney-piece was brokei 
and a mirror standing thereon shivered into 
many fragments. On the board behind the 
glass, at three of the corners femlike patterns 
were imprinted. The force which producerl 
these pictures did not act in the same way in 
the fourth corner, where nothing definite 
was to be seen. The likeness to the fronds 
of the common bracken was so exact that 
several persons drew my attention to it, 
asking for an explanation, which it was not 
in my power to give. I was at the time 
anxious that photographs should be taken, 
but this, I think, was not done. 

Edward Peacock. 


Ri'inT Hon. E. Southwell (10"' S. i. 8, 50). 
— I have before me Thorpe's catalogues for 
1827-8, 1829-30, 1831, and 1836, but cannot 
identify the cliary inquired for. In the latest 
catalogue an addition of some forty pages 
consists almost entirely of letters and Stato 
Papers from the Southwell collection, a mo-st 
important supplement to the 1834-D cata- 
logue mentioned by Mk. Coleman. 

Aleck Abrahams. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

10^ 8. 1. Feb. 3). 19W.] NOTES AND QUERl 

iMAniKARY OB IjJVKNTED SaINT3 (9"' S. xii. 

127, 215, 369, 515). — May I add to the list 
San Remo, the homonym of the town from 
which I write? The name is a corruption 
of San Romolo, the original raisaionary of 
Western Liguria, whose name is still pre- 
served intact at San Romolo, a villaf^e at the 
foot of Monte Bignone, an hour from this. 

^m H. 

^H 8an Remo. 

H Li, 


£iPM and Acj/o«/ji of the Ewjlinh liiiihopM and Kiiw, 

Meditrial .VonAvt, and olhtr Later Saintii. By 

Mrs. Arthur Bell. (Bell & Soiia.) 
With tlii« handsome, finely illustrated, and intor- 

ing volume Mrs. Arthur Bell completes what 
may perhaps be called hor trilogy on " The h>ainta 
in Christian Art." Previous volumes of the same 
series were duly noted in 'N. & Q.'— 'Lives and 
Legends of the Evangelists, Apostles, and other 
Early Saints," O'" ts. ix. 339, and ' Lives and LoKetids 
of the Great Hermits and Fathers of the Church.' 
O'*" iS. xi. 99. .Special intere.«t is ofTerwl to English 
readers by this third and concluding i>ortian, seeing 
that the number of Anglo-Saxons who, during the 
period dealt with, have been admitted to the 
celestial hierarchy is exceptionally large. It is to 
be regretted, as Mrs. Boll points out, that there are 
but few works of art in which they are introduced, 
the blame for this stale of things being due, not 
only to the iguoranco prevailing, among the great 
European i^inters, concerning llie heroea and mar- 
tyrs of Britain, "divided from all the world,"' but also 
" to a gre-at extent to the rulhlesa destruction after 
the Reformation of all that could recall the memory 
of the men who had upheld the rights of the 
Church." The volume opens with an account of 
the early Binhojis of Canterbury, first of all coming, 
naturally, ^>t. Augustine, of whom a long account 
ia given. Lives follow of JSt. Paulinus, the first 
Bisiiop of York ; St. Edwin, the tirat ChriEtian 
King of Northurobria; St. Oswald; and St. Aidan. 
Forrt Madox Brown's picture of' The Baptism of 
St. Edwin by St. Oswald" ia the tirst illustration in 
the volume after the frontispiece, which presents 
' The Coronation of the Virgin,' with Sainta Francis, 
Dominic, Antony of Padua, BonaveiUure, Peter 
Martyr, and Thomas A<]uina8, by Fra Angelico. 
Another Engli.oh picture which follows is that 
from a window in Christchurch, Oxford, presenting 
* St. Frideswidf" in the Swineherd's Hut." 'St. Editli 
of Polcsworth reproving Two of her Nuns' is also 
by Ford Madox Brown. Vet other English designs 
are from a window in St. Neot's pariiih church, 
Cornwall, and from a MS. in the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford. The last -mentioned, which ia striking, 
■howa a very small St. Dunst.'vn at the feet of a 
ooloual Christ. When we conio to the later por- 
tions of the book, the designs are from Andrea del 
Sarto, Oioito. Donatello, Sodoma, Fra Angelico, ' 
Filippo Lippi, Pacchiarollo, Pinturiochio, Murillo, ' 
and others whose works adorn the previous ; 
volumes. We may not enter further into the con- 
tents of the book, (lut mutt congratulate Mrs. Bell 
n[>on her successful and earnestly accomplished i 
task. To have produced within little more than a 

couple of years three volumes ench aa those she baa 
given to the world is no aniall accomplishment, and 
proves the whole to be a labour of love. As in moat 
modern work, the criticism remains enlightened, 
and sight is not lost of the fact that some sainta 
are obscure and aome legends apocryphal. In addi- 
tion to the learning displayed, however, the text 
is informed by a spirit of faith and devotion. 

John Drydrn. Edited by George Saintsbury. 2 vols. 

(Fisher Unwin.) 
To the "Mermaid Series" of Mr. Fisher Unwin 
lias been added a selection of the best plays of 
Dryden. If there is a dramatist whom we are con- 
tent to accept in such a form it is surely Dryden, 
who at his beat, as in ' All for Love'— which, as he 
Bays, " he wrote for himself "—approximates Shake- 
speare, and at his worst, aa in ' Limbethani, 'comes 
in indecency not far short of Wycherley. Of 'The 
Conquest of (^Jranada,' in two ywirts, .Tohnson says : 
"The scenes are for the most part delightful ; they 
exhibit a kind of illuatriouH depravity and majestio 
madness." ' Aurengzebc,' in the prologue to which 
Dryden owns that he begina to grow aick of his 
long-loved mistress Rhyme, is perhaps the best of 
hta so-called hcroic^I tragediea. ' Marriage h. la 
Mode' haa some excellent comic scenes and a love 
song of extreme indelicacy. 'The .Spanish Friar' 
was conotantly acted till near the close of the 
eighteenth century. In 'Don Sebastian' .Johnson 
rather quaintly praises " sallies of frantic dignity." 
These plays, with 'All for Love' and the opera of 
' Albion and Albanius,' constitute a judicious selec- 
tion. Mr. Saintabnry's introduction and notes are 
excellent. l>ryden'a plays, apart from collected 
editions of his works, are not easily accessible. 
We remember more than half a century ago pur- 
chasing them in two folio volumes, now scarce. 
A more convenient edition, in G vols. l'2mo, with 
plates by Gravelot, was issued by J. A. R. Tonaon 
in 17C2. This, though not high priced, ia also un- 
common. The reprint is, accordingly, iudicioua. 
Many of the other plays are curious, the altera- 
tions from Shakespeare doing Dryden little credit. 
Portraits of Dryden and Noll Gwyn accompany the 
present work. 

TirE Engli*h Jlintorical Rt.vitio contains an inter- 
esting article on Clarendon's 'History' by Mr. 
C. H. Firth. The net result is very much to 
Clarendon's credit, for it testitiea to his extreme 
desire to find out the facta, and, though so one 
ever denied the bias with which he write*, tbia 
investigation shows how far removed he was iron 
being a mere liar, as Prof. Thorold Rogers thought 
bim. On the eternal question of hides and virgates 
we have a note from Mr. Salzman controverting 
the views of Prof. Tait. Dr. James Gairdner prints 
an abstract of Bishop Hooper's 'Visitation of 
Gloucester.' The reviews are dull and unimi>orlant, 
the notice of the American volume of the ' Cam- 
bridge History ' being meagre. 

TflOSK given to exaggeration hove been known to 
liken folk-lore to the contents of an eighteenth- 
century museum, ma<le up of a collection of curio- 
sities— here a stuffed tiger, there a few isToaxu 
celts. M ilh a charter of Htury II. in close proximity 
to a Whitby "snako stone" and an African war- 
club. Tlierc is wihl exaggeration in this, but some 
truth lies at the Vjottom. It is yet tix) early to 
classify the facta of this new sciencA va.^^vi>*>i«i^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no-* s. l fkb. 20, 190l 

likolory to tho«e who are apt to become con! ased 
whcij they cannot fiad all the fraernentB of the 
knowledge they seek arranged in orderly sequence, 
a«, for example, in a treatise on astronomy, 
ijuoh people must wait patiently. Oar first duty 
is to garner facts. The time for olassification ie not 
yeU Some valuable attempts have, however, been 
made, which, though they may call for revision as 
time goes on, have laid a sound foundation for the 
ontworka. ' The Folk-lore of Human Life,' in the 
Edinhurgh Rtckw for January, is one of these. 
We cannot apeak of it too hignly if we bear in 
inind that the facts at present amassed are not 
exhaustive iu any one airection. It is possible 
—many scholars, indeed, think highly probable — 
that some of the folk-lore that has cf>me down to 
us is the earliest rolic of the human race we possess, 
-older by untold generations than auy palwoUthic 
implement or bone-scratched picture to be found in 
the richest of our collections. However this mav 
be, it is certain that there are ideas which still 
remain imbedded as fossils in human thought which 
-are so remote in their origin as to have become 
dispersed, in sliffhlly varying forms, throunhout 
almost the whole of the families of mankind. 
When, for example, <iid I ho s]iriog and autumn 
festivals originate? Were lliey established in 
^honour of gods now unworahipped, or did they 
originate ages Iwforo savsire man had pvolved a 
<x>herent thciatio belief? l)id they indeed furnish 
in some way or other uno of the factors that safe- 
guarded the dawnings of primeval faith ? The May- 
pole yet exists in some few of our parishes, and 
May-games are happily not forxotton ; they indicate, 
.as the writer fioints out, "that the road beneath 
our feet was trodden by otiier May-keepers who«e 
symbols are now but relics, their sense forgotten 
and out of mind. Heathendom is with ua still; it 
walks incognito, but the domino w threadbare 
which niaaka its features." The reviewer does not 
point out that the M ay Day or M artinmas house 
cleanings which oocur with riKid uniformity are 
also survivals of the spriug and autumn festivals 
which, however old they may be, assuredly come 
down to us from remote antiquity. Housewives 
now explain them on strictly "common-sense" 
principles, which would have done honour to the 
most ardent of the utilitarians regardint? whom 
iiir Leslie Stephen has discoursed to us ; but it is 
evident that those who search for origins will have 
to go back to a state of mind parallel with that 
which impels the bird to build its nest. 'Some 
Aspects of Modern Geolog)'' contains little that 
will be new to the serious student of the science, 
but even the writer must have been compelled to 
glean good part of what he knows from the trans- 
autiuns of learned societies or from books which are 
avoided with equal care by the many who have an 
antipathy for all reading whicli compels thought. 
The essayist writes with becomiuK caution. He is 
never contemptuous of opinions which differ from 
liiH own. Tlie idea that vast catastro])he8 were not 
infreiiuent in remote Kcological timo has revived of 
late. Wo are glad to nnd, however, that this writer 
sees no reason for accepting it. Whatever may 
liave been the state of our planet when life did not 
«xi3t thereon, he believes that from the |)eriod when 
orRanized creatures, even in their lowest forms, 
<jame into being there is "no suggestion of cata- 
clysms or abnormal tides, or. in fact, of conditions 
materially dilTerent from those which now obtain." 
The pajwr on Galileo is well worth reading. So 

much nonaeoBo has been written on the subject 
that it is cheering to have his life discussed by a 
competent person who does not hold a brief either 
for the old or the new theology. Cialileo was a, 
mathematician and scientist as well as a hard 
worker, and is therefore worthy of admiration. 
Had he been more circumspect and Ics^i given to 
irritating those in power it would have been far 
better. The luper on 'Jacobite Songs' is inter- 
esting, but we wish that the writer had noted the 
earliest appearance of each one of tliem. We do 
not call IQ question the genuineness of any. but 
there are others, more sceptical than ourselves, who. 
we feel sure, will cherish doubts. It is not easy to 
understand how so much good verso could be pro- 
duced by the adherents of the fallen dynasty at 
a time when most other song- writers were turning 
out such arrant rubbish. There are articles on 
'Franciscan Literature ' and on 'Kobert Herrick' 
which will interest our readers. 

M. Lotns TnoMA.^ is brijiging out an edition of 
Chateaubriand's corresiiondence and would be much 
obliged if any one would give him information on 
this subject. As Chateaubriand stayed iu England 
on several occasions, M. Thomas nresumea that 
some at least of his letters must be iu the po<- 
session of Koelish amateurs. Copies of any of these 
will be glaalv received by M. Louis Thomas, 
26, Rue Vital, "Paris (XVI,). 

Wb hear with much pleasure that a fourth 
volume of the ' Catalogue of Early Eoglisli Printed 
Books in the University Library, Cambridge,' re- 
viewed aiiii, p. 13H, is in the press, and will supply 
the index for which we askeu. 

%oiitti ia €axxt%TginiSst\\ii. 

We mtut eeUl tp«eicU tUterUion to the /oHotoivfi 
nodcea : — 

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which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
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"Archbishop Wrangham " read ./I i'cA</f aeon Wrang- 
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Lane. E.C. 

io*8.i.FKii.a),i9w.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 




Last Week's ATHENiEUM contains Articles on 



NEW NOVELS :— My Friend Proepero ; The Mark ; Four Red Roses ; Love's QhoBt, and " Le Glaive " ; 


OUR LIBRARY TABLE :- A Life of Oulram ; Real Con veraaiions ; Debrett's House of CotnmoDfl and 
L the Judicial Bench ; Dod's ParliameDtar}- Companion ; Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landed^ 

I and Official Classed ; With Ella and his Friends; From Ottcrj to Highgatc i Getting n Living; 

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Performances Next, Week. 
DRAMA:— Gossip. 

The ATHEN^UM for February 6 contains Articles on 





NBW NOVELS:— Through Sorrow's Gates; Remembrance; The Dule Tree of Cassillis; A Crimloal 
Ciresus ; Les Amours de Li Ta Tchou. 


OOH LIBRARY TABLE: — Lord Avebury's Essays and Addresses; Memoirs of Mrs. rickeriog; A Life 
of Chamberlain ; A History of Modern England ; The Pilgrim's Progress, illustrated by Cruik- 
shank ; Religious Freedom in America; Catalogue of Parliamentary Papers ; John Bull's Adven- 
tures in the Fiscal Wonderland ; Free Trade and the Empire ; Almanach deb Gourmands ; 
Reprints ; The British Journal of Psychology. 


literary GOSSIP. 
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JOHN C, FRANCIS Atbenieum Office. Bream's Buildings, Cbanoery Laae. S.O. 

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Last Week s ATHEN^TTM contains Arbcles on 



JHEW NOVELS:— A Magdalen's Bubacd ; Stella Tregeliua ; The American Priaoner; Kitty C^oetello; 
The HiBC of Ruderick Giowd ; The Kingdoms of this World ; The Sirdar's Oath ; The Captain's 
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10* 9rf. Feb. 27. 190L] NOTES AND ^uSblES. 



NOTES:— 'Hew Am«l<rdam '— Stinkeipeftriaaa, 161— Bor- 
ton'i 'Aoatomr of Melaocbolj,' 1)53— Tb« BoKllsfa In 
Pmnoe— Sir T. Wvatfs Kiddle, l^l — CruolUx »t Old 
St. P»ur«— Cbic««o In 1853-A Rello of Ch*te«ubriikm1, 
165 — TeiinjBOn on Britain — Februa/^ .■*>—' KichoUa 
JJUsklebr': Capt. Cuttle — SkelUl B«ll : Hurt Bell — Our 
OldMl Pabllc School, ltS6— ' The Trua lletbodlst,' 167. 

QUBBIBS :— " Xbe Crown and Tbre« Sugar Loavea "— " He 
who baovtrs not "— Bleanor Mapletoft, IS?— Author* of 
Quotaliooi- Arini of Obeut. 168 — * Lord Baleman and bit 
Sophia' — Dorietabire Snake-lore— Heai Oreaa: Serseanta' 
Saabea- Armiof LIuootn— Ii OolfScandlnarlao 'f—'Cunitr: 
OanaJetto, 168— " Cbevlnier "— Quide to Manor BoIU— 
Begicidea of Gbarle* I. — Bgwton-Warburton — Ancient 
Britoni— " fiellamv'a "— " Drab " Bubble* — Immortality 
of Animal*- Januifca Newipaper, 16ii. 

itEPUBS : — NeU>n'B SUter Anne — Curious OhrijtUn 
Namea, 170— French Mininture Palnt«r— "MemolrB of a 
Stooiacb,' i: I — " Papfr* " — Fannell — AvUbam Cloth— 
Bobin s Bobbin- Uobert Cate«by-Cfariiitmaatlde Folk- 
lore, 17a — Court Fo«t« under Stuart Kingi- Namelcfti 
Graveatone — Bntromc — ** DIatirea*! " — BiblloKrapby of 
Bpitapbs. 173 -at. PntrlcV at Orvieio-Keixn nf Terror— 
"Acprt-atlve" — Trial of Queen CiiroJine — The Cope — 
Cliauoerlana- General St«wart'* Portrait, 174— Anatumle 
Viva'ite— Peculiars— ** FInt cat«b your bMv "— Bnvclopei 
—"Prior to"— Moon Folk-lore, lIS-Halelgh : lU Pronun- 
ciation -SmotberinK Hydrophobio PaUentd- Tea oa a 
Mnal- Chlneae Qboata, 170— Dolores, Mu»loal Compoaer— 
Marlborough aiii) 8bakc«p«are. 177. 

N0TB8 on BOOKS :-' Or«at HMtera'-'HlemrglaADgU- 
cana'— 'Quarterl,v Review.' 

Death of Oapt, Thorue George. 

Bopkaellen' Qataloguet, 

NoUoea to Oorreapoo'leuU. 




^^^P (8ee a)Ue, p. 58.) 

^ Is your notice of my work on 

^B Amsterdam,' «S:c., I observe that you 

^V inadvertently confounded the so-called Jastu.^ 

^ Daackcrs view of I0&(), at the frontispiece of 

the book, with tlie " Hartgere view^" of about 

1630, at p. '2 of the work, in stating that I 

claim to have discovered that> it was originally 

printed in a reversed form. As it stands 

that would be an entirely untenable claim, 

and if not corrected it will be quite likely to 

draw out adverse comment from this side of 

the water. 

Both the Dauckers view and the earlier 
Hartgers view wore undoubtedly taken by 
means of a camera obscura, which instrunient 
had been recently introduced into draughting 
operations at that period. This instrument, 
wlien unprovided with supplementary lenses, 
or with a reflecting mirror, takes in a reversed 
form, as is well known. 

Now as to the Dauckers view, I have the 
etching in its reversed or original form (the 
only print of the kind that I nave ever seen, 
although I have paid considerable attention 
to the subject), but I know that this view 
had been printed in proper form almost a 

century ago. The explanation of this is that 
the view of 1650 contains well-known land- 
marks, and a person with the least know- 
ledge of the tojwgraphy of the town could 
see at a glance that something was wronj; 
with the view, and a little examination would 
sufKce to .show what the difiiculty was. 

With the Hartgers view, however, the case 
was different, and this was the view which 
I claim to have first placed in proper form. 
There can be little doubt that this was a 
mere engineer's sketch, to show the plan of 
the fort, and must have been made about 
1628-30. At this time there were no land- 
marks which could be recognized without 
very intimate ac<}uaintance with the localities. 
The peculiar position of the fort, upon a point 
of land with a river on each side of it, was 
the cause that the reversed view did not 
present an intrinsically abijurd appearance ; 
and consequently, though every one saw that 
there was sometning strange about the view, 
this was usually ascribed l)y writers to the 
unskilfulness in drawing of our ancestors. 
Hartgers, in publishing his 'Beschrijvingh 
van Virginia' in 1651, had found the view 
somewhere and inserted it just as it was. 

Writers on the subject of the views of 
New Amsterdam, of whom there have been 
several, have taken the date of Hartgers' 
work as the period of the view, although the 
least knowledge of the conditions existing 
at that time would appear to have been suffi- 
cient to have prevented them from doing so. 
In their comments upon this view none of 
them appears to have had any suspicion that 
the view was not in proper form. People 
who did not claim to be original investigators 
made still worse work of it. As the nuild- 
ingrn, which were mostly upon the east or 
right hand looking towards the fort, appear 
in the original to bo upon the left hand 
or west, one or two popular writers have 
announced that there stood the first bouses 
in New Amsterdam, and there has actually 
been a tablet put up upon a building in that 
vicinity to the above 69*601, without appa- 
rently a scintilla of other evidence— a disgrace 
to the city. J. H. Imubs. 
New York. 

" Pkbnzie " LN * Measobe for Measdre.'— 
For more than fifty years the mystery of the 
presence of this apparently meaningless 
word in a famous passage in ' Measure for 
Measure' (Act III. sc. i.) has been from time 
to time a subject of debate in the columns 
of 'N. &Q.,' but with no absolutely decisive 
result. (See 1" S. iii. 401, 454, 489^52a •, v* ,W^ 


NOTES ANI) QUERIES. iw* ^5. l feil*?. \»l 

63, 135, «{^iMam.) On the sappcwition- » mip- 
p<Mition which I think m«.y be taken m estao- 
liiihed, in opite of an able attempt to coinbat 
it (8'^'' S. ii. a03j— that the word, as it ai>pears 
in tho Firj«t Folio vemjon of the play, in the 
printer's incorrect reiuiering of Home iiiegible 
r)r'"'«"i MtrioUH words have been suggested 
i to lime as that pomible onginal, 

ua... .-..ported by much force and ingenuity 
oi argument by itn particular sugji^ter. 
Of the«o those which have obtaine<i the 
grcatent roeature of support are (see 
references given above) princely" — the 
one adopted in the Second Folio, and, I 
believe, in most, if not all, copies of the text 
Bince that time — "priojstlyi" "preciae," 
"prirozie," and "saintly." As no one of 
thc^e has succeeded in obtaining general 
acceptance, it may seem presumptaoas at 
this time of day to propose another : but, at 
the ri^k of adding to the Hot of failures, I 
will venture to do so. The word I would 
HUggent U "seemly," or, as it would at the 
date of tho play probably be written, 
"•eeraelie." and, substituting thia word for 
" prenzie in the text of the First Folio 
instead of "princely," I would have tho 
passage where that word occurs run thus: — 
Clawl. The «<'tffiiHi7 Aoaelo* 

Inah, 0, 'tis the cunning livery of hell, 

'J'he dftnined'Ht body lo invest and cover 

In acemly guards ! 

and leave the propriety of the alteration to 
tho judgment of your readers. It seems to 
Mio (thoiiKh that is nothing) that the passage 
thuH roan conveys the exact meaning of the 
dramatist. The introtluction of trie word 
"precise" had also this merit, according to 
the almost common consent of your quondam 
corroHpondents (see references above) ^ but it 
wn.s oi)on to the fatal objection of vitiating 
th(« metre. Tlie word I have chosen avoids 
thi«t, whilst being, in my opinion, equally 
iiTHirtipiiate tu the sense, it not more so ; and, 
if it Wlv ubjeot/od to it that it presents little 
slmiliirity in form to the imitative printer's 
word "," I would urge that this is 
only so at tin- first glutice, for. written as it 
would ho in the chiiractorH of trie period, with 
the elongated initiHl g (easilv mistaken for n 
;>), it would be found, f think, t-o come nearer 
to it in appearance than any other of the 
words suggested. John IIutcuinson. 

Middlu I'lMnitlt' Libmry. 

"MiCHINO MALUCHO" (0^'' 9. Xl. 604).— 

Mr. Hichard W. Hill. Stocklinch, llminster, 
has put Iwforo me a conjecture which 
occurred tohimuixm reading 'Westwanl Ho,' 
chap, xviii., in which Kingsley, apparently 
making a transcript from Uakluyt, writes: 

"We caagbt a 9e«-cow full seven feet 

long the Indiana call her manati ; who 

carries her young noder her arm and gives 

it sock like a woman," iec Mr. Hul M 

inclined to regard "uauaii" as another 

I form of " manito," the name of the Indian 

' spirit, which was conferred upon the sea.- 

monster in question by reason of its evil 

propensities, nnd he thinks that, if this be 

I so, "miching" might be founa to bo a 

. corruption of " milcTuDg," the meaning of Uie 

' doubtful expreiision thus becoming "milching 

j manati," it., performing a very ticklisu 

operation. V. St. Claq Maokbszik. 

Draosconibe, Dorkioft- 

♦ The WnfTER'a Tale,' III. ii. 80-5.— 

My life stands in the level of your dreams, 
\\ nich I 'W lay down. 

Rolfe : " ily life is at the mercy of your 
suspicions, which are like the 'baseless 
fabric ' of a dream." 

Furneas : *' Whencesoever the metaphor, 
I think that * in ' is here equivalent simply 
to on. ' You speak,' says Hermione, * a lan- 
guage I understand not : my life.— the action* 
you impute to me, — and your dreams are ou 
a level.' That this is the meaning is con- 
firmed, I think, by the intense scorn witU 
which Leontos repeats almost her very words: 
' Your actions are my draxiM ! I dreain'd 
you had a bastard ! ' " 

I cannot think that Furnesa is happy in 
this conjecture, llermione's (mode of) life, 
the actions Leontes imputes to her, and his 
dreams can hardly be spoken of as standing 
on the same level, for, under this explanation, 
they are one and tho same thing ; her sup- 
posed actions have no existence except in his 
dreams, of which they form the sunstancc. 
If there could be any doubt that " My life 
stands in the level of your dreams" means 
"My life is at the mercy of your suspicious," 
I should think it would be dtspellea by thfr 
next clause, " Which I '11 lay down,'' confirm- 
ing, as it does, the thought of something 
endangering her life, ^^'lthout such ante- 
cedent thought the statement would be un- 
called for ; but in this connexion it naturally 
follow.?—" which I'll (therefore) lay down." 
This clause also shows that "life,*^ as here 
used, means not mode, manner, or course of 
living, but existence a.s a living being. A» 
for Leon tes's reply, he naturally fi>'^< "d at 
tho word " dream.s, ' and emphati< : (.<* 

that his opinion is not a baseless ; , , mt 
is founfledf OQ fact — on the queen's actions. 
E. Meeton Dev. 

'The Winter's Tale,' III. ii. 87-02.— Hud- 
son says of the phrase "like to itaelf," "I 


10^" 8. 1. Fkii. 27, loot] 



can make nothing of it; whereas 'fe/t to 
itself expresses tlie actual fact rightly. TJie 
correction i*> Keightley's." The meaning 
seeras to be that the babe has been physicallj- 
cast out^ as corresponding to the position 
which a natural child occupies in the world — 
socially an outcast, no father owning it. 

E. Mkuton Dey. 
8t. Louis. 

••A VERY, VEitY p.uocK." ' Hamlet,' III. ii. 
278.— I think the following passage gives us 
the word "pajock ' with a different spelling. 
It ia probably an onomatopeic representation 
of the cry of the peacock. The passage is 
from Sir ,Tohn Harington's ' Ulysses upon 
Ajax,' 1596 (Chiswick reprint, p. 41) :— 

*• NVho livelh, of any reading (were he content to 
snrfeit in hLs folly), that witTi Aretine could not 
talk of Xanna, with auother [Elderton?] of a red 
nose, with Periere^ of » pye and Piaux? I have 
Been an oration made in praUe of a college custard, 

and commending a goose." 

" Perieros " is, I Huppose, Pereira, a Spanish 
physician, who wrote (in the middle of the 
sixteenth century) a great deal about the 
souls uf beasts and their transmigration, in 
which he did not believe. Of course " Piaux " 
may have some other meaning altogether, 
may even 1» a proper name, then I am wholly 
wrong. But it seem.s to me to stand for 
H peacock. H. Uhicbestec Hart. 


■ "s 
^ Pa 



(See g*" 8, xi. m, ^2, 263. 322. 441 ; xii. 2, 62, 
102. 301, 362, «2 ; 10"' 8. i. 42.) 

Vol. i. (Shilleto). p. 30, 1. 21 ; 18, 1. I3{ed. G), 
"secundum magis & mijius." Cf. Bac, ' Nov. 

Tg,," ii, 13, init. 

P. 43, u. 4 ; 20, u.q, " Uegula natune.'' See 

_jps., 'Man. ad Stoic. Phil.,' i. 4, where 
" Aristoteles est Regula et exemplar, quod 
Natura invenit ad demonstrandam Ultimam 
Perfectionem humanam " is quoted from 
Averroes, in iii. 'De Anima '—Ihid.y "dtemo- 
nium hominis." See Lips., ' Ep. Qurest.,' iii. aci. 
P. 43, 1. 19 ; 2<), 33, " raerito cui doctior 
orbis," «ke. ; in my last paper 1 should ,have 
added that Lip.sins's anonymous quotation is 
from Florens Christianus. II. 3."^, 36, of verses 
on Scaliger's edition of Catullus, Tibullus. 
and Propertius (' Del. Poot. Gall.,' i. 802, and 
at beginning of Scaliger's 'Cat., Tib, and 

Prop.,' 1600). That Barton took it from 

Lipsius in shown by imrito, which is Lipsius'g 


P. 59, n. I ; 30, ii. ft» "Diet. Cretens." No ; 

Pares Phrygian, 44. 
P. 60. n. 8 ; 31, n. p, " Lucan." Lucan, x. 407, 

has Hulla^ not ram, wmX pkuif^ not jyrobitas. 

P. 63, n. r>; 32, n. b, "Eobanus Hessus.^ 
' De "\''ictoria Wirterabergensi,' 451-3, p. 71(> 
in 1564 (Frankfort) ed. of his 'Op. Farra- 
gines Duie.' 

P. 64, 1. 12 ; 3.3, 12, "as wise Seneca cen- 
sures him" ['Benef.,' II. xvi. i: the ref. to 
II. i. (n. 2 ,- n. d) is wrong]. N. 2 : n. d. "Idem 
Lactftntius" [' Inst.,' I. xviii. \2\—Ibid.^ km- 
mianus, lib. 23 [XXIII. vi. 44]. 

P. 65, 1. 4 ; 33, 33, " So Africanus is extolled 
bv- Ennius. " See Lact., I. xviii. 11 : Sen.. 
Ep. 108, 34. 

P. 65, n. 2 ; 33, n. k, " Herculi eadem porta 
adcalum patuit,qui magnam generis humanv 
partem perdidit.' Lact., I. xviii. 13, where 
"nam et Herculi eadem ista porta patuit" 
ia quoted from Cicero (Librorura de II, P 
incertor. Frag. 6, iu C. F. W. Miiller) ; and 
I. xviii. 11. 

P. 65, J. 9; 33, 37, "as Lactautius truly 
proves." I. ix. as regards Hercules, and I. x. 4 
as regards Mars. 

P. 65, 1. 22 ; 34, 3, " as Cyprian notes." 
' Ad Donat.,' vi. 

P. 67, n. 2 ; 34, n. 1, " ut reus innocons 
{lereat, fit nocens. Judex damnat foras, quod 
mtus operatur." The punctuation is wrong- 
" Ut reus innocens pereat, fit nocens iudex," 
is from ch. x., and "damnant foris quod> 
intus oi)erontur" from ch. ix. of the epistle. 

P. 67, I. 6 : 34, 46, "eundcra furtum facere 
«t puuire." The passage in Sidoniua is Ep. II, 
i. 2, " noD cessat simul furta vel puniro ve) 

P. 70, 1. 2; 36, 25, "virtue (that's bonum 
theatmle)." Bacon, ' Col. of Good and Evil,' 3, 
" and therefore they call vertuo Bonum 

P. 71, n. 3 ; 37, n. e, "Arridere homines ut 
steviant, blandiri ut fallant, Cyp. arl Dona- 
tum." C. xiii., "arridet ut sieviat, blauditur 
ut fallat." 

P. 72, n. 9; 38. n. *, "acres indulgent." 

•See the passage from Aurelius Victor, Epit. i. 
(c. 24), referred to just below. 

P. 74, I. 1 ; 38, 40, "If every man had a 
window in his breast, which Momus would 
have had in Vulcan's man." Lucian, 'Hermo- 
timus,' 20. 
P. 74, 1.3; 38, 41, "Tally." 'In Cat.,' i. 32, 
P. 74, n. 3 ; 39, n. y. The chapter of the 
epistle is ix. 

P. 74, n. 6 : 39, n. z. The § of lib. i. of 
Martianus Capella is 68 (Kopp) ; p. 18, 

P. 76. n, i; 40; Q- k, "Prosper." Epigr. 
100 (97), 1, 2 ; vol. Ii. col. 529, in Migne's 
'Patrolog. Lat.' 

P. 76, 1. 14; 40, 12, "Hippocrates, in hia 
Epistle to Dionysius." Epist. xiii. 3. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [lO"- s. l fkb. 27, iqol 

. 82, n. 3 ; 43, n. p, " iniuria in sapient«m 
cadit." Sen., 'Dial ' ii. 7, 2, "iniuria in 

P. 76, 1. 30 ; 40, 26, " which one calU nuixi' 
mutn itultitioe ijiecivten." Apuleius, 'Florida,' 
i. 3. The reference i. 2, which Shilleto adds 
to Florid. (77. n, 2 ; 40, n. *), should be L 3 
(p. 13, Oud. ; p. 4, G. KriigerV 

P. 78, 1. 22 ; 41, 24, "bray him in a mortar, 

"he will be the same." See Proverbs xxviL 22. 

P. 80, n. 4; 42, n .*, "Plutarchus Solone": 4, 

P. 80. 1. 25 ; 44, 33, " by Plato's good leave," 

• Phil.,' 36, r)9E-60A. 

P. 80, 1. 34 ; 42, 41, " nemo nuttus qui non 
shiltut, 'tis Fabius' aphorism to the same 
end." Quintil., ' Inst.,' xii. 1, 4. 

P. 82, I. 5 ; 43. 23, "out of au old Poem." 
The 'Hypsipyle' of Euripides; Frag. 757 

P. 82 
sapientem virum non cadit." 

P. 83, n. 3 ; 44, u. b, " Ep. Damageto " 
tHippocr. Ep. xiv. 3] ; n. 4 ; n. c [Ep. xiv. 4]. 
P. 83, n. 5; 44, n. d, "per multum risum 
poteris cognoscere stultum." Rimm and 
mvltuvi should be transposed. "This leonine 
hexameter, with debet for jx/teris, is quoted 
in Binder's 'Nov. Thes. Adag. Latin,' from 
Gartner's 'Proverbialia Dicteria' (1574). 

P. 84, 1. 19; 44, 48, "to keep Homer's 
works." Pliny, 'N.H.,' vii. 29, 108 ; Plutarch, 
' Alexand.,' 44. 

P. 84, 1. 20; 45, 1, "Scaliger upbraids 
Homer's Muse, nutnctm insanae supientics." 
J. C. Scaliger's remark : see his son's Confut. ' 
Fab. Burd.,' p. 201, •Opusc.,' Pt. II. (1012). 
Burton's marginal note is " Hypocrit." Was 
he thinking of bk. vi., ' Hypercriticus,' of 
fJcaliger's 'Poettce,' cap. vii., where, in criti- 
cizing Hor., 'Epist.,' i. 2, Scaliger says, "quia 
enim dicat Horaeri nugas ease potiores prte- 
•ceptis philosophorum"! 

P. 84, n. ; 45 n. 6, " ut mulier auHca 
nullius pudons." For this remark of J. C 
•Scaliger see ' Confut.,' loc. cit. 

p. 84, 1. 24; 45, 4. "Scaliger rejects him 

[Lucian] and calls him the Cerberus of 

the Muses." J. C. Scaliger again ; see ' Con- 
fut,' ad fin. (p. 202), " Qalonura fimbriam 
Hippocrates" (see Burton, 85, 1. 4; 45, 15) 
occurs immediately after this in the ' Confut.' 
p. 84, 1. 30; 45, 9, "Cardan, in his 16th 
"Book of ' Subtleties,' reckons up twelve super- 
eminent, acute Philosophers." See pp. 802-4 
of the 1582 (Basel) edition of ' De Subtil." 
Edwabd Bensly, 
Tho University. Adelaide, South Australia. 
(Toht continued.) 

Tbe Enoush is France,— I may note a 
curious trace of the English rule in France, 
which I have just come across in the Vienna 

Nnti FreU Presse of 10 January. M. Combee, 
the present Prime Minister of France, in tbe 
course of an interview, mentions that he first 
met his wife on the " Boulingrin " (the prin- 
cipal promenade) of Pons, a small town in the 
Cnarente. The " Boulingrin " at Rouen, near 
Joan of Arc's prison, is well known. It would 
be interesting to note similar relics of the 
English rule to be found elsewhere in France. 
I can only recollect the bosses in the roof of 
the cathedral at Bayonne with the arms of 
Henry VL H. 2. 

Sir Thomas Wvatt's Kiddle.— In Robert 
Bell's edition of this poet's works there is a 
piece infelicitously entitled 'Description of 
a Gun,' which runs as follows :— 

Vulcan begat nte ; Minervk me taught : 

Nature my njother; oraft nouriahod ine year by 

Three bodiea are my food ; my strcnstli is in noueht ; 
Anger, wrath, waste, tud noiae are my children 

ti uess, friend, what I am. and how I am wtt>ught. 
Monster of sea, or of land, or of eUewhere : 

Know mo, and use rae, and I may thee defend : 

And, if I be thine enemy, 1 may thy life end. 

We are informed in a note that "In the 
Harrington MS. these lines are entitled, 'A 
Riddle ex Paudulpho ' " ; but who Pandulpbus 
was we are not told, nor have I been able to 
discover, but the original of Wyatt's first 
four lines is quoted in Camden's * llemainee' 
in his chapter on 'Artillarie,' where he 
writes : — 

"The best approved Authors agree that they 
[Kunsl were invented in Germanie by Berthold 
Swarte, a Monke skillful in Gebers Cookery or 
Aluhiniy, who, temperini; Brimstone and Saltpeter 
in a raorter, perceived the force by castinc up the 
stone which covered it, when a sparke fell into it. 
Butoneeaith he consulted with the divell for an 
offensive weapon, who gave him answer in this 
obscure Oracle :— 
ValcanuB gi((nat, pariat Natura, Minerva 

Edoceat, nutrix arc erit atque dies. 
Vis mea de nibilo, tria dent mihi corpora paatuni : 

Sunt Bobolea atrages, vis, furor, atque fr&gor. 
By this instruction he made a trunek of yron 
with learned advice, crammed it with sulphore, 
bullet, and, putting thereto fire, found the effoof 
to bee destruction, violence, fury, and roari: 

Tho old writer, who penned these words three 
centuries ago this very year, furnishes tbe 
vaguest authority for his remarkable state- 
mentaboutSchwarz'sdealings with his Satanic 
m^sty, whose tetrastich is certainly superior 
to Wyatt's octave in point of finish. Polydore 
Virgil, in his book 'De Rerum Inventor'ibus,' 
lib. ii. cap. xi., relates pretty much tho 
same story, but he gives no name, and merely 
declares the discoverer to have been " a Ger- 

10*8.1. Feb. 27. IflW.l 







-. -.. - ---- a . , 

vKxlum tQitofjilan), nor does he in this place 
su^^&st any diabolic prompting. In Ho. iii. 
xnii. it is true he saj's that he scarcely can 
believe it to be a human invention, but that 
some demon must have revealed it to man- 
kind, BO that they might fight each other 
not only with arms, but with thunderbolts. 
Still, though some of Camden's language is 
traceable to this volume, I am inclined to 
think he borrowed much of hia chapter from 
a later writer. " One writeth," he says, 
" I know not upon whose credit, that Roger Bacon, 
commonly called Frier Bacon, knew to make an 
engine, which with Saltpeter and Briuutone should 
prove notAble for batterie, but he tendring the 
safety of niaukind would not discover it." 

In the margin the name of " Sir I. Harrington" 
is given as authority, and I take it that the 
other quotation, in which the oracle is found, 
is also from his pen. Can an}' one furnish us 
with an account of " the Harrington MS." ? 

Crucifix at the North Door of Old 
St. Paul's.— In Old St. Paul's one of the 
objects most reverenced was the crucifix 
near to the Great North Door. Canon 
Sparrow Simpson gave some notes about it 
in 'Documents illustrating the History of 
St. Paul's Cathedral,' Camden Soc, N.S., 
xxvi. p. Ixvii. The following proofs of its 
widespread fame would have delighted him. 

In l.'lT'i Robert de Auathorpe, clerk, rector 
of St. John's, " Staneford," in the diocese of 
Lincoln, desired " to be buried in St. Paul's 
Church, London, before the cross and image 
of the crucifix at the North Door" (Gibbons, 
'Early Lincoln Wills,' 1888, p. 26). 

In 1472 William Ecopp, rector of Heslerton, 
East Yorkshire, desired that immediately 
after his burial a pilgrim should go for him 
" Crucifixo apud hostium boriale Sancti Pauli 
London." (' Test. Ebor.,' iii 200). 

In 1498 La<iy Scrope left " to the roode of 
Northdor my herte or goolde w-' a dyaraaunt 
in the midds" ('Test. Ebor.' iv. 153). It 
«eems to have been so well known that it 
VM unDocessarr to add the place. 

W. C. B. 

Chicaqo in 1853. — "Truly, history often 
repeats itself, if occasionally it does not 
present "a continuous performance." Those 
familiar with the Chicago of to-day will be 
amused by the following quotation from a 
little b<K)k entitled * Sketcnes of the Country,' 
«kc., by John llcynolds, 144, Belleville, Illinois, 

"Ortftt ezdtemeat and enlhusiasni prevail in 
this oity to acquire fortunes and fame, induce the 
ottizens to exert all their pbyaical and mental 

enertdes and abilities in such a manner that every 
latent spark of mind and activity is brought into 
active operation. Under these considerations, every 
citij«n has an institution of learning l)eforo hira, 
and if he do not become a soholar in it, he must 
take a bock seat, at least in the forum of wealth 
and business. , • ■ r 

" By these exciting (.ircumstadoes, the citizens of 
Cbicano have acquired talents and energy in business 
that cannot be surpassed. They scarcely take time 
to eat or sleep, ana their gait in the street is gene- 
rally much taster than a common walk. Almost 
every citizen of Chicago has the acquisition of a 
fortune atrongly governing his uiind, and ho has 
either obtained it, or is in not porsuit of it. 

One is almost persuaded to believe that 
nothing is impossible, for, given a sufficient 
expenditure of energy well guided, results 
can be accomplished ; nevertheless, haste 
sometimes is transformed into hurry. 

Chicago, U.S. 

A Reuc of Chateaubriand. — Le Petit 
Temps of 2 February containe(i some interest- 
ing particulars of a curious donation made 
the other day to the ilusdeCarna valet, Pans, 
by an octogenarian hairdresser, M. Paques, 
who was in some sort a celebrity for having 
had amongst his clientele severalprominent 
personages of the Restoration. The gift in 
question is a kind of picture representing 
the room at Saint-Malo in which was born 
the author of *Atala' and 'The Martyrs. 
The aged artist in hair wished to have ttie 
satisfaction before his death of giving to 
the Parisians what would, under the old 
r/'jinie, have been called his masterpiece. 
Not less interesting than the picture itself 
are the authenticating documents which 
accompany it. Amongst them is a